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1.
Nat Plants ; 8(5): 513-525, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596077

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9, its derived base editors and CRISPR activation systems have greatly aided genome engineering in plants. However, these systems are mostly used separately, leaving their combinational potential largely untapped. Here we develop a versatile CRISPR-Combo platform, based on a single Cas9 protein, for simultaneous genome editing (targeted mutagenesis or base editing) and gene activation in plants. We showcase the powerful applications of CRISPR-Combo for boosting plant genome editing. First, CRISPR-Combo is used to shorten the plant life cycle and reduce the efforts in screening transgene-free genome-edited plants by activation of a florigen gene in Arabidopsis. Next, we demonstrate accelerated regeneration and propagation of genome-edited plants by activation of morphogenic genes in poplar. Furthermore, we apply CRISPR-Combo to achieve rice regeneration without exogenous plant hormones, which is established as a new method to predominately enrich heritable targeted mutations. In conclusion, CRISPR-Combo is a versatile genome engineering tool with promising applications in crop breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Edição de Genes , Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524459

RESUMO

PAM-relaxed Cas9 nucleases, cytosine base editors and adenine base editors are promising tools for precise genome editing in plants. However, their genome-wide off-target effects are largely unexplored. Here, we conduct whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses of transgenic plants edited by xCas9, Cas9-NGv1, Cas9-NG, SpRY, nCas9-NG-PmCDA1, nSpRY-PmCDA1 and nSpRY-ABE8e in rice. Our results reveal that Cas9 nuclease and base editors, when coupled with the same guide RNA (gRNA), prefer distinct gRNA-dependent off-target sites. De novo generated gRNAs by SpRY editors lead to additional, but insubstantial, off-target mutations. Strikingly, ABE8e results in ~500 genome-wide A-to-G off-target mutations at TA motif sites per transgenic plant. ABE8e's preference for the TA motif is also observed at the target sites. Finally, we investigate the timeline and mechanism of somaclonal variation due to tissue culture, which chiefly contributes to the background mutations. This study provides a comprehensive understanding on the scale and mechanisms of off-target and background mutations occurring during PAM-relaxed genome editing in plants.

4.
Biotechnol J ; : e2100571, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377968

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 and Cas12a are widely used sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) for genome editing. The nuclease domains of Cas proteins can induce DNA double strand breaks upon RNA guided DNA targeting. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) have been popular SSNs prior to CRISPR. Both ZFNs and TALENs are based on reconstitution of two monomers with each consisting of a DNA binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. Inspired by the configuration of ZFNs and TALENs, dimeric FokI-dCas9 systems were previously demonstrated in human cells. Such configuration, based on a pair of guide RNAs (gRNAs), offers great improvement on targeting specificity. To expand the targeting scope of dimeric FokI-dCas systems, the PAM (protospacer adjacent motif)-less SpRY Cas9 variant and the PAM-relaxed Mb2Cas12a system were explored. Rice cells showed that FokI-dSpRY had more robust editing efficiency than a paired SpRY nickase system. Furthermore, a dimeric FokI-dMb2Cas12a system was developed that displayed comparable editing activity to Mb2Cas12a nuclease in rice cells. Finally, a single-chain FokI-FokI-dMb2Cas12a system was developed that cuts DNA outside its targeting sequence, which could be useful for many versatile applications. Together, this work greatly expanded the FokI based CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing.

5.
Curr Protoc ; 2(2): e365, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157372

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein)-mediated genome editing has revolutionized fundamental research and plant breeding. Beyond gene editing, CRISPR/Cas systems have been repurposed as a platform for programmable transcriptional regulation. Catalytically inactive Cas variants (dCas), when fused with transcriptional activation domains, allow for specific activation of any target gene in the genome without inducing DNA double-strand breaks. CRISPR activation enables simultaneous activation of multiple genes, holding great promise in the identification of gene regulatory networks and rewiring of metabolic pathways. Here, we describe a simple protocol for constructing a dCas9-mediated multiplexed gene activation system based on the CRISPR-Act3.0 system. The resulting vectors are tested in rice protoplasts. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: sgRNA design and construction of CRISPR-Act3.0 vectors for multiplexed gene activation Basic Protocol 2: Determining the activation efficiency of CRISPR-Act3.0 vectors using rice protoplasts.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Plantas/genética , Ativação Transcricional
6.
Front Genome Ed ; 4: 780238, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174354

