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1.
J Fish Dis ; 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651652

RESUMO

Cryptocaryon irritans is one of the most harmful marine parasites in mariculture. Copper sulphate is often used to kill parasites and the influence of copper sulphate on the tomont stage of C. irritans was explored in this study. The results showed that excystment rate was not significantly affected when tomonts were exposed to 5 mg/L (76.7%) and 10 mg/L (78.9%) of copper sulphate for 3 h. However, excystment rate was significantly inhibited when exposed to 15 mg/L (33.3%) for 3 h and 5 mg/L (28.9%), 10 mg/L (33.3%) and 15 mg/L (33.3%) for 6 h. After treatment with high concentrations of copper sulphate, the interior of the tomonts was fuzzy under the microscope, and the division process could not be observed. Metabolomic results combined with preliminary transcriptome analysis results showed that the tomonts were induced to produce linoleate, riboflavin, inositol and other substances under the stress of Cu2+ , which affected the antioxidant mechanism of the body. Using MDA content determination and antioxidant enzyme activity analysis, copper sulphate was found to cause oxidative damage to tomonts by affecting the generation of metabolites, leading to the death of tomonts.

2.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221150944, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a new strategy to manage ectopia lentis in ASD patients assessing the visual outcomes and safety of supracapsular scleral sutured intraocular lens implantation and analyzing the accuracy of different intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae. METHODS: Eight patients with ASD (13 eyes) were underwent supracapsular scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber (PC) IOL without capsular extirpation. The preoperative and postoperative clinical features were compared. The prediction error values from four formulae (SRK/T, Holladay 1, Hoffer Q, Haigis), with or without Wang-Koch (WK) adjustment, were calculated for the cases. RESULTS: Zonulodialysis and premature cataracts could be the main reason for the decreased vision in patients with ASD. There was a significant improvement in best corrected visual acuity on 3-month follow-up after applying supracapsular scleral suture fixation of PC IOL. The prediction errors of the different formulae showed a slight tendency towards postoperative myopia. The Haigis formula with WK adjustment showed the best performance. CONCLUSIONS: Supracapsular scleral suture fixation of IOLs for retaining the capsule-zonule barrier is a good option for ASD patients. The Haigis formula is recommended for ASD patients treated with supracapsular scleral suture fixation of IOLs. The predicted IOL power should be reduced based on the effect of the new anatomic position of the IOL to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome.

3.
Talanta ; 254: 124138, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463803

RESUMO

Lack of highly efficient, inexpensive, and easily available catalysts severely limits the practical applicability of electrochemically sensing assay towards 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Herein, four kinds of Fe-Co bimetallic Prussian blue analogues (FeCo-PBAs) with different molar ratios of Fe to Co were prepared using a simple coprecipitation method. Interestingly, Fe(III) in K3 [Fe(CN)6] can be reduced to Fe(II) by adding trisodium citrate dehydrate, which could offer a new clue to synthesize PBAs with Fe(II) core ions. With the optimizational FeCo-PBA synthesized at a 0.5/1 M ratio of Fe to Co as an electrocatalyst, the constructed sensor shows excellent comprehensive performance for the 5-HT assay with a high sensitivity of 0.856 µA µM-1 and an ultralow detection limit of 8.4 nM. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was obtained in the ranges of 0.1-10.0 µM and 10.0-200.0 µM and preferable recoveries ranged from 97.8% to 103.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) < 4.0%. The integrated properties of FeCo-PBA can be comparable to previously reported electrocatalysts for the 5-HT assay including noble metal-based and expensive carbon (graphene and carbon nanotubes)-based electrocatalysts. The proposed sensor also exhibits outstanding selectivity, reproducibility, and practicality for real sample analyses. This work is the first report on the PBA-based sensor for the 5-HT assay, verifying the practicability of this high-performance sensor for the 5-HT assay.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 61(48): 19624-19632, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383489

