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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113052, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535239

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. as a traditional Asian medicinal plant, roots and rhizomes (Danshen) are used to treat chronic hepatitis and coronary heart disease. In recent years, the medicinal value of S. miltiorrhiza stems and leaves total phenolic acids extract (JF) similar to roots and rhizomes has received increasing attention. S. miltiorrhiza roots and rhizome tanshinone extract (DT) has a good anti-inflammatory effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible molecular mechanisms of JF and DT alone or in combination on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by received 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Then mice were administered orally for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) scores and body weight were recorded daily. After the end of the experiment, colon was removed, colon length was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. Inflammatory factors expression was determined by ELISA, its mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of related proteins on TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with JF and DT alone or in combination reduced DAI scores, increase body weight, improved colon shortening, and decreased colon histology scores. In addition, the expression level of inflammatory factors was inhibited. The combination of JF and DT had a better inhibitory effect on inflammatory factors compared to JF alone. We also found that DT alone and JF combined with DT inhibited TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-related proteins expression levels (including TLR4, p-PI3K p110α/PI3K p110α, p-AKT (ser473)/AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, NF-κB p65), showing an effective anti-inflammatory effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that, JF and DT alone or in combination effectively ameliorated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice, possibly by inhibiting the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

2.
Steroids ; 165: 108757, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161055

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) are amphiphilic molecules with a nonpolar steroid carbon skeleton and a polar carboxylate side chain. Recently, BAs have aroused the attention of scholars due to their potential roles on metabolic diseases. As important endogenous ligands, BAs are wildly active in the enterohepatic circulation, during which microbiota play a significant role in promoting the hydrolysis and dehydroxylation of BAs. Besides, many pathways initiated by BAs including glucolipid metabolism and inflammation signaling pathways have been reported to regulate the host metabolism and maintain immune homeostasis. Herein, the characteristics on the enterohepatic circulation and metabolism of BAs are systematically summarized. Moreover, the regulation mechanism of the glucolipid metabolism by BAs is intensively discussed. Worthily, FXR and TGR5, which are involved in glucolipid metabolism, are the prime candidates for targeted therapies of chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.

3.
J Sep Sci ; 43(22): 4191-4201, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975375

RESUMO

Although Scrophulariae Radix (root of Scrophularia ningpoensis) has received much attention, little is known about the nonmedicinal parts of S. ningpoensis. A comprehensive evaluation of the multibioactive constituents in the flowers, rhizomes, leaves, and stems of S. ningpoensis during different growth stages would be of value to fully understand the potential medicinal properties of all parts of the plant. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was performed for accurately determining nine compounds in S. ningpoensis. The results indicated the content of total analytes in S. ningpoensis was in the order of flowers (81.82 mg/g) > roots (31.95 mg/g) > rhizomes (26.68 mg/g) > leaves (16.86 mg/g) > stems (14.35 mg/g). The chemometric analysis showed that these plant parts were rich in iridoids and should not be discarded during the processing of medicinal materials. Dynamic accumulation analysis suggested that the early flowering stage was the optimum time for harvesting flowers and appropriate amounts of stems and leaves. Moreover, considering the accumulation of constituents and biomass of medicinal materials, the medicinal parts should be harvested around December with the rhizomes attached. This research provides a theoretical basis and scientific evidence for comprehensive development and utilization of S. ningpoensis resources.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(8): 1879-1886, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489073

