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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 590576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251216

RESUMO

The transcription factor c-MYC (MYC thereafter) is a global regulator of gene expression. It is overexpressed or deregulated in human cancers of diverse origins and plays a key role in the development of cancers. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), a central regulator for cells to adapt to low cellular oxygen levels, is also often overexpressed and activated in many human cancers. HIF mediates the primary transcriptional response of a wide range of genes in response to hypoxia. Earlier studies focused on the inhibition of MYC by HIF during hypoxia, when MYC is expressed at physiological level, to help cells survive under low oxygen conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that MYC and HIF also cooperate to promote cancer cell growth and progression. This review will summarize the current understanding of the complex molecular interplay between MYC and HIF.

3.
Laryngoscope ; 130(12): E850-E857, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: For locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) treated by surgery and adjuvant therapy, consensus has yet to be reached on whether the optimal time to initiate surveillance positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan is before or after adjuvant therapy. In this study, we characterize the utility of PET/CT scans obtained 3 months after adjuvant therapy. STUDY DESIGN: PET/CT scans were obtained for 220 patients with stage III, IVA, or IVB OSCC who underwent resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: Using the Neck Imaging Reporting and Data System, PET/CT scans were dichotomized as suspicious (primary or neck category ≥3, or distant lesion present) versus nonsuspicious. We then computed differences in locoregional progression, distant progression, and overall survival; positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity; and success rate of salvage. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (30%) had suspicious PET/CT scans, which were significantly associated with local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.3-26.6), distant failure (HR 18.4, 95% CI 9.6-35.3), and poorer overall survival (HR 9.5, 95% CI 5.0-17.9). Overall PPV, locoregional PPV, NPV, sensitivity, and specificity were 85%, 79%, 73%, 58%, and 92%, respectively. Among those with biopsy-confirmed progression, 37 patients (65%) underwent salvage therapy; four (11%) were without evidence of disease at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: For locally advanced OSCC, PET/CT scan 3 months after adjuvant therapy is strongly predictive of disease recurrence and survival, demonstrating improved performance over postoperative imaging in previous studies. Following a suspicious post-adjuvant therapy PET/CT scan, cure of locoregional recurrence is possible but unlikely. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is an effective surgical adjunct for the intraoperative identification of tumor tissue during resection of high-grade gliomas. The use of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in glioblastoma (GBM) has been shown to double the extent of gross-total resection and 6-month progression-free survival. The heterogeneity of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence observed during surgery presents a technical and diagnostic challenge when utilizing this tool intraoperatively. While some regions show bright fluorescence after 5-ALA administration, other regions do not, despite that both regions of the tumor may be histopathologically indistinguishable. The authors examined the biological basis of this heterogeneity using computational methods. METHODS: The authors collected both fluorescent and nonfluorescent GBM specimens from a total of 14 patients undergoing surgery and examined their gene expression profiles. RESULTS: In this study, the authors found that the gene expression patterns characterizing fluorescent and nonfluorescent GBM surgical specimens were profoundly different and were associated with distinct cellular functions and different biological pathways. Nonfluorescent tumor tissue tended to resemble the neural subtype of GBM; meanwhile, fluorescent tumor tissue did not exhibit a prominent pattern corresponding to known subtypes of GBM. Consistent with this observation, neural GBM samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database exhibited a significantly lower fluorescence score than nonneural GBM samples as determined by a fluorescence gene signature developed by the authors. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a greater understanding regarding the biological basis of differential fluorescence observed intraoperatively and can provide a basis to identify novel strategies to maximize the effectiveness of fluorescence agents.

5.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(7): 1079-1090, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088847

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia is a negative prognostic factor that is implicated in oncogenic signal activation, immune escape, and resistance to treatment. Identifying the mechanistic role of hypoxia in immune escape and resistance to immune-checkpoint inhibitors may aid the identification of therapeutic targets. We and others have shown that V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA), a negative checkpoint regulator in the B7 family, is highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment in tumor models and primary human cancers. In this study, we show that VISTA and HIF1α activity are correlated in a cohort of colorectal cancer patients. High VISTA expression was associated with worse overall survival. We used the CT26 colon cancer model to investigate the regulation of VISTA by hypoxia. Compared with less hypoxic tumor regions or draining lymph nodes, regions of profound hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment were associated with increased VISTA expression on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and genetic silencing, we show that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α binding to a conserved hypoxia response element in the VISTA promoter upregulated VISTA on myeloid cells. Further, antibody targeting or genetic ablation of VISTA under hypoxia relieved MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression, revealing VISTA as a mediator of MDSC function. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting VISTA may mitigate the deleterious effects of hypoxia on antitumor immunity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Antígenos B7/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 164, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622254

