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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There remains a relative paucity of evidence for the association between changes in depressive symptoms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association of change in depressive symptoms and incident CVD and mortality in a large prospective cohort of middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 6,810 participants free of CVD in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with two assessments of depressive symptoms at wave 1 (2011-2012) and wave 2 (2013-2014) were included. Elevated depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥ 12 on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. We used a modified Poisson regression to examine the association of changes in depressive symptoms (never, onset, remitted, and persistent) and incident CVD (a composite endpoint of heart disease or stroke) and mortality at wave 3 (2015-2016). RESULTS: During follow-up, 457 CVDs and 148 deaths occurred. Multivariable analyses revealed that persistent depressive symptoms were associated with an elevated risk of CVD (risk ratio [RR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.38-2.26) and mortality (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.64) compared with participants without any depressive symptoms. New-onset depressive symptoms increased the mortality risk (RR 2.37, 95% CI 1.52-3.69), but not CVD (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.84-1.58). Remitted depressive symptoms were associated with a 35% and 13% excess risk of CVD and mortality, respectively. CONCLUSION: Persistent and remitted depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of CVD. New-onset depressive symptoms predicted elevated mortality risk.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329220

RESUMO

Importance: Accumulating epidemiologic evidence has suggested favorable associations between plant-based dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes, although there is a lack of a quantitative summary of evidence substantiating this important association. Objective: To quantitatively synthesize available prospective observational evidence on the association between plant-based dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed and MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and reference lists through February 15, 2019, was conducted. Data analysis was conducted between December 2018 and February 2019. Study Selection: All prospective observational studies that examined the association between adherence to plant-based dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes among adults 18 years or older were identified. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for data abstraction and reporting were followed, and a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assessment tool was used to evaluate study quality. Two authors independently conducted full-text assessments and data abstraction. Meta-analysis was conducted using the random-effects method to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) and 95% CI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Level of adherence to a plant-based diet and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Results: A total of 9 studies were identified, totaling 307 099 participants with 23 544 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed between higher adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern and risk of type 2 diabetes (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.84) in comparison with poorer adherence, with modest heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 44.5%; P = .07 for heterogeneity). Similar findings were obtained when using the fixed-effects model (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84). Consistent associations were observed across predefined subgroups. This association was strengthened when healthy plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, were included in the definition of plant-based patterns (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62-0.79). Most studies were deemed to have good quality in terms of dietary assessment, disease outcomes, and statistical adjustment for confounding factors. Using restricted cubic splines, a significant inverse linear dose-response association was identified between plant-based dietary indices and risk of type 2 diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: Plant-based dietary patterns, especially when they are enriched with healthful plant-based foods, may be beneficial for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

3.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 3898-3908, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187838

RESUMO

Inflammatory liver diseases present a significant public health problem. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have a myriad of health benefits in animals and humans, including alleviating of hepatic inflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms are complicated and remain unclear. The current study investigated the preventive effects and mechanism of GTPs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory liver injury in mice. The ICR mice received intragastric GTPs once per day for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS stimulation (15 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) and liver damage and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the hepatic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes were observed. Our results showed that GTP supplementation significantly reduced LPS-induced plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; and LPS-induced reduction of glutathione (GSH) levels and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities was drastically improved by GTP pretreatment. GTP supplementation significantly reduced plasma contents and hepatic mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, compared with LPS-treated mice which did not receive GTP treatment. In addition, the production of cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α in mice livers, and acute-phase response (plasma levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein) were also decreased following GTP pre-treatment. Furthermore, GTPs reduced LPS-induced hepatic NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. GTPs exert protective effects against inflammatory liver injury by regulating NF-κB signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings suggest that dietary GTP supplementation may be an adjunctive prevention and treatment for acute liver injury-associated inflammation.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(29): 7674-7683, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969892