RESUMO

The root of Angelica sinensis is known throughout Asia for its traditional efficacy in invigorating and promoting blood circulation. The wild germplasm resources of A. sinensis was in short supply, and most of the commercial medicinal materials come from cultivation. To obtain the differences in the transcriptional levels of wild and cultivated of A. sinensis, the full-length transcriptome of A. sinensis was analyzed using PacBio SMRT three-generation high-throughput sequencing technology. Using the high-throughput sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq X Ten PE150, a root transcriptome dataset of wild and cultivated A.sinensis was obtained. The transcriptome sequencing analyses obtained 16.5 Gb database in wild and cultivated A.sinensis, after assembly steps, we obtain 113 906 transcript sequences(insfroms) with an average length of 1 466 nt. BLAST analysis indicated that 109 113(accounting for 95.79% of the total insfroms), 93 276(81.89%),60 638(53.24%),48 928(42.95%),42 876(37.64%)isofroms were successfully annotated in the NR, Swiss-port, GO, KO and KOG databases, respectively. The annotation information can be classified into three categories of biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions of GO classification, involving 128 KEGG standard metabolic pathways. Analysis of 25 463 differential insfroms, 15 090 higher expression in wild A. sinensis, and 10 373 higher in cultivated A. sinensis. In the enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG, differential insfroms were concentrated on the pathway of plant-pathogen interaction, MAPK signaling pathway-plant and plant hormone signal transduction. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to obtain the full-length transcription information of A. sinensis, and the overall characteristics of A. sinensis genetic information were clarified. By comparing the differential expression of wild and cultivated A. sinensis at the genetic level, it provides basic information for further screening and breeding of A. sinensis germplasm resources, resistance research and secondary metabolic pathway analysis.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis , Transcriptoma , Ásia , Análise de Dados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110052, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559618

RESUMO

Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-inflammatory effects that has been used in chronic pelvic inflammation disease (CPID) therapy. However, research on the mechanism of RPR in CPID therapy is lacking. Here, we used a network pharmacology method to screen targets and found that the PTGS2 target in the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway was significantly related to CPID. Then, regarding the molecular mechanism, it was further confirmed that RPR may reduce the development of CPID by regulating the PTGS2 target. The CPID rat model was established by mixed bacterial infection. We verified the expression of PTGS2 by immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting assays to detect the expression of PTGS2 protein, and polymerase chain reaction detection of PTGS2 mRNA expression. It was observed that the PTGS2 target decreased significantly after RPR administration at different doses. It is suggested that RPR can reverse the abnormal expression of PTGS2 in CPID rats. We believe that RPR is effective in the treatment of CPID, and RPR can reduce the inflammatory symptoms of CPID by regulating the level of PTGS2 in the AA pathway.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 890-895, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237490

RESUMO

The solid wastes of Chinese materia dedica industrialization represented by Salvia miltiorrhiza residues have a strong small-molecule bio-recalcitrance in the process of high-value utilization of biotransformation. Highly tolerant strains were bred to break bio-recalcitrance of Salvia miltiorrhiza residues and produce high-value added cellulose, which has a significant significance for recycling and industrial utilization of solid waste. In this study, a strain of fungus, Penicillium expansum SZ13, was found with small-molecule antibacterial substance tanshinone contained in Salvia miltiorrhiza residues by a biological method. The optimal enzyme production process and peak period of SZ13 were determined. It was found that SZ13 could maintain peak enzyme production for 5 days by degrading residues under the conditions of temperature 35 ℃, rotation speed 180 r·min~(-1), 5% of residues addition, and 5% seed solution addition. Meanwhile, the ability of SZ13 to degrade the enzyme production of multiple types of residues was explored. The results showed a high enzyme activity and stable enzyme production of SZ13 in the process of degrading residues. SZ13 could efficiently utilize various types of Chinese medicine residues, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza residues, to realize the high-value utilization of cellulose in multiple types of residues.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Fermentação , Materia Medica , Penicillium/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109926, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028239

