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1.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence methods for the classification of melanoma have been studied extensively. However, few studies compare these methods under the same standards. OBJECTIVE: To seek the best artificial intelligence method for diagnosis of melanoma. METHODS: The contrast test used 2200 dermoscopic images. Image segmentations, feature extractions, and classifications were performed in sequence for evaluation of traditional machine learning algorithms. The recent popular convolutional neural network frameworks were used for transfer learning training classification. RESULTS: The region growing algorithm has the best segmentation performance, with an intersection over union of 70.06% and a false-positive rate of 17.67%. Classification performance was better with logistic regression, with a sensitivity of 76.36% and a specificity of 87.04%. The Inception V3 model (Google, Mountain View, CA) worked best in deep learning algorithms: the accuracy was 93.74%, the sensitivity was 94.36%, and the specificity was 85.64%. LIMITATIONS: There was no division in the severity of melanoma samples used in this experiment. The data set was relatively small for deep learning. CONCLUSION: The performance of traditional machine learning is satisfactory for the small data set of melanoma dermoscopic images, and the potential for deep learning in the future big data era is enormous.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105676, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181406

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Quercetin (Que) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions was examined. The left ear of mice was applied with MC903, followed by Que. administration daily on the ear for 8 days. Then macroscopic and histologic examination was performed to detect the severity of skin lesions. In the skin section of AD mice, we observed that Que. could reduce the expression of CCL17, CCL22, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. In vitro, the anti-inflammatory effects of Que. were examined on human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) treated with IFN-γ/TNF-α. To unveil the lncRNAs' regulatory role on Que-activated anti-inflammatory function, the next-generation high-throughput sequencing was performed in HaCat cells with or without Que. treatment, which profiled the expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs, the results illustrated that lnc-C7orf30-2, a lncRNA expressed differentially, was correlated with IL-6 expression. Silencing of lnc-C7orf30-2 by RiboTM lncRNA Smart Silencer proved its role on IL-6 expression. Therefore, the results here demonstrated that topical administration of Que. plays a beneficial role in controlling AD symptoms, which may serve as potential candidate for AD treatment.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(1): 225-235, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115544

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune­mediated cutaneous disorder with a high incidence and prevalence. Patients with psoriasis may experience irritation, pain and psychological problems. The cause and underlying molecular etiology of psoriasis remains unknown. In an attempt to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of psoriasis, the gene expression profiles of 175 pairs of lesional and corresponding non­lesional skin samples were downloaded from 5 data sets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Integrated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained with the use of R software. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were analyzed using the DAVID online analysis tool. The protein­protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed on the STRING platform and hub genes were calculated with the use of Cytoscape software. Finally, GEO2R was used to determine the expression of the hub genes in scalp psoriasis. A total of 373 genes from the 5 data sets were identified as DEGs, including 277 upregulated and 96 downregulated genes. GO analysis revealed that immune responses and epidermal differentiation/development were the most enriched terms in biological processes, extracellular space/matrix was the most enriched term in cellular components, and endopeptidase inhibitor activity was the most enriched term in molecular functions. In the KEGG pathway enrichment, DEGs were mainly enriched in the metabolic and viral infection­associated pathways. A total of 17 hub genes were calculated, including CSK2, CDC45, MCM10, SPC25, NDC80, NUF2, AURKA, CENPE, RRM2, DLGP5, HMMR, TTK, IFIT1, RSAD2, IFI6, IFI27 and ISG20, among which interferon­α­inducible genes were revealed to display a similar expression pattern as that obtained in scalp psoriasis. This comprehensive bioinformatic re­analysis of GEO data provides new insights on the molecular pathogenesis of psoriasis and the identification of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of psoriasis.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 73: 23-40, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078923

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rank among the top ten worldwide. Emerging studies indicate pathological roles for the immune system in inflammation, insulin resistance and islet ß-cell damage in subjects with T2DM. Methionine enkephalin (MENK) is present in endocrine cells of the pancreas and has been suggested to be an important mediator between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Therefore, it may play a role in modulating insulin secretion from islet cells. Since little is known about the effect of MENK on T2DM, therefore it was the aim of this study to characterize the role and possible mechanism of action of MENK on plasma glucose and serum insulin levels in T2DM rats and INS-1 cells in vivo and in vitro. MENK significantly decreased the plasma glucose level and increased the serum insulin concentration in T2DM rats. It also increased the serum levels of the cytokines IL-5 and IL-10, while decreased TNF-α and IL-2 levels. We further confirmed that MENK regulated glucose metabolism by upregulating opioid receptor expression and modulating the IL-33/ST2 and MyD88-TRAF6-NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. Based on these results, an intraperitoneal injection of MENK represents a potentially new approach for T2DM.