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained errors in Fig. 7. In panels e and f, the graph titles incorrectly read 'LNCaP-AdtNs' and 'LAPC4-AdtNs', respectively. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4972, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478344

RESUMO

Despite recent advances, the efficacy of androgen/androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapy remains  limited for many patients with metastatic prostate cancer. This is in part because prostate cancers adaptively switch to the androgen/AR-independent pathway for survival and growth, thereby conferring therapy resistance. Tumor hypoxia is considered as a major cause of treatment resistance. However, the exact mechanism is largely unclear. Here we report that chronic-androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the condition of hypoxia induces adaptive androgen/AR-independence, and therefore confers resistance to androgen/AR-targeted therapy, e.g., enzalutamide. Mechanistically, this is mediated by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), which is transcriptionally repressed by AR in hypoxia, but restored and increased by AR inhibition. In turn, GPI maintains glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in hypoxia by redirecting the glucose flux from androgen/AR-dependent pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to hypoxia-induced glycolysis pathway, thereby reducing the growth inhibitory effect of enzalutamide. Inhibiting GPI overcomes the therapy resistance in hypoxia in vitro and increases enzalutamide efficacy in vivo.


Assuntos
Androgênios/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Tumoral/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3221, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104567

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(9): 1135-1140, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924316

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation associated with lung cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 685 lung cancer cases that had a family history of two or more first or second degree relatives compared with 744 controls without lung cancer that were genotyped on an Illumina Human OmniExpressExome-8v1 array. To ensure robust results, we further evaluated these findings using data from six additional studies that were assembled through the Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer of the Lung Consortium comprising 1993 familial cases and 33 690 controls. We performed a meta-analysis after imputation of all variants using the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 (version 3 release date September 2013). Analyses were conducted for 9 327 222 SNPs integrating data from the two sources. A novel variant on chromosome 4p15.31 near the LCORL gene and an imputed rare variant intergenic between CDKN2A and IFNA8 on chromosome 9p21.3 were identified at a genome-wide level of significance for squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, associations of CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25.1 in sporadic lung cancer were confirmed at a genome-wide level of significance in familial lung cancer. Previously identified variants in or near CHRNA2, BRCA2, CYP2A6 for overall lung cancer, TERT, SECISPB2L and RTEL1 for adenocarcinoma and RAD52 and MHC for squamous carcinoma were significantly associated with lung cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Anamnese , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(6): 4945-4956, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384218

RESUMO

FOSL1 is frequently overexpressed in multiple types of human cancers including invasive breast cancers and implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, how FOSL1 is overexpressed in cancers remains to be elucidated. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to target FOSL1 and are downregulated in human cancers. Here, we report that miR-130a is a novel FOSL1 targeting miRNA. Using gene expression microarray analysis, we found that FOSL1 is among the most up-regulated genes in cells transfected with miR-130a inhibitors. Transient transfection-immunoblot, RNA-immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-130a directly targets FOSL1 mRNA at its 3'-UTR. Overexpression of miR-130a significantly reduced the levels of FOSL1 in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cell lines and suppresses their migration and invasion. This inhibition can be rescued by ectopic expression of miR-130a-resistant FOSL1. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of miR-130a increased the levels of tight-junction protein ZO-1 while inhibition of miR-130a reduced the levels of ZO-1. We further show that miR-130a expression is significantly reduced in cancer tissues from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, correlating significantly with the upregulation of FOSL1 expression, compared to non-TNBC tissues. Together, our results reveal that miR-130a directly targets FOSL1 and suppresses the inhibition of ZO-1, thus inhibiting cancer cell migration and invasion, in TNBCs.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Mol Carcinog ; 57(2): 216-224, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071797