RESUMO

The spontaneous db/db mice were used to elucidate the biological effects and mechanisms of Rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside (DHY) on kidney injury through biochemical indicators, kidney pathological section analysis, metabolic profiling, intestinal flora analysis and in vitro Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cell model induced by high glucose. It was found that DHY can decrease the blood sugar level (insulin, INS; fasting blood glucose, FBG), blood lipid level (Total Cholesterol, T-CHO; Triglyceride, TG) significantly and improve kidney injury level (blood urea nitrogen, BUN; urine microalbumin, mALB; serum creatinine, Scr). It can also alleviate kidney tubular epithelial cell oedema and reduce interstitial connective tissue hyperplasia of the injury kidney induced by high glucose. 13 endogenous metabolites were identified in serum, which involved of ether lipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. High glucose can also lead to the disorder of intestinal flora, especially Firmicutes and Bacteroides. Meanwhile, DHY also inhibited the expression of α-SMA, TGF- ß1, Smad3 and Smad4 in the kidney tissues of db/db mice and HK-2 cells. To sum up, DHY may restore the dysfunctional intestinal flora to normal and regulate glycolipid level of db/db mice as well as TGF-ß/Smad signalling pathway regulation to improve early kidney damage caused by diabetes.

8.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683684

RESUMO

Frankincense and myrrha (FM), commonly used as a classical herbal pair, have a wide range of clinical applications and definite anti-inflammatory activity. However, anti-neuroinflammation effects and mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we adopted a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial (BV2) cell model and a network pharmacology method to reveal the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanisms of boswellic acid (BA) and myrrha sesquiterpenes (MS) with different proportions of compatibility. The data showed that the different ratios of BA and MS had different degrees of inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, down-regulated the phosphor-nuclear factor kappa B/nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-Ò¡B)/(NF-Ò¡B), phosphorylated protein kinase b/protein kinase b (p-AKT/AKT), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression levels, and increased phospho-PI3 kinase (p-PI3K) protein expression levels. When the ratios of BA and MS were 10:1, 5:1, and 20:1, better effective efficacy was exhibited. According to the correlation analysis between the effect index and bioactive substances, it was suggested that 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy -fruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (Compound 1), 3α-acetyloxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (Compound 2), 11-keto-boswellic acid (Compound 3), and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß -boswellic acid (Compound 4) made important contributions to the treatment of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, based on the network pharmacological analysis, it was found that these four active compounds acted on 31 targets related to neuroinflammation and were involved in 32 signaling pathways which mainly related to the immune system, cardiovascular system, and nervous system, suggesting that BA and MS could be used to treat neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Commiphora/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3316-3322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602889

RESUMO

This study aims to compare the differences of Paeonia lactiflora from different habitats by establishing fingerprint. The fingerprint of P. lactiflora was established by UPLC. The samples collected from Sichuan,Hebei,Henan,Shanxi and Anhui were analyzed. The common peaks were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The relative peak area of the common peaks was analyzed through similarity evaluation system( 2012 edition) for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine developed by the National Pharmacopoeia Commission. Twelve common peaks were obtained and ten components were identified by reference substance and literature comparison. The similarity of each sample to the reference fingerprint is greater than 0. 900. However,all samples were clearly divided into 5 groups according to habitats after PLS-DA analysis. The peaks 2,6( ethyl gallate),10( galloypaeoniflorin) and 12( benzoyl paeoniflorin) were found to be the main difference components between the samples from five different habitats through the VIP value map. The study found that the variety of ingredients in the different areas are basically similar. But there are some differences in the content of the four components. The results of this study can provide reference at choosing and utilizing P. lactiflora from different places comprehensively.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Paeonia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Raízes de Plantas/química
10.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2044-2055, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209937

RESUMO

Mulberry leaf was reported that it has antidiabetic activity, although the mechanisms underlying the function have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the results of network pharmacology suggested that mulberry leaves could regulate key biological process in development of diabetes, and the process implicates multiple signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, MAPK, VEGF, PPAR, and Wnt. Then, the research in vitro indicated that mulberry leaves remarkably ameliorated high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which was characterized with significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4, and it was found to be connected with the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Moreover, the results of bioinformatics and the dual luciferase report showed that ZEB1 might be a target gene of miR-302a; decreased miR-302a and increased ZEB1 expressions could significantly promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, mulberry leaves could reverse these modulations. Our results demonstrated that network pharmacology could provide a guidance role for traditional Chinese medicine research, and mulberry leaves could be of benefit in preventing high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells, which proved that it was related to the upregulation of miR-302a by targeting ZEB1 and the inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Nefropatias/patologia
11.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207958