RESUMO

We, for the first time, offer a unique and disruptive strategy to prepare N-doped three-dimensional porous carbon framework-supported well-defined Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 nanocubes (indicated as PB@N-PCFs). The carbon frameworks hold an ultrawide interlayer spacing of 0.385-0.402 nm for the (002) planes of graphite and ultrahigh graphitization. Furthermore, PB@N-PCFs are used as a carrier to grow NiFe-layered-double-hydroxide nanosheet arrays (denoted as NiFe-LDH/PB@N-PCFs) in situ, where the interlayer spacing for the (002) planes of graphite can be expanded as high as 0.457 nm in the carbon frameworks. Moreover, NiFe-LDH/PB@N-PCFs shows excellent electrocatalytic performance toward oxygen evolution in terms of activity, kinetics, and durability, elegantly rivaling the state-of-the-art RuO2. More profoundly, after 3000 cycle cyclic voltammetry scans, NiFe-LDH/PB@N-PCFs still display far more desirable activity with respect to initial NiFe-LDH/PB@N-PCFs. We believe that the PB@N-PCFs and PB@N-PCFs-based composites with ultrahighly graphitized and large interlayer spacing N-PCFs can find more places in electrochemistry-related applications such as Na/K-ion batteries, electrocatalysis, and electrochemical sensors.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(48): 11118-11127, 2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441953

RESUMO

Herein, an extremely simple l-alanine-assisted pyrolysis method was proposed for the construction of a novel hierarchically porous hybrid of Fe4N-Fe supported on N-doped carbon nanobelts and Ketjen black carbon (denoted as Fe4N-Fe@N-C/N-KB). It has been found that the participation of l-alanine in pyrolysis can dramatically increase the total pyridinic-N/graphitic-N content in Fe4N-Fe@N-C/N-KB, which is peculiarly conducive to the enhancement of ORR performance. The in-site formation of the Fe4N-Fe heterojunction via the thermal reduction and decomposition of Fe3N as well as the introduction of cheap KB can significantly improve the ORR performance. As a result, the activity, durability, and methanol tolerance of this hybrid are comprehensively better than those of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C, promising future applications in practical devices. Density functional theory calculations disclose that the highly improved ORR activity of Fe4N-Fe@N-C/N-KB also benefits from the favorable electron penetration and excellent electronic conductivity between the Fe4N nanoparticles and the N-incorporated carbon frameworks.

6.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 468, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443299

RESUMO

Radiation resistance and unsatisfactory efficacy of radioimmunotherapy are important barriers to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The impacts of anlotinib on radiation and tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in NSCLC remain to be resolved. Here, we find anlotinib enhances radiosensitivity, and further increases radiotherapy-stimulated CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation via triggering cGAS/STING pathway. Moreover, anlotinib shows significant effects on radioimmunotherapy (radiotherapy plus anti-PD-L1). The addition of anlotinib alleviates CD8+ T cell exhaustion, promotes the cytotoxicity and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, and boosts immune memory activation. Our work reveals the crucial role of anlotinib in antitumor immunity, and provides preclinical evidence for the application of anlotinib combined with radioimmunotherapy in NSCLC treatment.

8.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 148, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with T4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is extremely poor. Two distinct therapeutic options are currently available for T4 esophageal cancers: neochemoradiotherapy followed by surgery (CRT-S) and definitive chemoradiotherapy (D-CRT). This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of T4 ESCC in Chinese patients and compare the survival between the two therapeutic options. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 125 patients with clinically unresectable T4 ESCC in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2010 to December 2020. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and associated factors were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 106 of 125 T4 ESCC patients were downstaged of the tumor by neoadjuvant CRT. Among 106 patients, 32 patients underwent CRT-S, and 74 patients underwent D-CRT. Patients in the CRT-S group had a higher OS (20.4 months vs. un-reached median OS, p = 0.037) and PFS (8.6 months vs. 21.0 months, p = 0.008) than those in the D-CRT group. In multivariate analysis, treatment was an independent predictor of PFS. After propensity score matching (PSM), 50 patients (CRT-S = 25; D-CRT = 25) were matched. Among these 50 patients, patients in the CRT-S group had a higher OS (15.6 months vs. un-reached median OS, p = 0.025) and PFS (7.2 months vs. 18.8 months, p = 0.026) than those in the D-CRT group. In multivariate analysis, treatment was an independent predictor for PFS. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that CRT-S was superior to D-CRT for T4 ESCC patients who were downstaged by neo-CRT with respect to longer OS and PFS. Randomized controlled trials involving large population samples are needed to define the standard treatment for T4 ESCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Plant Cell ; 34(10): 3718-3736, 2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861414