6.
Microb Pathog ; 131: 98-105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953745

RESUMO

With the widespread use of invasive surgery, immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antibiotics, there has resulted a corresponding increase in severe systemic infections as produced by Candida albicans (C.albicans), as it combines with bacterial infections. Such infections often result in high rates of mortality. In this report, we examined the effects of the C. albicans cell wall mannoprotein (MP) on macrophage immunity. The MTS assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity and neutral red staining to observe cell phagocytosis. The Griess method was used to detect NO secretion in culture supernatants and apoptosis of macrophages were determined with use of FITC-Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expressions of JAK2, STAT3, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and iNOS in RAW264.7 cells were determined with use of RT-PCR and western blot. MP significantly promoted the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, inhibited their phagocytic capacity, but exerted no significant effects on apoptosis of macrophages. In addition, MP not only up-regulated the expression of cytokines, but also the expressions of p-stat3 and p-jak2. Interestingly, when MP was combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) a markedly accentuated release of inflammatory cytokines was observed. MP promotes macrophage inflammation induced by LPS and participates in the inflammatory response. One of the potential mechanisms of this effect involves MP activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells, which enables macrophages to transform from M0 to M1 and promote the occurrence of inflammation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/farmacologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 72: 308-321, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005041

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that associates with human hosts. Under normal circumstances this interaction does not produce any severe life-threatening disease, as macrophages of the innate immune system will result in its clearance. However, disorders may arise in immunosuppressed individuals. To understand the bioactivity of Candida albicans cell wall polysaccharides, which represent an important component of its function, mannoprotein from this fungus was extracted, purified and analyzed. Mannoprotein with α-(1,2) and α-(1,6) linkages was investigated with use of HPLC and NMR. Co-incubation of mannoprotein with macrophages resulted in a mannoprotein with the potential to polarize macrophages to M1 and promote phagocytosis/microbial killing ability thus increasing the clearance of pathogens through Akt2. Moreover, mannoprotein within the cell wall promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis by activation of the Akt signaling pathway. Collectively, α-(1,6)(1,2)-mannoprotein, one of the five polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of Candida albicans, demonstrates immune-enhancing effects by activation of the Akt signaling pathway. These findings provide important new insights into the biological effects of polysaccharides on macrophages. Such information can then serve as the foundation for the development of novel anti-fungal medications.

8.
Brain Res ; 1717: 167-175, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986406

RESUMO

Remyelination has been widely noticed as an important repair mechanism triggered after a stroke-induced white matter injury, but it often fails due to the lack of recruitment of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the demyelinated area and the inadequate differentiation of OPCs. Racemic dl-3-n-butylphthalide (dl-NBP) has been reported to improve the functional recovery in animal models of vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke. Dl-NBP (70 mg/kg) by oral gavage for two weeks from day 7 after a stroke was administered in the study, the treatment promoted differentiation and maturation of OPCs in perilesional white matter and enhanced the length of crossing corticospinal tract (CST) fibers into the denervated hemispheres. These effects could be linked to increased expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the reduced expression of neurite outgrowth inhibitor (NogoA) in the perilesional area in dl-NBP group. However, dl-NBP did not increase the numbers of neuron/glia type 2 (NG2)-positive and oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2)-positive cells in the subventricular zone. Our data highlight the effects of dl-NBP in the remyelination process and reveal the therapeutic potential of this approach in cerebral ischemia.

9.
J Autoimmun ; 101: 70-85, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005389

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common, autoimmune, chronic inflammatory skin disease. It has been demonstrated that cutaneous T17 cells play an important pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, through the production of various Th17-related cytokines. Our previous studies have demonstrated that CD30L/CD30 signal plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of CD4+ Th17 cells and Vγ6+γδ T17 cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues of mouse. However, its effect on the pathogenesis of psoriasis is unknown. Here, we fully prove that CD30L/CD30 signaling plays a novel protective role in the development of psoriasis in mice, through selective inhibition of CCR6 expression and Th17-related cytokine synthesis in the Vγ4+γδ T17 cell subset. Meanwhile, treatment with agonistic anti-CD30 mAb had a significant therapeutic effect on our psoriasis mouse model. Therefore, the CD30L/CD30 signaling pathway is an ideal target for antibody therapy, which may become a new approach for the immunobiological treatment of psoriasis.

