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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-28, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938774

RESUMO

Wheat bran is a major by-product of white flour milling and had been produced in large quantities around the world; it is rich in dietary fiber and had already been used in many products such as whole grain baking or high dietary fiber addition. It has been confirmed that a sufficient intake of dietary fiber in wheat bran with appropriate physiological functions is beneficial to human health. Wheat bran had been considered as the addition with a large potential for improving the nutritional condition of the human body based on the dietary fiber supplement. The present review summarized the available information on wheat bran related to its dietary fiber functions, which may be helpful for further development of wheat bran as dietary fiber resource.

2.
Food Chem ; 358: 129895, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933957

RESUMO

The effects of three phosphate salts (PS) on the secondary structure, microstructure of gluten, rheological properties of dough and water status of noodles were investigated to determine the mechanisms underlying the changes in the quality of noodles. Changes in the secondary structure detected were the increased number of ß-sheet and decreased number of random coil structures. PS reduced the content of free sulfhydryl (SH) and increased the content of disulfide (SS) bonds. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that the band density of the high molecular regions of the gluten was reduced. The results showed that adding PS induced a more compact microstructure and improved the G' and G'' values of the dough. After adding PS, the water-solids interaction in noodles was enhanced by the decreased water mobility. It was concluded that PS promoted the water holding capacity of the noodles and strengthened the gluten network.

3.
Food Chem ; 356: 129738, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839532

RESUMO

Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.(VBT) is well-known for many physiological and bioactivities in some ancient Chinese pharmacopeias and modern researches. The health benefits are related to the presence of various nutritional and bioactive compounds. This review aims to demonstrate an updated overview of VBT in respect of botanical characters, nutritional and bioactive composition, main biological activities, and current applications. Various studies have emphasized at promising health benefits of VBT against hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, depressive disorder, and retinal damage. However, the applications of VBT are limited to some native traditional foods and Chinese medicine. The novel beneficial efficacy and applications are still needed to be investigated. In conclusion, more research is necessary to overcome these gaps between the in-depth insights of health benefits and potential industrial applications. This review will contribute in future research for developing the functional foods derived from VBT.

4.
Nutrition ; 89: 111230, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, it is urgent to find a suitable treatment. Recently, the ketogenic diet has shown beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose, but some concerns have been raised about its probable side effects, such as hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Because a low-carbohydrate diet replaces part of the fat with carbohydrates on the basis of the ketogenic diet, we would like to know whether it does better in treating type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of a low-carbohydrate diet as a substitute for a ketogenic diet intervention in mice with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: C57 BL/6 J mice with type 2 diabetes, constructed by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin, were fed a standard diet, a high-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet, or a ketogenic diet for 14 wk, respectively. Then glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted. At the end of the study, blood and liver samples were collected and analyzed for serum biochemical indicators, histopathologic evaluation, hepatic lipid and glycogen content, and expression levels of mRNA and protein. RESULTS: Reduced blood glucose could be observed in both low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets, as well as improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, the ketogenic diet decreased liver glycogen content and promoted gluconeogenesis. Mechanistically, this effect was due to inhibition of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, which could be improved by a low-carbohydrate diet. Regarding lipid metabolism, the ketogenic diet increased lipid oxidation and reduced de novo lipogenesis, but the hepatic lipid content still inevitably increased. On the contrary, the low-carbohydrate diet reduced triacylglycerols and markers of liver damage. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that both diets are effective in lowering blood glucose, improving glucose tolerance, and raising insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the low-carbohydrate diet plays a role in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis and improving lipid metabolism. The results suggest that the two diets have different effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and that the low-carbohydrate diet might have more benefits in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125137, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858101

RESUMO

S-metolachlor (S-ME) is a common chloroacetanilide herbicide. Here, we investigated the effects of S-ME on wheat seedling growth and explored via metabolomics the driver through which S-ME changes the rhizosphere microbiome. The results indicated that 4 mg/kg S-ME had a strong inhibitory effect on plant growth by inducing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. The richness of the rhizosphere microbiome markedly decreased after S-ME treatment, although the abundance of some potential beneficial rhizobacteria, such as Rhizobiaceae and Burkholderiaceae, increased suggesting that plants recruited potential beneficial microorganisms to resist S-ME-induced stress. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that Rhizobiaceae and Burkholderiaceae were positively correlated with organic acids secreted by plants after S-ME treatment, implying that potential beneficial microorganisms may be attracted mainly by organic acids. Our results demonstrated the phytotoxicity of S-ME on crop growth and indicated both that S-ME could influence rhizosphere microorganism abundance and that recruitment of potential beneficial microorganisms could be the result of root exudate regulation.