RESUMO

Pollen tube guidance regulates the growth direction and ovule targeting of pollen tubes in pistils, which is crucial for the completion of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen-specific receptor kinase (PRK) family members PRK3 and PRK6 are specifically tip-localized and essential for pollen tube growth and guidance. However, the mechanisms controlling the polar localization of PRKs at the pollen tube tip are unclear. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 helps establish the polar localization of apical phosphatidylserine (PS) in pollen tubes. Here, we discovered that loss of ALA3 function caused pollen tube defects in growth and ovule targeting and significantly affected the polar localization pattern of PRK3 and PRK6. Both PRK3 and PRK6 contain two polybasic clusters in the intracellular juxtamembrane domain, and they bound to PS in vitro. PRK3 and PRK6 with polybasic cluster mutations showed reduced or abolished binding to PS and altered polar localization patterns, and they failed to effectively complement the pollen tube-related phenotypes of prk mutants. These results suggest that ALA3 influences the precise localization of PRK3, PRK6, and other PRKs by regulating the distribution of PS, which plays a key role in regulating pollen tube growth and guidance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
10.
ACS Sens ; 7(8): 2243-2252, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868028

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. H2S is considered as the biomarker of asthma. Here, an ultrasensitive chemiresistive H2S gas sensor based on a γ-Bi2MoO6-CuO heterostructure with a detection limit of 5 ppb has been fabricated. It can distinguish asthmatic patients from healthy people roughly by analyzing the exhaled breaths of 28 asthmatic patients and 28 healthy people, suggesting that the sensor can be used to assist physicians in the diagnosis of asthma. Pathologically, it is discovered by this sensor that with the relief of asthma, the concentration of H2S in one's exhaled breath gradually increases. This subtle concentration variation of H2S can be accurately detected, indicating that this sensor can be used in the asthma severity monitoring too. Physical models have been built by first-principles calculation to reveal the causes of the sensor's ultrasensitivity. The stable adsorption of H2S on the surface of CuO results in massive charge transferring and the appearance of the defect states, which play the major role in the ultrasensitivity of the sensor. Upon integrating this sensor with circuits, the cheap, smart, and portable H2S sensing device can be obtained, which can make asthmatic patients' access to this device easy and make the severity monitoring of asthma convenient, especially for children and the aged.


Assuntos
Asma , Testes Respiratórios , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Criança , Expiração , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6743-6748, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852110

RESUMO

The discovery of highly efficient, durable, and affordable bifunctional ORR/OER electrocatalysts is of great significance for the commercialization of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we synthesized uniformly sized CoNi alloy nanoparticles encapsulated with N-doped few-layer graphene (N-FLG) sheets via pyrolysis of a CoNi dual metal-organic framework precursor. The developed CoNi/N-FLG catalyst exhibited excellent oxygen reduction activity (comparable to a commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst) and outstanding oxygen evolution activity (superior to a commercial 20 wt % IrO2/C catalyst), thus enabling efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysis and stability when applied in prototype rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The remarkable electrochemical properties of CoNi/N-FLG originate from its unique core-shell structure and favorable electron penetration effects, thereby optimizing the adsorption/desorption strengths of intermediates formed during the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(24): 246401, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776468

RESUMO

High-resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements were made on FeSe superconductors. With ultrafast photoexcitation, two critical excitation fluences that correspond to two ultrafast electronic phase transitions were found only in the d_{yz}-orbit-derived band near the Brillouin-zone center within our time and energy resolution. Upon comparison to the detailed temperature dependent measurements, we conclude that there are two equilibrium electronic phase transitions (at approximately 90 and 120 K) above the superconducting transition temperature, and an anomalous contribution on the scale of 10 meV to the nematic states from the structural transition is experimentally determined. Our observations strongly suggest that the electronic phase transition at 120 K must be taken into account in the energy band development of FeSe, and, furthermore, the contribution of the structural transition plays an important role in the nematic phase of iron-based high-temperature superconductors.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 5195-5203, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666168

