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Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108529, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902498


Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute, inflammatory, septic, and devastating infectious disease caused by Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which poses a serious threat to the rabbit industry. RHDV2 (GI.2/RHDVb), a recently reported new variant could cause RHD in wild populations, but also RHDV-vaccinated rabbits. For now, both RHDV and RHDV2 are the main causes of RHD. To develop a new subunit vaccine that could protect rabbits against both classic RHDV and RHDV2 infections, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (Bac-classic RHDV VP60-RHDV2 VP60) containing the VP60 genes of classic RHDV and RHDV2. Both VP60 genes were well expressed simultaneously in Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) after infection with the recombinant baculovirus. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the recombinant VP60 self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). The antigenicity and immunogenicity of the bivalent VLPs vaccine were examined with animal experiments. Our results demonstrated that both the humoral and cellular immune responses were efficiently induced in rabbits by a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant baculovirus. In addition, all rabbits immunized with the bivalent VLPs vaccine survived after challenged with classic RHDV, and showed no clinical signs of RHD, whereas all the rabbits in the negative control group died from classic RHDV infection and showed typical clinical signs of RHD. In summary, our results indicated that the recombinant baculovirus carrying two VP60 genes is a candidate construct from which to develop a bivalent VLPs vaccine against both classic RHDV and RHDV2 infections.

J Gen Virol ; 101(1): 33-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794379


Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that is caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). To date, the molecular mechanism of PPRV infection is still unclear. It is well known that host proteins might be involved in the pathogenesis process for many viruses. In this study, we first proved that nucleolin (NCL), a highly conserved host factor, interacts with the core domain of PPRV N protein through its C terminus and co-locates with the N protein in the nucleus of cells. To investigate the role of NCL in PPRV infection, the expression level of NCL was inhibited with small interfering RNAs of NCL, and the results showed that PPRV growth was improved. However, the proliferation of PPRV was inhibited when the expression level of NCL was improved. Further analysis indicated that the inhibitory effect of NCL on the PPRV was caused by stimulating the interferon (IFN) pathways in host cells. In summary, our results will help us to understand the mechanism of PPRV infection.

BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 423, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775738


BACKGROUND: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) belongs to the Caliciviridae family, is a highly lethal pathogen to rabbits. Increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated the existence of antigenic variation in RHDV, leading to the emergence of a new RHDV isolate (RHDVb). However, the underlying factors determining the emergence of the new RHDV and its unpredictable epidemiology remain unclear. To investigate these issues, we selected more than 184 partial and/or complete genome sequences of RHDV from GenBank and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, divergence, and predicted protein modification sites. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis showed that classic RHDV isolates, RHDVa, and RHDVb formed different clades. It's interesting to note that RHDVa being more closely related to classic RHDV than RHDVb, while RHDVb had a closer genetic relationship to Rabbit Calicivirus (RCV) than to classic RHDV isolates. Moreover, divergence analysis suggested that the accumulation of amino acid (aa) changes might be a consequence of adaptive diversification of capsid protein (VP60) during the division between classical RHDV, RHDVa, RHDVb, and RCV. Notably, the prediction of N-glycosylation sites suggested that RHDVb subtypes had two unique N-glycosylation sites (aa 301, 362) but lacked three other N-glycosylation sites (aa 45, 308, 474) displayed in classic RHDV and RHDVa VP60 implying this divergence of N-glycosylation sites in RHDV might affect viral virulence. Analysis of phosphorylation sites also indicated that some phosphorylation sites in RHDVa and RHDVb differed from those in classic RHDV, potentially related to antigenic variation in RHDV. CONCLUSION: The genetic relationship between RHDVb and RCV was closer than classic RHDV isolates. Moreover, compared to RHDV and RHDVa, RHDVb had two unique N-glycosylation sites but lacked three sites, which might affect the virulence of RHDV. These results may provide new clues for further investigations of the origin of new types of RHDV and the mechanisms of genetic variation in RHDV.

PLoS Pathog ; 14(10): e1007383, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339712


Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is an important member of the Caliciviridae family and a highly lethal pathogen in rabbits. Although the cell receptor of RHDV has been identified, the mechanism underlying RHDV internalization remains unknown. In this study, the entry and post-internalization of RHDV into host cells were investigated using several biochemical inhibitors and RNA interference. Our data demonstrate that rabbit nucleolin (NCL) plays a key role in RHDV internalization. Further study revealed that NCL specifically interacts with the RHDV capsid protein (VP60) through its N-terminal residues (aa 285-318), and the exact position of the VP60 protein for the interaction with NCL is located in a highly conserved region (472Asp-Val-Asn474; DVN motif). Following competitive blocking of the interaction between NCL and VP60 with an artificial DVN peptide (RRTGDVNAAAGSTNGTQ), the internalization efficiency of the virus was markedly reduced. Moreover, NCL also interacts with the C-terminal residues of clathrin light chain A, which is an important component in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In addition, the results of animal experiments also demonstrated that artificial DVN peptides protected most rabbits from RHDV infection. These findings demonstrate that NCL is involved in RHDV internalization through clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Clatrina/metabolismo , Endocitose , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/fisiologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Coelhos , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Internalização do Vírus