RESUMO

The fruit of Lycium barbarum L. (FLB) has been used as medicines and functional foods for more than 2000 years in East Asia. In this study, carotenoid, phenolic, flavonoid, and polysaccharide contents as well as the antioxidant activities of FLB from 13 different regions in China from a total of 78 samples were analyzed. The results showed that total carotenoid contents ranged from 12.93 to 25.35 mg ß-carotene equivalents/g DW. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate was the predominant carotenoid (4.260-10.07 mg/g DW) in FLB. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total polysaccharide contents ranged from 6.899 to 8.253 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW, 3.177 to 6.144 mg rutin equivalents/g DW, and 23.62 to 42.45 mg/g DW, respectively. Rutin content ranged from 0.1812 to 0.4391 mg/g DW, and ferulic acid content ranged from 0.0994 to 0.1726 mg/g DW. All of these FLB could be divided into two clusters with PCA analysis, and both individual carotenoids and total carotenoid contents could be used as markers for regional characterization. The phenolic components were the main substance for the antioxidant activity of FLB. Considering the functional component and antioxidant activities, FLB produced in Guyuan of Ningxia was the closest to Daodi herbs (Zhongwei of Ningxia), which is commercially available high quality FLB. The results of this study could provide guidance for comprehensive applications of FLB production in different regions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(2): 308-313, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989950

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of essential oil from three kinds of pungent herbs,namely Menthae Haplocalycis Herba,Atractylodis Rhizoma and Cnidii Fructus,on the transdermal absorption in vitro of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix. The modified vertical Franz diffusion cell was used to conduct a transdermal experiment in vitro with the isolated abdominal skin of the SD rats as the transdermal absorption barrier. The effects of such three kinds of pungent essential oil on percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix were investigated by determining the content of 6 alkaloids( oxymatrine,oxysophocarpine,N-methylcytisine,sophoridine,matrine,and sophocarpidine) in the transdermal acceptor with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry( UPLC-TQ-MS) technique simultaneously. With enhancement ratio( ER) as the index,their effects on promoting penetration was as follows: 1% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 1% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Azone ≈ 3% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 5%Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 3% Cnidii Fructus oil ≈ 5% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 5% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 1% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > Blank. The results showed that these three kinds of pungent essential oil could be used as enhancers for alkaloids of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix,providing scientific guidance for improving percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea , Sophora/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(6): 1216-1219, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989986

RESUMO

This present study is to detect the content of free thiols(-SH) in the horn derived traditional Chinese medicines( TCMs) from different animals and different regions by using fluorescence derivatization method. TCEP was used as a disulfide bond reducing agent,while SBD-F as a derivatization reagent. Fluorescent spectrophotometry was used to determine the content of-SH,and the maximum excitation wavelength and emission wavelength were set as 375 and 510 nm,respectively. As a result,under the optimized condition,the extraction of Caprae Hircus Cornu showed the highest free-SH concentration,followed by Bovis Grunniens Cornu,Bubali Cornu,and Elaphuri Davidiani Cornu. In the present study,we point out that the-SH-contained components might be the most important material basis in animal horn derived TCMs. With good accurate,sensitive and rapid properties,the present method can provide reference basis for the quality evaluation of animal horn derived TCMs and guides for the investigation on effective material basis.


