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J Pharm Biomed Anal ; : 113784, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280996


Chinese herbal drugs are often combined with chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of cancers. However, the combination administrations often do not have scientifically sound bases established on full preclinical and clinical investigations. A commonly used anti-colon-cancer herb-drug pair, irinotecan (CPT-11) hydrochloride injection and Kang'ai (KA) injection was taken as an example to investigate the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between Chinese herbal drugs and chemotherapy injections to determine the potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Rats were randomly divided into three groups and received 20 mg/kg CPT-11 injection 15 min after administration of 4 mL/kg saline for the CPT-11 single administration group and 4 mL/kg KA injection for the separated co-administration group, respectively. In the pre-mixed co-administration group, rats received a mixture of 20 mg/kg CPT-11 injection and 4 mL/kg KA injection. Blood samples were collected at 10 pre-determined time points between 0 and 24 h. The tissue samples were collected at 5 and 8 min after the injections, respectively. A reliable LC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38, SN-38 G and APC in the rat plasma and tissue samples, after full confirmation of two injections chemical and stability compatibilities. Compared to the C0 (5129 ± 757 ng/mL) and AUC0-t (7858 ± 1307 ng h/mL) of CPT-11 in the CPT-11 single administration group, the C0 (4574 ± 371 ng/mL) and AUC0-t (8779 ± 601 ng h/mL) after the separated co-administration remained unchanged, but the pre-mixed co-administration resulted with a significant increased C0 (29,454 ± 12,080 ng/mL) and AUC0-t (15,539 ± 5165 ng h/mL) (p < 0.05). Since the exposures of CPT-11 in most tissues in the pre-mixed co-administration group were dramatically lower than the separated co-administration group, the increased CPT-11 plasma concentration may be produced by the delayed tissue distribution because of the encapsulation by the components contained in KA injection, such as polysaccharides. Similar differences were also found in its metabolite, SN-38 G. There are obvious herb-drug interactions between CPT-11 injection and KA injection after the pre-mixed co-administration. The resulting excessive CPT-11 in the plasma may lead to many serious ADRs. Therefore, the full evaluation of herb-drug interactions is necessary and inappropriate combinations should be avoided.

J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112489, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866510


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baizi Yangxin Pills (BZYXP), a popular cinnabar (α-HgS) contained Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) is widely used in clinical trials. However, mercury is one of the most toxic elements. The adverse effects of cinnabar-containing TCMs have been occasionally reported in recent years, leading to the growing concerns about their toxicity and safety. AIM OF THE STUDY: The health risks of BZYXP and cinnabar related to the mercury exposures were evaluated through blood pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distribution of absorbed mercury in rats' blood and tissues were measured by the developed cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometric method. And the tissue damages were determined through the histopathological examinations. For single dose study, the low and high oral doses were equivalent to 1 and 10-fold therapeutic dose, respectively. The multiple doses study was conducted at low and high dose levels every 12 h for 30 consecutive days. RESULTS: Significant differences of mercury blood pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution characteristics were observed between the corresponding BZYXP and cinnabar groups. The herbal ingredients in BZYXP promoted the absorption of bio-accessible mercury of cinnabar and prolonged the elimination process, posing potential health risks. Although mercury was found easily accumulated in kidney, liver and brain tissues, kidney and liver didn't show obvious damages even after 30 days consecutive administration of BZYXP or cinnabar at 10-fold clinically equivalent doses. But brain did show some histopathological changes, and autonomic activities of rats decreased, pointing the potential neurotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury tend to be accumulated especially when over-dose or prolonged medication with cinnabar-containing TCMs are given. The mercury exposures even at therapeutic doses of BZYXP or cinnabar do pose health risks from the neurotoxicity point of view.

Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Mercúrio/administração & dosagem , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Feminino , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Compostos de Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Distribuição Tecidual
J Sep Sci ; 42(16): 2650-2659, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197944


Mycophenolate mofetil is an antiproliferative immunosuppressive agent. Since its clinical efficacy and safety highly depend on the quality, the stability, and impurity profiles of mycophenolate mofetil are paid ever-increasing attention. However, there are few published studies reporting the complete characterization of both the process-related substances and degradation products in mycophenolate mofetil. In the present study, a highly specific and efficient liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was developed for the separation and identification of all the potential impurities in mycophenolate mofetil. According to the ICH Q1A (R2) guideline, the forced degradation studies were conducted to elucidate the stability and degradation pathways of mycophenolate mofetil. A total of 15 related substances, including the process-related substances and stress degradation products were characterized by the established hyphenated method, 11 of them have not been reported before. In view of the synthetic route and degradation pathways of mycophenolate mofetil, the origins and formation mechanisms of these related substances were discussed. Based on the obtained stability and impurity profiles, key points of the manufacturing process were proposed to deliver mycophenolate mofetil with high purity.

Ácido Micofenólico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Micofenólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Micofenólico/química , Fatores de Tempo
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(1): 289-301, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905035


The fruit epidermal features such as the size of tubercules are important fruit quality traits for cucumber production. But the mechanisms underlying tubercule formation remain elusive. Here, tubercule size locus CsTS1 was identified by map-based cloning and was found to encode an oleosin protein. Allelic variation was identified in the promoter region of CsTS1, resulting in low expression of CsTS1 in all 22 different small-warty or nonwarty cucumber lines. High CsTS1 expression levels were closely correlated with increased fruit tubercule size among 44 different cucumber lines. Transgenic complementation and RNAi-mediated gene silencing of CsTS1 in transgenic cucumber plants demonstrated that CsTS1 positively regulates the development of tubercules. CsTS1 is highly expressed in the peel at fruit tubercule forming and enlargement stage. Auxin content and expression of three auxin signalling pathway genes were altered in the 35S:CsTS1 and CsTS1-RNAi fruit tubercules, a result that was supported by comparing the cell size of the control and transgenic fruit tubercules. CsTu, a C2 H2 zinc finger domain transcription factor that regulates tubercule initiation, binds directly to the CsTS1 promoter and promotes its expression. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism in which the CsTu-TS1 complex promotes fruit tubercule formation in cucumber.

Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis sativus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1652, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891134


Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures. A CsNOA1-GFP fusion protein was found to be localized in the mitochondria, and ectopic expression of CsNOA1 in the A. thaliana noa1 mutant partially rescued the normal phenotype. When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. However, the leaves from mutant plant grown under chilling conditions showed hydrophanous spots and wilting. Physiology tolerance markers, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm), and electrolyte leakage, were observed to dramatically change, compared mutant to overexpressing lines. Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 (CBF3) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). Conversely, suppression of CsNOA1 expression resulted in the opposite phenotype and a reduced NO content compared to wild type plants. Those results suggest that CsNOA1 regulates cucumber seedlings chilling tolerance. Additionally, under normal condition, we took several classic inhibitors to perform, and detect endogenous NO levels in wild type cucumber seedling. The results suggest that generation of endogenous NO in cucumber leaves occurs largely independently in the (CsNOA1) and nitrate reductase (NR) pathway.