6.
Food Chem ; 356: 129665, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813206

RESUMO

The influence of natural fermentation on the highlands barley starch chemical structure, morphological, physicochemical, and thermal properties was studied. The findings showed that fermentation had no impact on starch fine structure but it decreased the molecular-weight from 2.26 to 1.04 × 108 g/mol in native highlands barley and after 72 h fermentation (FHB72) respectively. Also, it decreased amylopectin long-chains (B1 and B2) while increased short-chains. The intensity ratio of FT-IR at 995/1022 and 1047/1022 bands were found to be higher as the time of fermentation progressed, and the highest absorption-intensity at 3000-3600 cm-1 and higher swelling capacity were noticed in the starch of FHB72. During fermentation, pasting peak, final and setback viscosities were decreased. Microscopically, granules with more pores, damaged, cracked, and no growth rings were found in starches isolated after 48 h and 72 h of fermentation. This study indicated that fermentation up to 72 h is an effective method to modify highlands barley starch.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(12): 3638-3646, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734700

RESUMO

Gliadins are the main cause of wheat allergies, and the prevalence of gliadin allergy has increased in many countries. l-Arabinose, a kind of plant-specific five-carbon aldose, possesses beneficial effects on food allergy to gliadins. This study investigated the antiallergic activities and underlying mechanisms of l-arabinose in a wheat gliadin-sensitized mouse model. BALB/c mice were sensitized to gliadin by intraperitoneal injections with gliadin followed by being given a gliadin challenge. l-arabinose-treated mice exhibited a marked reduction in the productions of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), gliadin-specific IgE, gliadin-specific IgG1, and histamine, with an increase in IgG2a level as compared with gliadin-sensitized mice. Beside that, a significant decrease in Th2-related cytokine level, IL-4, and an increase in Th1-related cytokine level, IFN-γ, in the serum and splenocytes were observed after treatment with l-arabinose. l-Arabinose treatment also improved the imbalance of Th1/Th2 immune response on the basis of the expression levels of related cytokines and key transcription factors in the small intestine and spleen of sensitized mice. In addition, gliadin-induced intestinal barrier impairment was blocked by l-arabinose treatment via regulation of TJ proteins and suppression of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB inflammation signaling pathways. Notably, the results confirmed that l-arabinose treatment increased CD4+ Foxp3+ T cell populations and Treg-related factors associated with increased expression of IL-2 and activation of STAT5 in gliadin-sensitized mice. In conclusion, l-arabinose attenuated the gliadin-induced allergic symptoms via maintenance of Th1/Th2 immune balance and regulation of Treg cells in a gliadin-induced mouse model, suggesting l-arabinose could be used as a promising agent to alleviate gliadin allergy.

8.
Microbiol Res ; 248: 126743, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713869

RESUMO

The interaction between plants and microorganisms directly affects plant health and sustainable agricultural development. Leaves represent a wide-area habitat populated by a variety of microorganisms, whose impact on host environmental adaptability could influence plant growth and function. The driving factors for phyllosphere microbiota assemblage are the focus of current research. Here, we investigated the effect of growth stage (i.e., bolting, flowering, and maturation) and genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (wild-type and the two photosynthetic mutants ndf4 and pgr5) on the composition of phyllosphere microbiota. Our results show that species abundance varied significantly between the three genotypes at different growth stages, whereas species richness and evenness varied only for ndf4. The leaf surface shared a core microbiota dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in all tested growth stages and genotypes. Phyllosphere specificity varied more with respect to growth stage than to genotype. In summary, both the growth stage and genotype of A. thaliana are crucial in shaping phyllosphere bacterial composition, with the former being a stronger driver. Our findings provide a novel for investigating whether the host properties influence the phyllosphere community and favor healthy development of plants.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125272, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550129

RESUMO

The abuse of antibiotics and their associated health risks are receiving global attention. The use of antibiotic additives in fodder has been banned in the European Union since 2006 and in China since 2020. Antibiotic alternatives are being developed, but their risks to the soil ecosystem remain poorly understood. Here, we compared the effects of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC10, 10 mg/kg) with those of a Macleaya cordata extract (MCE, 10 and 100 mg/kg), the major antibiotic substitute. All tested concentrations of MCE and OTC10 exerted slight effects on the soil microbiome, but OTC10 and MCE100 could interfere with the structures and functions of the gut microbiome and might thus affect the soil ecological functions of Enchytraeus crypticus. Furthermore, OTC10 exposure inevitably increased the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) abundance by 213%, whereas MCE did not induce ARG dissemination, which explains why MCE is considered to be associated with a low ecological risk. Our research provides the first demonstration of the risks posed by antibiotic alternatives to soil animals from the perspective of environmental toxicology and explores the potential development of antibiotic alternatives associated with a low ecological risk from a new perspective.