11.
J Dermatol Sci ; 93(3): 168-175, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malassezia is one of the commensal microorganisms colonized on human skin and has been shown to be related to several inflammatory cutaneous disorders. Previous studies indicated that Malassezia. sympodialis (M. sympodialis) can produce extracellular vesicles, however, the immunoregulatory function of Malassezia extracellular vesicles on keratinocytes has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extracellular vesicular production capability of Malassezia. furfur (M. furfur) and examine their immunoregulatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Extracellular vesicles derived from M. furfur were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation procedure. Their structure and diameter were determined by negative stain TEM and NTA, respectively. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the internalization of these nanoparticles into HaCaT cells and mice epidermal keratinocytes. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines were screened using PCR Array assay and validated in vitro by qPCR and ELISA assays. In vivo cytokine production was measured by the IHC method. The role of NF-κB in such process was evaluated in HaCaT cells by western blot assay. RESULTS: Our results showed that M. furfur produced ovoid-shaped nanoparticles, which could be then internalized into HaCaT cells, as well as mice epidermal keratinocytes. IL-6 expression was significantly enhanced in response to extracellular vesicular stimulation both in vitro and in vivo, in which process the activation of NF-κB was involved. CONCLUSION: M. furfur has the ability to release extracellular vesicles, which can be internalized into keratinocytes and promote the production of IL-6 with the involvement of NF-κB dependent pathway. Such findings reveal some important new insights into Malassezia pathogenesis and therapy.


Assuntos
Dermatite/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Malassezia/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dermatite/microbiologia , Dermatite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Malassezia/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Simbiose
12.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 383-393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia has proved successful in treating cutaneous human papillomavirus infectious diseases such as plantar wart and condyloma acuminata (CA). Moreover, this treatment provides improved therapeutic efficacy in these conditions as compared with conventional therapies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the global proteome changes in CA in response to hyperthermia and achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms of hyperthermia therapy against HPV-infectious diseases. METHODS: CA tissue was obtained from patients undergoing pathological examinations. Diagnosis was verified as based on results of both HE staining and HPV-DNA PCR assay. Hyperthermia was achieved with a 44 °C water bath. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by iTRAQ labeling, SCX chromatography and LC-MS/MS assay. Validation of proteomic results was performed using real-time qPCR and western blot, while bioinformatic analysis of DEPs was accomplished by R 3.4.1, STRING and Cytoscape softwares. RESULTS: In response to hyperthermia, a total of 102 DEPs were identified with 37 being upregulated and 65 downregulated. Among these DEPs, hyperthermia induced proteins involved with anti-viral processes such as OAS1, MX1, BANF1, CANX and AP1S1, whereas it inhibited proteins that participated in cellular metabolism, such as GALT, H6PD, EXOSC4 and EXOSC6; protein translation, such as RPS4Y1; as well as keratinocyte differentiation, such as KRT5, KRT27, KRT75, KRT76 and H2AFY2. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperthermia inhibited enzymes and molecules responsible for metabolism modulation and keratinocyte differentiation in CA tissue, whereas it promoted factors involved in anti-viral responses. Such effects may, in part, contribute to the efficacy of local hyperthermia therapy against HPV infection.

13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(3): 568-578, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745843

RESUMO

Hyperthermia has been clinically utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cervical carcinoma. However, thermotolerance induced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-inducible cytoprotective protein, limits the efficacy of hyperthermic therapy, for which the exact mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we found that heat treatment induced HO-1 expression and decreased copy number of HPV16 in cervical cancer cells and tissues from cervical cancer and precursor lesions. Knockdown of HO-1 stimulated autophagy accompanied by downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Furthermore, silencing of HO-1 led to cell intolerance to hyperthermia, as manifested by inhibition of cell viability and induction of autophagic apoptosis. Moreover, HO-1 modulated hyperthermia-induced, autophagy-dependent antiviral effect. Thus, the findings indicate that blockade of HO-1 enhances hyperthermia-induced autophagy, an event resulting in apoptosis of cervical cancer cells through an antiviral mechanism. These observations imply the potential clinical utility of hyperthermia in combination with HO-1 inhibition in the treatment of cervical cancer.