RESUMO

Theanine, a unique bioactive constituent from tea ( Camellia sinensis) leaves, is widely used as a functional ingredient and dietary supplement. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of theanine and its molecular mechanism, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation mouse model was employed in this study. The survival rate of mice in the theanine-treated group increased significantly compared with that of LPS-only group mice. Furthermore, ICR male mice were randomly divided into three or four groups: control, LPS (LPS treatment only), LPS + theanine (20 mg/kg/day), and theanine (theanine treatment only). The results showed that compared with the LPS group, the liver damage and oxidative stress of the theanine-treated group decreased significantly, based on plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations, hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and histological scores and apoptosis [terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activity] in the liver tissues. Furthermore, compared with no treatment, pretreatment with theanine significantly decreased the release of interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inhibited the expression of several inflammatory factors (including IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6), and increased the IL-10/interferon (IFN)-γ ratio in the hepatic tissues. In the LPS-induced inflammation model, theanine inhibited the expression of proinflammatory mediators involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in the hepatic tissues. Moreover, theanine suppressed the acute-phase response (elevated nitric oxide and C-reactive protein levels). Furthermore, theanine suppressed the LPS-induced inflammatory state by normalizing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. Taken together, the results suggest that theanine potentially ameliorates LPS-induced inflammation and acute liver injury; molecular mechanism of action may involve normalization of HPA axis hyperactivity and inactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda/terapia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 168(3): 703-712, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the performance of existing breast cancer risk prediction models among women of African ancestry. In replication studies of genetic variants, a change in direction of the risk association is a common phenomenon. Termed flip-flop, it means that a variant is risk factor in one population but protective in another, affecting the performance of risk prediction models. METHODS: We used data from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in the African diaspora (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants of African ancestry from Nigeria, USA, and Barbados. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed from the published odds ratios (ORs) of four sets of susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Discrimination capacity was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Flip-flop phenomenon was observed among 30~40% of variants across studies. Using the 34 variants with consistent directionality among previous studies, we constructed a PRS with AUC of 0.531 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.512-0.550), which is similar to the PRS using 93 variants and ORs from European ancestry populations (AUC = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.506-0.544). Additionally, we found the 34-variant PRS has good discriminative accuracy in women with family history of breast cancer (AUC = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.532-0.640). CONCLUSIONS: We found that PRS based on variants identified from prior GWASs conducted in women of European and Asian ancestries did not provide a comparable degree of risk stratification for women of African ancestry. Further large-scale fine-mapping studies in African ancestry populations are desirable to discover population-specific genetic risk variants.

8.
Food Funct ; 8(9): 3165-3177, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782772

RESUMO

Alcohol intake is a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea protects against alcoholic liver injury; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the protective effects of green tea against alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation. Ethanol was intragastrically administered to male C57BL/6 mice once a day, and the mice were allowed free access to green tea infusion or water for two weeks. We assessed the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, malondialdehyde and triglyceride and hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6). Our results showed that compared with water alone, green tea infusion markedly reduced liver damage, hepatic oxidative stress, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. Green tea infusion also significantly reduced hepatic nuclear factor-κB expression and its downstream inflammatory mediators (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) mRNA levels in ethanol-treated mice. Additionally, green tea infusion significantly activated hepatic phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), which are associated with the upregulation of phosphorylated eNOS expression and the increase of plasma nitric oxide levels in ethanol-treated mice. Furthermore, the protective effects of green tea infusion were considerably inhibited by the eNOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester in ethanol-treated mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the protective effects of green tea infusion on alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation involve the modulation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/imunologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Chá/química
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 26(3): 384-391, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429900

RESUMO

For thousands of years, humans have consumed tea made from leaves of Camellia sinensis, first as a medicinal herb and then as a widely popular beverage. In the past 10 years, theanine, a tea-derived, unique, nonproteinic amino acid, has been extensively studied for its health benefits. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have proven its beneficial effects on hepatic and immune functions. One possible mechanism for its biological activity involves the downregulation of the inflammatory response through the induction of nitric oxide production and glutathione synthesis. In this review, we summarize published results describing the potential mechanisms for these beneficial health effects and provide new insight into how theanine can be therapeutic for liver injury and chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Chá/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Glutamatos/farmacocinética , Glutamatos/uso terapêutico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38937, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958337

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this study, we used a cross-sectional study with 1090 community-dwelling Chinese citizens aged 60 years and older to evaluate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the risk of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria that include both muscle mass and muscle function/physical activity. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle index but with normal muscle/physical activity. The prevalence of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in healthy controls (14.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.035 for sarcopenia, and 14.4% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.002 for pre-sarcopenia). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting by age, gender, anti-diabetic medication, energy intake, protein intake, physical activity, and visceral fat area, we found that Chinese elderly with T2DM exhibited significantly increased risks of sarcopenia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-2.03) and pre-sarcopenia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10-2.83) compared to non-diabetic individuals. This is the first study to evaluate the association of T2DM with the risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in China. Among a group of community-dwelling Chinese elderly, T2DM was significantly associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/etiologia
12.
Hum Genet ; 135(10): 1145-59, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380242