RESUMO

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for crop improvement. Traditional transformation methods based on plasmid delivery pose concerns associated with transgene integration and off-target effects. CRISPR delivered as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) can prevent exogenous DNA integration, minimize off-target effects, and reduce cellular toxicity. Although RNP delivered CRISPR genome editing has been demonstrated in many plant species, optimization strategies that yield high editing efficiencies have not been thoroughly investigated. Using rice and citrus protoplast systems we demonstrated highly efficient genome editing using Cas12a delivered as RNPs. Four Cas12a variants, including LbCas12a, LbCas12a-E795L, AsCas12a, and AsCas12a Ultra, were investigated. Nearly 100% editing efficiency was observed for three out of four target sites by LbCas12a, LbCas12a-E795L, and AsCas12a Ultra, as measured by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and verified by next generation sequencing of PCR amplicons. RNP delivery resulted in higher editing efficiencies than plasmid delivery at 32°C and 25°C. LbCas12a and LbCas12a-E795L demonstrated increased editing efficiencies in comparison to AsCas12a and AsCas12a Ultra, especially when used at lower RNP concentrations. In addition, we discovered that a 1:1 Cas12a:crRNA molar ratio is sufficient to achieve efficient genome editing. Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) are essential for efficient RNP-based genome editing. However, the different crRNA modifications tested did not significantly improve genome editing efficiency. Finally, we applied the Cas12a RNP system in citrus protoplasts and obtained similarly high editing efficiencies at the target site. Our study provides a comprehensive guideline for Cas12a-mediated genome editing using RNP delivery in plant cells, setting the foundation for the generation of transgene-free genome edited plants.

8.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(2): 310-322, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555252

RESUMO

MicroRNA168 (MIR168) is a key miRNA that targets the main RNA-induced silencing complex component Argonaute 1 (AGO1) to regulate plant growth and environmental stress responses. However, the regulatory functions of MIR168 need to be further elucidated in rice. In this paper, we generated clean OsMIR168a deletion mutants by CRISPR-Cas9 strategy. We then phenotypically and molecularly characterized these mutants. The rice OsMIR168a mutants grew rapidly at the seedling stage, produced more tillers and matured early. Compared to the wild-type plants, the mutants were shorter at maturity and produced smaller spikelets and seeds. Analysis of gene expression showed that the transcription levels of OsMIR168a's target genes such as OsAGO1a, OsAGO1b and OsAGO1d were elevated significantly in the OsMIR168a mutants. Intriguingly, OsAGO18, a member of a new AGO clade that is conserved in monocots, was confirmed to be a target of OsMIR168a not only by informatic prediction but also by expression analysis and a cell-based cleavage assay in the OsMIR168a mutants. Many protein-coding genes and miRNAs showed differential expression in the OsMIR168a mutants, suggesting OsMIR168a exerts a major transcriptional regulatory role, likely through its potential target genes such as OsAGO1s and OsAGO18. KEGG enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes pointed to OsMIR168a's involvement in important processes such as plant hormone signalling transduction and plant-pathogen interaction. These data collectively support that the complex regulation module of OsMIR168a-OsAGO1/OsAGO18-miRNAs-target genes contributes to agronomically important traits, which sheds light on miRNA-mediated crop breeding.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Oryza , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
9.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(3): 499-510, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669232

RESUMO

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) can install a predefined stop codon at the target site, representing a more predictable and neater method for creating genetic knockouts without altering the genome size. Due to the enhanced predictability of the editing outcomes, it is also more efficient to obtain homozygous mutants in the first generation. With the recent advancement of CBEs on improved editing activity, purify and specificity in plants and animals, base editing has become a more appealing technology for generating knockouts. However, there is a lack of design tools that can aid the adoption of CBEs for achieving such a purpose, especially in plants. Here, we developed a user-friendly design tool named CRISPR-BETS (base editing to stop), which helps with guide RNA (gRNA) design for introducing stop codons in the protein-coding genes of interest. We demonstrated in rice and tomato that CRISPR-BETS is easy-to-use, and its generated gRNAs are highly specific and efficient for generating stop codons and obtaining homozygous knockout lines. While we tailored the tool for the plant research community, CRISPR-BETS can also serve non-plant species.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Códon de Terminação/genética , Citosina , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas/genética , RNA Guia/genética
10.
Nat Plants ; 8(1): 20-22, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949803
11.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(12): 3600-3603, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878784