14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(6): 690-698, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of the interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-18 was elevated in early active and progressive plaque-type psoriatic lesions and that serum or plasma levels of IL-18 correlated with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Although results from previous studies have established that IL-18 may aggravate psoriatic inflammation, the mechanisms of this process remain unknown. In this study, IL-18 knock out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were used to investigate the effects of IL-18 within a mouse model of psoriasis. METHODS: WT and IL-18 KO mice were divided into four groups, including imiquimod (IMQ)-treated IL-18 KO group (n = 11) and WT group (n = 13) as well as their respectively gene-matched control mice (receiving vaseline; n = 12). PASI scores were used to evaluate psoriatic lesions in IMQ-treated mice. Pathological features and dermal cellular infiltration were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-23, IL-17, IL-12, IL-1ß, IFNγ, IL-15, IL-27, and IL-4 were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The protein level of IL-1ß, IL-27, CXCL1, and Ly6 g were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Acanthosis (98.46 ±â€Š14.12 vs. 222.68 ±â€Š71.10 µm, P < 0.01) and dermal cell infiltration (572.25 ±â€Š47.45 vs. 762.47 ±â€Š59.59 cells/field, P < 0.01) were significantly milder in IMQ-induced IL-18 KO mice compared with that in WT mice. IMQ-induced IL-18 KO mice manifested larger areas of Munro microabscesses (11,467.83 ±â€Š5112.09 vs. 4093.19 ±â€Š2591.88 µm, P < 0.01) and scales (100,935.24 ±â€Š41,167.77 vs. 41,604.41 ±â€Š14,184.10 µm, P < 0.01) as compared with WT mice. In skin lesions of IL-18 KO mice, the expressions of IL-1ß, IL-4, and IL-27 were all significantly upregulated but IL-17 was decreased. Histologically, strong positive signals of Ly6g were observed within the epidermis of IL-18 KO mice but expressions of CXCL1 were decreased. CONCLUSIONS: IL-18 may exacerbate prominent inflammation and influence pathological features in IMQ-induced mouse model of psoriasis. IL-18 may upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduce protective cytokines, thus aggravating psoriatic inflammation. In addition, IL-18 may be involved in the formation of Munro microabscesses and scales.


Assuntos
Imiquimode/toxicidade , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Psoríase/genética , Pele/imunologia
15.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(6): 571-578, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809682

RESUMO

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder associated with autoimmunity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNA molecules reported to be potential biomarkers for some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the association of miRNAs with CSU. A quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based array was generated from sera as obtained from 20 active CSU patients and 20 healthy controls. Upregulated or downregulated miRNAs were validated by reverse transcription qPCR in sera from 59 active CSU patients and 58 healthy controls. The expression of miR-125a-5p was significantly upregulated in CSU sera and serum levels of CCL17 were also significantly increased in CSU patients. Serum miR-125a-5p expressions were found to be further upregulated in refractory CSU cases (n = 10). In 12 CSU patients in remission, serum miR-125a-5p expression and CCL17 levels were significantly decreased as compared with that obtained in active phase patients. These results indicated that miR-125a-5p and CCL17 can serve as potential serum biomarkers for CSU.

16.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(4): e12815, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633835

RESUMO

A female Cushing's syndrome patient had been suffering from extensive viral warts for months. She was diagnosed with flat warts, common warts and plantar warts. The plantar warts on her right foot were initially treated using local hyperthermia at 44°C for 30 min according to a defined protocol, followed by treatment targeting a common wart on her left thumb. In response to hyperthermia, the flat warts on her eyelid dissipated within 12 weeks, and when combined with a 1 week administration of imiquimod, the common warts and plantar warts completely disappeared within 8 weeks. There were no signs of recurrence and during this treatment her Cushing's syndrome was alleviated. This pioneer trial suggests that local hyperthermia may serve as an effective mean for treating multiple cutaneous warts under the conditions of a systemic immuno-compromised disease.