RESUMO

The identification of synergistic effect of Pt-based alloys on hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) requires a combination of experimental studies and theoretical calculations. Here, we present the construction of uniform PtCo nanoparticles grown on N-doped carbon frameworks via pyrolyzing Pt and Co ions adsorbed polyaniline, whereby the nanostructure of the nanoalloys can be effectively tuned by controlling the calcination temperature. As-prepared PtCo@NC-900 shows the optimal HER performance in 0.5 M H2SO4, resulting in a high mass activity of 4.31 A mgPt-1 and excellent operation durability, which far exceeds that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C (0.30 A mgPt-1). Density functional theory calculations further reveal that the improved HER activity on PtCo(111) is originated from the strong electronic interaction between Pt and Co with favorable electron transfer, allowing for a more suitable binding strength for hydrogen (i.e., ΔG*H = -0.164 eV) compared with that of pristine Pt(111) (-0.287 eV).

14.
Radiother Oncol ; 174: 1-7, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 40% of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) exhibit pathological complete responses (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), and theoretically, these patients may be cured by CRT and omit surgery. This prospectively randomized pilot study compared definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) with nCRT in patients with locally advanced ESCC who achieved clinical complete responses (cCRs) to nCRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single center, randomized, open phase 2 study of 256 patients with locally advanced ESCC enrolled between April 2016 and November 2018. Immediately when nCRT finished, patients enrolled underwent response evaluations within 1 week. Patients with cCR were randomly allocated to undergo surgery (arm A) or complete CRT up to the definitive radiation dose (arm B). The primary end point was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Finally, 71 patients were randomly assigned to the nCRT (n = 36) and dCRT (n = 35) arms. The median observation time was 35.7 months. The 3-year DFS rate was 56.43 % in arm A versus 54.73 % in arm B (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.862, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.452 to 1.645, P = 0.652). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates in arms A and B were 69.5 % and 62.3 % (HR = 0.824, 95 % CI = 403-1.688, P = 0.597), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: According to our treatment response evaluation criteria, survival of the patients with cCR after nCRT was not significant different between nCRT group and dCRT group. An optimized response evaluation strategy soon after nCRT may guide next therapy decisions for patients with locally advanced ESCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esofagectomia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565572

RESUMO

Kudoa (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) parasites are critical pathogens in marine and freshwater fish associated with significant economic losses and reduced market prices caused by post-mortem myoliquefaction or numerous cysts on muscles. In the present study, large yellow croakers infected by Kudoa were found during fish disease surveillance in China in November 2020 and used for morphological observation and characterization using light DIC microscopy and electron microscopy. Numerous creamy-white oval plasmodia were observed in muscles and on the surface of brain cartilage, gill arches, and serosal surfaces. The spores were considerably longer and thicker than previously reported Kudoa, with protruding polar filaments (PFs) in the mature spores, fingertip-shaped apical projections (APs), and polar capsules. Phylogenetic analyses with SSU rDNA, LSU rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA showed that the Kudoa-infected sample (LcK-2020) had the highest similarity to Kudoa iwatai reported in Japan. Based on the morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, it could be concluded that the sample LcK-2020 was infected by Kudoa iwatai, which would be the first report of Kudoa iwatai infection in large yellow croaker in China.

16.
Adv Mater ; 34(27): e2201843, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509216

RESUMO

Spider dragline silk is draw-spun from soluble, ß-sheet-crosslinked spidroin in aqueous solution. This spider silk has an excellent combination of strength and toughness, which originates from the hierarchical structure containing ß-sheet crosslinking points, spiral nanoassemblies, a rigid sheath, and a soft core. Inspired by the spidroin structure and spider spinning process, a soluble and crosslinked nanogel is prepared and crosslinked fibers are drew spun with spider-silk-like hierarchical structures containing cross-links, aligned nanoassemblies, and sheath-core structures. Introducing nucleation seeds in the nanogel solution, and applying prestretch and a spiral architecture in the nanogel fiber, further tunes the alignment and assembly of the polymer chains, and enhances the breaking strength (1.27 GPa) and toughness (383 MJ m-3 ) to approach those of the best dragline silk. Theoretical modeling provides understanding for the dependence of the fiber's spinning capacity on the nanogel size. This work provides a new strategy for the direct spinning of tough fiber materials.