Assuntos
Cornus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cornos , Animais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos de Sulfidrila
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(8): e4552, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985939

RESUMO

The leaves of Lycium barbarum (LLB) have been utilized as crude drugs and functional tea for human health in China and Southeast Asia for thousands of years. To control its quality, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the first time for simultaneous determination of 10 phenolic acids and flavonoids (including neochlorogenic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside) in LLB. The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC C18 chromatographic column (100 × 2.1 mm internal diameter, 1.7 µm particle size) with 0.1% formic acid in water (A)-acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase under gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was adopted to simultaneously monitor the target components. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2  ≥ 0.9860), precision (RSD ≤ 6.58%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.60%), stability (RSD ≤ 6.17%), recovery (95.56-108.06%, RSD ≤ 4.64%) and limit of detection (0.021-0.664 ng/mL) and limit of quantitation (0.069-2.210 ng/mL), and then successfully applied to evaluate the quality of 64 batches of LLB collected from 41 producing areas in four different provinces of China. The results showed that the LLB, especially collected from Inner Mongolia regions, were rich in the phenolic acids and flavonoids. Rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and chlorogenic acid are the predominant compounds contained in LLB. The above findings will provide helpful information for the effective utilization of LLB.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lycium/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979080

RESUMO

Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. is one of the original plants for traditional Chinese medicines Trichosanthis Fructus, Trichosanthis Semen, Trichosanthis Pericarpium and Trichosanthis Radix. Amino acids, nucleosides and carbohydrates are usually considered to have nutritional value and health-care efficacy. In this study, methods involving high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD), UV-visible spectrophotometry and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were established for quantifying carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, stachyose, raffinose and polysaccharide), fourteen nucleosides and twenty one amino acids. Moreover, sixty-three samples from nine different parts, including pericarp, seed, fruit pulp, stem, leaf, main root, main root bark, lateral root and lateral root bark of T. kirilowii from different cultivated varieties were examined. The established methods were validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. The results showed that the average content of total amino acids in roots (15.39 mg/g) and root barks (16.38 mg/g) were relatively higher than for others. Contents of nucleosides in all parts of T. kirilowii were below 1.5 mg/g. For carbohydrates, fruit pulp has a higher content than others for glucose (22.91%), fructose (20.63%) and polysaccharides (27.29%). By using partial least-squared discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), Variable importance in the projection (VIP) plots and analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis, the characteristic components of the different organs (fruit, stems and leaves, roots) were found. This analysis suggested there were potential medicinal and nutritive health care values in various parts of the T. kirilowii, which provided valuable information for the development and utilization of T. kirilowii.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Carboidratos/química , Nucleosídeos/química , Trichosanthes/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Nucleosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(7): e4521, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818413

RESUMO

Lizhong decoction (LZD), a classic formula, has been used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC) for thousands of years in clinical practice. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of its major bioactive components in rats under different physiological and pathological states are not clear. Thus, in this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method, was developed and applied to simultaneously determine glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritigenin, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Re in normal and UC rats after oral administration of LZD extract. A Waters BEH C18 UPLC column was used for chromatographic separation, while acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid were selected as mobile phase. The linearity of nine analytes was >0.9920. Inter- and intra-day accuracy was ≤ 11.4% and precision was from 1.1 to 12.7%. Additionally, stable and suitable extraction recoveries were also obtained. The established method was validated and found to be specific, accurate and precise for nine analytes. Furthermore, it was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic investigation of nine major components after oral administration of LZD extracts to normal and model rats, respectively. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax , AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ ) in the plasma of UC rats were significantly different from those of normal rats, which could provide a reference for the clinical application of LZD.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/sangue , Chalcona/química , Chalcona/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Ginsenosídeos/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Glucosídeos/sangue , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Ácido Glicirrízico/sangue , Ácido Glicirrízico/química , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacocinética , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 167: 114-122, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763882