RESUMO

The P38MAPK pathway participates in regulating cell cycle, inflammation, development, cell death, cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. Genetic variants of some genes in the P38MAPK pathway are reportedly associated with lung cancer risk. To substantiate this finding, we used six genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to comprehensively investigate the associations of 14 904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 108 genes of this pathway with lung cancer risk. We identified six significant lung cancer risk-associated SNPs in two genes (CSNK2B and ZAK) after correction for multiple comparisons by a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.20. After removal of three CSNK2B SNPs that are located in the same locus previously reported by GWAS, we performed the LD analysis and found that rs3769201 and rs7604288 were in high LD. We then chose two independent representative SNPs of rs3769201 and rs722864 in ZAK for further analysis. We also expanded the analysis by including these two SNPs from additional GWAS datasets of Harvard University (984 cases and 970 controls) and deCODE (1319 cases and 26 380 controls). The overall effects of these two SNPs were assessed using all eight GWAS datasets (OR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.89-0.95, and P = 1.03 × 10-5 for rs3769201; OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.88-0.95, and P = 2.03 × 10-6 for rs722864). Finally, we performed an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and found that these two SNPs were significantly associated with ZAK mRNA expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines. In conclusion, the ZAK rs3769201 and rs722864 may be functional susceptibility loci for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco
14.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 740, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent"). RESULTS: While abstinent smokers did not differ from non-smokers with respect to pairwise resting state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 12 brain regions of interest, RSFCs involving the caudate and putamen of sated smokers significantly differed from those of non-smokers (P < 0.01). Further analyses of caudate and putamen activity during elicited experiences of reward and disappointment show that caudate activity during reward (CR) correlated with smoking status (P = 0.015). Moreover, abstinent smokers with lower CR experienced greater withdrawal symptoms (P = 0.024), which suggests CR may be related to smoking urges. Associations between genetic variants and CR, adjusted for smoking status, were identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genes containing or exhibiting caudate-specific expression regulation by these variants were enriched within Gene Ontology terms that describe cytoskeleton functions, synaptic organization, and injury response (P < 0.001, FDR < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: By integrating genomic and imaging data, novel insights into potential mechanisms of caudate activation and homeostasis are revealed that may guide new directions of research toward improving our understanding of addiction pathology.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homeostase , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Transdução de Sinais , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar/psicologia
15.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(2): 399-406, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435399

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We have previously demonstrated that patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who exhibit immune responses to a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine have superior recurrence-free survival following surgery, compared with patients in whom responses do not occur. We sought to characterize the patterns of T-lymphocyte infiltration and somatic mutations in metastases that are associated with and predictive of response to the DC vaccine. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cytotoxic, memory, and regulatory T cells in resected metastases and surrounding normal liver tissue from 22 patients (11 responders and 11 nonresponders) were enumerated by immunohistochemistry prior to vaccine administration. In conjunction with tumor sequencing, the combined multivariate and collapsing method was used to identify gene mutations that are associated with vaccine response. We also derived a response prediction score for each patient using his/her tumor genotype data and variant association effect sizes computed from the other 21 patients; greater weighting was placed on gene products with cell membrane-related functions. RESULTS: There was no correlation between vaccine response and intratumor, peritumor, or hepatic densities of T-cell subpopulations. Associated genes were found to be enriched in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis (P < 0.001). Applying a consistent prediction score cutoff over 22 rounds of leave-one-out cross-validation correctly inferred vaccine response in 21 of 22 patients (95%). CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant DC vaccination has shown promise as a form of immunotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Its efficacy may be influenced by somatic mutations that affect pathways involving PI3K, Akt, and mTOR, as well as tumor surface proteins. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 399-406. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Imunoterapia , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Idoso , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(5): 1054-1066, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk alleles relevant to the causal and biologic mechanisms of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). METHODS: A genome-wide association study and subsequent replication study were conducted in a total cohort of 1,986 cases of AAV (patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis [Wegener's] [GPA] or microscopic polyangiitis [MPA]) and 4,723 healthy controls. Meta-analysis of these data sets and functional annotation of identified risk loci were performed, and candidate disease variants with unknown functional effects were investigated for their impact on gene expression and/or protein function. RESULTS: Among the genome-wide significant associations identified, the largest effect on risk of AAV came from the single-nucleotide polymorphism variants rs141530233 and rs1042169 at the HLA-DPB1 locus (odds ratio [OR] 2.99 and OR 2.82, respectively) which, together with a third variant, rs386699872, constitute a triallelic risk haplotype associated with reduced expression of the HLA-DPB1 gene and HLA-DP protein in B cells and monocytes and with increased frequency of complementary proteinase 3 (PR3)-reactive T cells relative to that in carriers of the protective haplotype. Significant associations were also observed at the SERPINA1 and PTPN22 loci, the peak signals arising from functionally relevant missense variants, and at PRTN3, in which the top-scoring variant correlated with increased PRTN3 expression in neutrophils. Effects of individual loci on AAV risk differed between patients with GPA and those with MPA or between patients with PR3-ANCAs and those with myeloperoxidase-ANCAs, but the collective population attributable fraction for these variants was substantive, at 77%. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the association of susceptibility to GPA and MPA with functional gene variants that explain much of the genetic etiology of AAV, could influence and possibly be predictors of the clinical presentation, and appear to alter immune cell proteins and responses likely to be key factors in the pathogenesis of AAV.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Poliangiite Microscópica/genética , Mieloblastina/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/genética , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-DP/metabolismo , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mieloblastina/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Peroxidase/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
Bioinformatics ; 33(4): 561-563, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035028