Assuntos
Fibroínas , Aranhas , Animais , Fibroínas/química , Nanogéis , Seda/química , Água
17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(15): 3369-3376, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404049

RESUMO

Modifying the wide band gap semiconductor hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) can bring new chances in photonics. By virtue of the solvothermal/hydrothermal oxidation or functionalization, hBN can be converted into fluorescent nanodots. Until now, it has been a big challenge to drily oxidize hBN and turn it into bright fluorescent structures due to its superior chemical stability. Here, we report the oxidation of multilayer hBN into fluorescent structures by ultraviolet (UV, λ = 172 nm) photodissociated directional oxygen radical [O(3P)] in a gradient magnetic field. The paramagnetic O(3P), produced in a low-pressure O2 atmosphere, drifts toward hBN and then converts it into boron nitride oxide (BNO) micro/nanometer structures constituted by BO, BO2, and O-doped hBN. For a properly oxidized BNO substance, bright and photostable wide-band photoluminescence is realized with nanosecond-scaled lifetimes under the excitation of UV and visible lights.

18.
Front Oncol ; 12: 845346, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444948

RESUMO

Although the synergistic effect of traditional therapies combined with tumor targeting or immunotherapy can significantly reduce mortality, cancer remains the leading cause of disease related death to date. Limited clinical response rate, drug resistance and off-target effects, to a large extent, impede the ceilings of clinical efficiency. To get out from the dilemmas mentioned, bacterial therapy with a history of more than 150 years regained great concern in recent years. The rise of biological engineering and chemical modification strategies are able to optimize tumor bacterial therapy in highest measure, and meanwhile avoid its inherent drawbacks toward clinical application such as bacteriotoxic effects, weak controllability, and low security. Here, we give an overview of recent studies with regard to bacteria-mediated therapies combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. And more than that, we review the bacterial detoxification and targeting strategies via biological reprogramming or chemical modification, their applications, and clinical transformation prospects.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(10): 106802, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333064

RESUMO

By combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscope based piezoresponse force microscopy and first-principles calculations, we have studied the low-energy band structure, atomic structure, and charge polarization on the surface of a topological semimetal candidate TaNiTe_{5}. Dirac-like surface states were observed on the (010) surface by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, consistent with the first-principles calculations. On the other hand, piezoresponse force microscopy reveals a switchable ferroelectriclike polarization on the same surface. We propose that the noncentrosymmetric surface relaxation observed by scanning tunneling microscopy could be the origin of the observed ferroelectriclike state in this novel material. Our findings provide a new platform with the coexistence of a ferroelectriclike surface charge distribution and novel surface states.

20.
Phytochem Anal ; 33(5): 735-745, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Andrographolide active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a semidiurnal diterpene lactone with significant antipyretic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. A large amount of andrographolide API could only be obtained by extraction from Andrographis paniculata. Therefore, there may be related compounds, plant proteins and other impurities in andrographolide API. OBJECTIVE: In order to improve the safety of andrographolide related preparations, it was necessary to clarify the impurities and improve the quality standard of andrographolide API. METHODS: The related compounds were identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-Q/Orbitrap-MS), and the residual proteins were determined by ultrafiltration combined with proteomics. The proteomics method included protein extraction, content determination, digestion, desalination and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS) analysis. Then, MS results were compared with Andrographis paniculata protein database by Peaks Studio. RESULTS: The results showed that 32 related compounds were putatively identified, of which 30 impurities were identified for the first time. Seven residual proteins together with 11 highly suspected proteins were uniquely identified, including the T1UNN5_ANDPA protein with the highest intensity. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide useful information on the composition of andrographolide API, which is important for the quality control and clinical safety assurance of API and related prescriptions. Reasonable guidance will also be provided on the necessity of ultrafiltration in the production process of related injections.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Proteômica
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