17.
Eur J Dermatol ; 28(5): 606-612, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human skin or mucosa exposes cells to both an internal and exogeneous thermal environment and the cells survive within a certain range of temperature. Exogeneous hyperthermia has been applied for the treatment of various types of cancers, fungal disease, and warts. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different cellular components in the skin adapt to hyperthermic conditions differentially and further elucidate the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cell lines derived from normal and tumour epithelial cells were treated with hyperthermic conditions and tested for viability (using an MTS assay), apoptosis (using a FITC-conjugated annexin V apoptosis detection kit), and changes in intracellular calcium (using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent single-wavelength dye, Fluo-4 AM). RESULTS: Thermo-resistance of different cell types was different when cells were subjected to heat at 45̊C for 30 minutes. Stronger effects of hyperthermia were noted on cell viability and apoptosis in epidermal cells relative to their malignant counterparts, except for cell lines harbouring human papillomavirus (HPV). Hyperthermia had a much greater effect on cell viability and apoptosis in a HPV-negative cell line compared to HPV-positive cell lines. We further found that hyperthermia treatment resulted in a strong calcium influx which led to apoptotic cells. However, no obvious increase in apoptosis was observed in cells treated with the CRAC channel selective inhibitor, BTP2, before application of hyperthermia in all cell types, except three cervical cell lines harbouring HPV. CONCLUSION: We propose that hyperthermia results in a CRAC-related strong calcium influx which induces apoptosis, with the exception of HPV-positive cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/patologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Análise de Variância , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/virologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1078, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), a rare skin malignancy with non-specific manifestations, is often misdiagnosed as eczema of scrotum or tinea cruris. Although the diagnosis of EMPD could be confirmed by biopsy, it can be delayed as patients are reluctant to receive invasive operations. Herein, we investigated the serum miRNA expressions of EMPD patients and compared to that of the eczema of scrotum or tinea cruris patients as well as health volunteers for potential diagnostic markers for EMPD. METHODS: Altogether 45 subjects including 16 patients diagnosed with EMPD, 12 patients diagnosed with eczema of scrotum or tinea cruris and 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Serum from all of subjects were collected to identify miRNAs (by miRNA array global normalization, RT-PCR validation, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis) that could be potential diagnostic markers for EMPD. RESULTS: The miRNA array analyses revealed that the expressions of 37 miRNAs from the EMPD patients were different (change ≥4-fold) from health volunteers. Among these miRNAs, the expression of miR-155 was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the EMPD patients as compared with that of the health volunteers and the eczema of scrotum or the tinea cruris patients (no difference between these two control groups). In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that diagnostic capacities (defined as the area under curve of ROC) of miR-155 are 0.85 (as compared with health volunteers group) and 0.81 (as compared with the eczema of scrotum or the tinea cruris patients group), respectively. CONCLUSION: The serum miRNA expression of gene miR-155 in the EMPD patients was differentiated from that of other subjects warranting further validation of miR-155 as a diagnostic marker of EMPD.

19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 64(12): 15-21, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301496

RESUMO

Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that colonises the skin. Both keratinocytes and macrophages play crucial roles in host defence against C. albicans. However, the interaction of keratinocytes with macrophages during C. albicans colonisation has not been well studied. In this study, macrophages were cultured in conditioned medium from keratinocytes treated with heat-inactivated C. albicans (CM-C. albicans), macrophage migration and polarised activation and were then assessed by a Transwell assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CM-C. albicans-stimulated macrophages display significantly increased migration and phagocytosis, and they display an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), interleukin (IL)-12 and nitric oxide (NO)). Markers characteristic of M1 macrophages, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD86 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), are upregulated, whereas markers of M2 macrophages, such as mannose receptor (MR) and Arginase 1 (Arg1), are not affected. Additionally, the levels of TNF-a, IL-12 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) in CM-C. albicans are markedly upregulated, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 are not affected. And the CM-C. albicans-induced M1 macrophage polarisation, proinflammatory cytokine production and phagocytosis could be blocked by an anti-TNF-a neutralising antibody. This study showed that keratinocytes may promote macrophage recruitment and M1 polarisation during C. albicans colonisation at least in part by secreting TNF-a.

20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 355: 189-197, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966676

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a key pathological process involved in many cutaneous diseases. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription and plays a pivotal role in the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) is a cullin-3-adapter protein that represses the activity of NRF2 by mediating its ubiquitination and degradation. In the present study, we examined the role of NRF2 signaling pathway in the cytotoxicity induced by cobalt chloride(CoCl2), a hypoxia-mimicking agent, in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells with stable knockdown of NRF2 (NRF2-KD) and KEAP1 (KEAP1-KD). Acute CoCl2 exposure markedly increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and resulted in hypoxic damage and cytotoxicity of HaCaT cells. Stable knockdown of NRF2 dramatically reduced the expression of many antioxidant enzymes and sensitized the cells to acute CoCl2-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. In contrast, KEAP1-KD cells observably enhanced the activity of NRF2 and ARE-regulated genes and led to a significant resistance to CoCl2-induced cellular damage. In addition, pretreatment of HaCaT cells with tert-butylhydroquinone, a well-known NRF2 activator, protected HaCaT cells from CoCl2-induced cellular injury in a NRF2-dependent fashion. Likewise, physical hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity could be significantly ameliorated through NRF2 signaling pathway in HaCaT cells. Together, our results suggest that NRF2 signaling pathway is involved in antioxidant response triggered by CoCl2-induced oxidative stress and could protect human keratinocytes against acute CoCl2 -induced hypoxic cytotoxicity.

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