RESUMO

Motivation: Checking concordance between reported sex and genotype-inferred sex is a crucial quality control measure in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, limited insights exist regarding the true accuracy of software that infer sex from genotype array data. Results: We present seXY, a logistic regression model trained on both X chromosome heterozygosity and Y chromosome missingness, that consistently demonstrated >99.5% sex inference accuracy in cross-validation for 889 males and 5,361 females enrolled in prostate cancer and ovarian cancer GWAS. Compared to PLINK, one of the most popular tools for sex inference in GWAS that assesses only X chromosome heterozygosity, seXY achieved marginally better male classification and 3% more accurate female classification. Availability and Implementation: https://github.com/Christopher-Amos-Lab/seXY. Contact: Christopher.I.Amos@dartmouth.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Cromossomos Sexuais , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/métodos , Software , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34513, 2016 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694829

RESUMO

cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor activated by multiple extracellular signals including growth factors and hormones. These extracellular cues activate CREB through phosphorylation at Ser133 by various protein serine/threonine kinases. Once phosphorylated, it promotes its association with transcription coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 to activate CREB-dependent gene transcription. Tumor tissues of different origins have been shown to present overexpression and/or overactivation of CREB, indicating CREB as a potential cancer drug target. We previously identified 666-15 as a potent inhibitor of CREB with efficacious anti-cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the specificity of 666-15 and evaluated its potential in vivo toxicity. We found that 666-15 was fairly selective in inhibiting CREB. 666-15 was also found to be readily bioavailable to achieve pharmacologically relevant concentrations for CREB inhibition. Furthermore, the mice treated with 666-15 showed no evidence of changes in body weight, complete blood count, blood chemistry profile, cardiac contractility and tissue histologies from liver, kidney and heart. For the first time, these results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of CREB is well-tolerated in vivo and indicate that such inhibitors should be promising cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anilidas , Antineoplásicos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Naftalenos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Anilidas/farmacocinética , Anilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Naftalenos/farmacocinética , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(8): 1208-15, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic variants that are strongly associated with lung cancer, these variants have low penetrance and serve as poor predictors of lung cancer in individuals. We sought to increase the predictive value of germline variants by considering their cumulative effects in the context of biologic pathways. METHODS: For individuals in the Environment and Genetics in Lung Cancer Etiology study (1,815 cases/1,971 controls), we computed pathway-level susceptibility effects as the sum of relevant SNP variant alleles weighted by their log-additive effects from a separate lung cancer GWAS meta-analysis (7,766 cases/37,482 controls). Logistic regression models based on age, sex, smoking, genetic variants, and principal components of pathway effects and pathway-smoking interactions were trained and optimized in cross-validation and further tested on an independent dataset (556 cases/830 controls). We assessed prediction performance using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Compared with typical binomial prediction models that have epidemiologic predictors (AUC = 0.607) in addition to top GWAS variants (AUC = 0.617), our pathway-based smoking-interactive multinomial model significantly improved prediction performance in external validation (AUC = 0.656, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our biologically informed approach demonstrated a larger increase in AUC over nongenetic counterpart models relative to previous approaches that incorporate variants. IMPACT: This model is the first of its kind to evaluate lung cancer prediction using subtype-stratified genetic effects organized into pathways and interacted with smoking. We propose pathway-exposure interactions as a potentially powerful new contributor to risk inference. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1208-15. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
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