RESUMO

Trichosanthin (root of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.) has received much attention, but T. kirilowii has received little systematic analysis. A comprehensive evaluation of flavones and triterpenes in nine different parts of T. kirilowii would, thus, be of value to fully understand the potential medicinal properties of T. kirilowii. A hierarchical extraction-simultaneous determination method was established, which based on different types of components had different response on the MS detector. The hierarchical extraction method extracted 3, 29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol solely, which response lowly on the MS detector in the mixture of one step extract, in order to obtain accurate results in the next UHPLC-MS/MS assay. By this method, ten flavones, three tetracyclic triterpenoids, and one pentacyclic triterpenoid in the extracts of T. kirilowii were determined. The results showed the level of flavonoids in leaves was higher than those in the other samples, tetracyclic triterpenoids mainly existed in root and root bark, and pentacyclic triterpenoid, especially 3, 29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol was concentrated in the seed kernel. According to principal component analysis, the F values of the leaves of all varieties were generally greater than those in other parts. The leaves might provide a supplementary source of flavonoids, and the root and root bark could be a good choice for tetracyclic triterpenoids. The analysis results revealed the distribution of flavones and triterpenes in different parts of T. kirilowii and provided reference for the research and rational utilization of T. kirilowii.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonas/análise , Trichosanthes/química , Triterpenos/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ondas Ultrassônicas
18.
J Sep Sci ; 42(8): 1520-1527, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734512

RESUMO

In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid was established and successfully applied to comparatively analyze main active components after their compatibility. Besides, the effects of Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma and combined extracts on type 2 diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet along with low dose of streptozocin were investigated. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation of seven target components was achieved within 12 min. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2  ≥ 0.999). The relative standard deviation of precision, repeatability and stability varied from 0.69 to 2.23, 0.98 to 2.56, and 0.92 to 2.57%, respectively. The recovery ranged from 91.11 to 105.35%. The contents of seven active components were notably reduced after compatibility; however, the hypoglycemic effect of combined extracts was stronger than single drug by decreasing the activities of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increasing the activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase. Accordingly, the established analytical method was accurate and sensitive enough for quantitative evaluation of seven investigated compounds. Moreover, the combined extract had definite effects on type 2 diabetes through multiple components against multiple targets.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Interações Medicamentosas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
J Sep Sci ; 42(6): 1122-1132, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618086

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was established and employed to determine 21 nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in 60 samples from different parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. The established methods were validated by good linearity (r2  > 0.9937), limits of detection (0.12-77.75 ng/mL), limits of quantitation (0.31-272.13 ng/mL), intra- and interday precisions (RSD ≤ 4.84%, RSD ≤ 6.26%), stability (RSD ≤ 5.92%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 7.14%), recovery (91.4-103.4%), and matrix effects (0.92-1.03). Chemical comparative analysis revealed that the content of total analytes in four parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix were different, and exhibited the order: Head (14.89 mg/g) > Body (10.15 mg/g) > All (8.22 mg/g) > Tail (6.23 mg/g). Principal component analysis showed that the samples could be classified into four groups in accord with four different parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. The results could provide a scientific basis and reference for the quality control of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, and may be conducive to further research on the pharmacological activities of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Angelica sinensis/química , Nucleosídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Conformação Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691074

RESUMO

The root of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus is one of the most popular herbal medicines worldwide. In order to increase the yield of underground roots of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, its flowers (AMF) have often been removed in their flowering stage, which produces the flowers as waste being discarded. To explore its phytochemicals and potential value for utilization, the antioxidant activities of extracts from AMF were evaluated by a free radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay. The total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the individual compounds, in different extracts of AMF were also investigated. The results showed that the extract ME obtained from AMF through macroporous resins separation exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which were close to those of positive control BHT. ME was rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids, and the contents reached 108.42 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 265.70 mg rutin equivalents/g, respectively. A total of 31 compounds, including four phenolic acids, nineteen flavonoids, three isoflavones, two pterocarpans, and three saponins, were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS in ME. Quantitative analysis of sixteen components in the extracts of AMF showed that flavonoids were the predominant constituents, especially for the compounds of hyperoside, rutin, and isorhamnetin-3-O-ß-d-glucoside.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Flores/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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