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate breast biology by binding to specific RNA sequences, leading to RNA degradation and inhibition of translation of their target genes. While germline genetic variations may disrupt some of these interactions between miRNAs and their targets, studies assessing the relationship between genetic variations in the miRNA network and breast cancer risk are still limited, particularly among women of African ancestry. We systematically put together a list of 822 and 10,468 genetic variants among primary miRNA sequences and 38 genes in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, respectively; and examined their association with breast cancer risk in the ROOT consortium which includes women of African ancestry. Findings were replicated in an independent consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). For overall breast cancer risk, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes DROSHA rs78393591 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.88, P = 0.003), ESR1 rs523736 (OR = 0.88, 95 % CI: 0.82-0.95, P = 3.99 × 10(-4)), and ZCCHC11 rs114101502 (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002), and one SNP in primary miRNA sequence (rs116159732 in miR-6826, OR = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.89, P = 0.001) were found to have significant associations in both discovery and validation phases. In a subgroup analysis, two SNPs were associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, and three SNPs were associated with risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Several variants in miRNA and miRNA biogenesis pathway genes were associated with breast cancer risk. Risk associations varied by ER status, suggesting potential new mechanisms in etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Diabetes Care ; 39(8): 1448-57, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27457635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are important for preventing long-term complications. Although a healthy diet is crucial, there is still uncertainty about the optimal macronutrient composition. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets high in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to diets high in carbohydrates (CHO) or in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic risk factors in patients with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases and prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses to identify interventions assessing HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Meta-analyses were conducted using both fixed- and random-effects models to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI. RESULTS: We identified 24 studies totaling 1,460 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets and 4 studies totaling 44 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-PUFA diets. When comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets, there were significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (WMD -0.57 mmol/L [95% CI -0.76, -0.39]), triglycerides (-0.31 mmol/L [-0.44, -0.18]), body weight (-1.56 kg [-2.89, -0.23]), and systolic blood pressure (-2.31 mmHg [-4.13, -0.49]) along with significant increases in HDL cholesterol (0.06 mmol/L [0.02, 0.10]). When high-MUFA diets were compared with high-PUFA diets, there was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (-0.87 mmol/L [-1.67, -0.07]). All of the outcomes had low to medium levels of heterogeneity, ranging from 0.0 to 69.5% for diastolic blood pressure (Phet = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis provides evidence that consuming diets high in MUFA can improve metabolic risk factors among patients with T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(21): 4835-4846, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28171663

RESUMO

Multiple breast cancer loci have been identified in previous genome-wide association studies, but they were mainly conducted in populations of European ancestry. Women of African ancestry are more likely to have young-onset and oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer for reasons that are unknown and understudied. To identify genetic risk factors for breast cancer in women of African descent, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of breast cancer; one study consists of 1,657 cases and 2,029 controls genotyped with Illumina's HumanOmni2.5 BeadChip and the other study included 3,016 cases and 2,745 controls genotyped using Illumina Human1M-Duo BeadChip. The top 18,376 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the meta-analysis were replicated in the third study that consists of 1,984 African Americans cases and 2,939 controls. We found that SNP rs13074711, 26.5 Kb upstream of TNFSF10 at 3q26.21, was significantly associated with risk of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40; P = 1.8 × 10 − 8). Functional annotations suggest that the TNFSF10 gene may be involved in breast cancer aetiology, but further functional experiments are needed. In addition, we confirmed SNP rs10069690 was the best indicator for ER-negative breast cancer at 5p15.33 (OR = 1.30; P = 2.4 × 10 − 10) and identified rs12998806 as the best indicator for ER-positive breast cancer at 2q35 (OR = 1.34; P = 2.2 × 10 − 8) for women of African ancestry. These findings demonstrated additional susceptibility alleles for breast cancer can be revealed in diverse populations and have important public health implications in building race/ethnicity-specific risk prediction model for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 28(6): 401-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants' blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. RESULTS: Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12% more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP; with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. CONCLUSION: EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers' education levels and EBP risk in children was found.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Prevalência , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
16.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e106908, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25198723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97). Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00) and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23) were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001), with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84). CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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