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas has recently emerged as the most reliable system for genome engineering in various species. However, concerns about risks associated with the CRISPR/Cas technology are increasing on potential unintended DNA changes that might accidentally arise from CRISPR gene editing. Developing a system that can detect and report the presence of active CRISPR/Cas tools in biological systems is therefore very necessary. Here, we developed four real-time detection systems that can spontaneously indicate the presence of active CRISPR-Cas tools for genome editing and gene regulation including CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, base editing, prime editing, and CRISPRa in plants. Using the fluorescence-based molecular biosensors, we demonstrated that the activities of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, base editing, prime editing, and CRISPRa can be effectively detected in transient expression via protoplast transformation and leaf infiltration (in Arabidopsis, poplar, and tobacco) and stable transformation in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Genoma de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
12.
Front Genome Ed ; 3: 756766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713268

RESUMO

As a precise genome editing technology, base editing is broadly used in both basic and applied plant research. Cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs) represent the two commonly used base editor types that mediate C-to-T and A-to-G base transition changes at the target sites, respectively. To date, no transversion base editors have been described in plants. Here, we assessed three C-to-G base editors (CGBEs) for targeting sequences with SpCas9's canonical NGG protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) as well as three PAM-less SpRY-based CGBEs for targeting sequences with relaxed PAM requirements. The analyses in rice and tomato protoplasts showed that these CGBEs could make C-to-G conversions at the target sites, and they preferentially edited the C6 position in the 20-nucleotide target sequence. C-to-T edits, insertions and deletions (indels) were major byproducts induced by these CGBEs in the protoplast systems. Further assessment of these CGBEs in stably transformed rice and poplar plants revealed the preference for editing of non-GC sites, and C-to-T edits are major byproducts. Successful C-to-G editing in stably transgenic rice plants was achieved by rXRCC1-based CGBEs with monoallelic editing efficiencies up to 38% in T0 lines. The UNG-rAPOBEC1 (R33A)-based CGBE resulted in successful C-to-G editing in polar, with monoallelic editing efficiencies up to 6.25% in T0 lines. Overall, this study revealed that different CGBEs have different preference on preferred editing sequence context, which could be influenced by cell cycles, DNA repair pathways, and plant species.

13.
Plant Physiol ; 187(1): 73-87, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618139

RESUMO

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) are the promising tools for precise genome editing in plants. It is important to investigate potential off-target effects of an efficient CBE at the genome and transcriptome levels in a major crop. Based on comparison of five cytidine deaminases and two different promoters for expressing single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), we tested a highly efficient A3A/Y130F-BE3 system for efficient C-to-T base editing in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We then conducted whole-genome sequencing of four base-edited tomato plants, three Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing control plants, and two wild-type plants. The sequencing depths ranged from 25× to 49× with read mapping rates >97%. No sgRNA-dependent off-target mutations were detected. Our data show an average of approximately 1,000 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) and approximately 100 insertions and deletions (indels) per GFP control plant. Base-edited plants had on average elevated levels of SNVs (approximately 1,250) and indels (approximately 300) per plant. On average, about 200 more C-to-T (G-to-A) mutations were found in a base-edited plant than a GFP control plant, suggesting some level of sgRNA-independent off-target effects, though the difference is not statistically significant. We also conducted RNA sequencing of the same four base-edited plants and three GFP control plants. An average of approximately 200 RNA SNVs was discovered per plant for either base-edited or GFP control plants. Furthermore, no specific enrichment of C-to-U mutations can be found in the base-edited plants. Hence, we cannot find any evidence for bona fide off-target mutations by A3A/Y130F-BE3 at the transcriptome level.


Assuntos
Citosina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1166-1187, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518669

RESUMO

The development of CRISPR-Cas systems has sparked a genome editing revolution in plant genetics and breeding. These sequence-specific RNA-guided nucleases can induce DNA double-stranded breaks, resulting in mutations by imprecise non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair or precise DNA sequence replacement by homology-directed repair (HDR). However, HDR is highly inefficient in many plant species, which has greatly limited precise genome editing in plants. To fill the vital gap in precision editing, base editing and prime editing technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in numerous plant species. These technologies, which are mainly based on Cas9 nickases, can introduce precise changes into the target genome at a single-base resolution. This Review provides a timely overview of the current status of base editors and prime editors in plants, covering both technological developments and biological applications.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1506(1): 35-54, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435370

RESUMO

Facing the challenges of the world's food sources posed by a growing global population and a warming climate will require improvements in plant breeding and technology. Enhancing crop resiliency and yield via genome engineering will undoubtedly be a key part of the solution. The advent of new tools, such as CRIPSR/Cas, has ushered in significant advances in plant genome engineering. However, several serious challenges remain in achieving this goal. Among them are efficient transformation and plant regeneration for most crop species, low frequency of some editing applications, and high attrition rates. On March 8 and 9, 2021, experts in plant genome engineering and breeding from academia and industry met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Plant Genome Engineering: From Lab to Field" to discuss advances in genome editing tools, plant transformation, plant breeding, and crop trait development, all vital for transferring the benefits of novel technologies to the field.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Edição de Genes/métodos , Edição de Genes/tendências , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Marcação de Genes/tendências , Engenharia Genética/tendências
16.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(11): 1133-1152, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340931

RESUMO

CRISPR construct design is a key step in the practice of genome editing, which includes identification of appropriate Cas proteins, design and selection of guide RNAs (gRNAs), and selection of regulatory elements to express gRNAs and Cas proteins. Here, we review the choices of CRISPR-based genome editors suited for different needs in plant genome editing applications. We consider the technical aspects of gRNA design and the associated computational tools. We also discuss strategies for the design of multiplex CRISPR constructs for high-throughput manipulation of complex biological processes or polygenic traits. We provide recommendations for different elements of CRISPR constructs and discuss the remaining challenges of CRISPR construct optimization in plant genome editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204559

RESUMO

Recent data indicate that modifications to carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants alter the expression of genes affecting chemical composition of the cell wall. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a rate limiting factor of carotenoid biosynthesis and it may exhibit species-specific and organ-specific roles determined by the presence of psy paralogous genes, the importance of which often remains unrevealed. Thus, the aim of this work was to elaborate the roles of two psy paralogs in a model system and to reveal biochemical changes in the cell wall of psy knockout mutants. For this purpose, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas9) proteins (CRISPR/Cas9) vectors were introduced to carotenoid-rich carrot (Daucus carota) callus cells in order to induce mutations in the psy1 and psy2 genes. Gene sequencing, expression analysis, and carotenoid content analysis revealed that the psy2 gene is critical for carotenoid biosynthesis in this model and its knockout blocks carotenogenesis. The psy2 knockout also decreased the expression of the psy1 paralog. Immunohistochemical staining of the psy2 mutant cells showed altered composition of arabinogalactan proteins, pectins, and extensins in the mutant cell walls. In particular, low-methylesterified pectins were abundantly present in the cell walls of carotenoid-rich callus in contrast to the carotenoid-free psy2 mutant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed altered plastid transition to amyloplasts instead of chromoplasts. The results demonstrate for the first time that the inhibited biosynthesis of carotenoids triggers the cell wall remodelling.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Daucus carota/fisiologia , Edição de Genes , Sequência de Bases , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Daucus carota/ultraestrutura , Marcação de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura
20.
Nat Plants ; 7(7): 942-953, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168320

RESUMO

RNA-guided CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) systems have been developed in plants. However, the simultaneous activation of multiple genes remains challenging. Here, we develop a highly robust CRISPRa system working in rice, Arabidopsis and tomato, CRISPR-Act3.0, through systematically exploring different effector recruitment strategies and various transcription activators based on deactivated Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (dSpCas9). The CRISPR-Act3.0 system results in fourfold to sixfold higher activation than the state-of-the-art CRISPRa systems. We further develop a tRNA-gR2.0 (single guide RNA 2.0) expression system enabling CRISPR-Act3.0-based robust activation of up to seven genes for metabolic engineering in rice. In addition, CRISPR-Act3.0 allows the simultaneous modification of multiple traits in Arabidopsis, which are stably transmitted to the T3 generations. On the basis of CRISPR-Act3.0, we elucidate guide RNA targeting rules for effective transcriptional activation. To target T-rich protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs), we transfer this activation strategy to CRISPR-dCas12b and further improve the dAaCas12b-based CRISPRa system. Moreover, we develop a potent near-PAM-less CRISPR-Act3.0 system on the basis of the SpRY dCas9 variant, which outperforms the dCas9-NG system in both activation potency and targeting scope. Altogether, our study has substantially improved the CRISPRa technology in plants and provided plant researchers a powerful toolbox for efficient gene activation in foundational and translational research.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
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