10.
Food Chem ; 348: 129116, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508610

RESUMO

ß-Glucan as a component of grain cell walls is consumed daily. However, little is known about whether ß-glucan is influenced by the gastrointestinal environment. In this study, we aim to investigate the integrated metabolic process of cereal ß-glucan. In vitro simulated digestion and fermentation combined with microbiome and metabolome analysis were used to profile the metabolism of ß-glucan. Intriguingly, we found that ß-glucan was not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes but partially degraded by gastric acid environment during in vitro digestion. Moreover, ß-glucan was utilized by gut microbiota to produce acetate, propionate and butyrate, concurrently, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased and Escherichia-Shigella significantly decreased. The correlation analysis between metabolomics datasets and microorganisms revealed that ß-glucan catabolism was also accompanied by amino acid catabolism and linoleic acid biosynthesis. Our study offered a forceful basis for the further exploration of the role of ß-glucan and gut microbiota in host health.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Ácido Gástrico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145156, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477045

RESUMO

Agricultural chemicals have the potential to become pollutants that adversely affect plant growth. Interactions between these compounds are likely, but potential synergies are under-researched. Multiwall carbon nanotubes are increasingly finding novel uses in agriculture, as delivery mechanisms and as slow-release fertilizers. There is potential for nanotubes to interact with other agricultural chemicals in unpredictable ways. To investigate this possibility, we examined interactions with glyphosate, a widely used herbicide that is also attracting increasing concern over its potential for non-target effects. Here we examined potential synergistic effects on hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana. Single treatments did not affect plant growth significantly, or did only mildly. However, combined treatment significantly affected both plant root and shoot growth. High-level content of malondialdehyde and up-regulated of metabolic antioxidant molecules in plant indicated that combined group caused the strong oxidative damage, while the decreased of antioxidant enzyme activities indicated an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS)and the antioxidant defense system due to the continuously generated ROS. Besides, several intermediate metabolites of unsaturated fatty acids synthesis pathways were up-regulated in combined treatment, which clarified that combined group changed membrane components. The increase of intermediate metabolites in combined group also reflected more energy consumption in the repairment of the disrupt of combined treatment. The synergistic effect observed was attributed to the accumulation of glyphosate resulting from permeability and transportability of the carbon nanotubes. Overall, the risk of nanotube-herbicide interaction suggests a caution use of nanotubes in agricultural applications.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Nanotubos de Carbono , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1745-1756, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502423

RESUMO

l-Arabinose is a kind of plant-specific five-carbon aldose with benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown to have good properties in improving glucose homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not clear. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical for regulating glucose homeostasis. Here, this study aimed to investigate whether l-arabinose could improve glucose metabolism via suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis. High-fat-high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or high-sucrose diet (HSD)-fed mice were supplemented with or without l-arabinose for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured and glucose tolerance test and the histological analysis were performed after l-arabinose administration. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression levels were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. As expected, l-arabinose apparently decreased body weight and attenuated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance caused by HFHSD or HSD. l-Arabinose also had beneficial effects on glycogen synthesis by inactivating GSK3ß. The expression levels of gluconeogenic genes were all decreased by l-arabinose administration in vivo and in vitro. In addition, our work revealed that AMPK is required for the inhibitory effects of l-arabinose on hepatic gluconeogenesis. l-Arabinose significantly up-regulated the phosphorylated levels of AMPK and its downstream protein ACC. Furthermore, blocking AMPK signaling through an inhibitor (compound C) or siAMPK significantly attenuated the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and the promotion of glycogen synthesis with l-arabinose, indicating that the inhibitory effect of l-arabinose on hepatic gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our work revealed that l-arabinose is a promising natural product for the regulation of hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK.

13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183685

RESUMO

Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms have drawn public attention because they threaten the safety of water resources and human health worldwide. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms outbreak in Lake Taihu in summer annually and vanish in other months. To find out the factors impacting the cyanobacterial blooms, the present study measured the physicochemical parameters of water and investigated the composition of microbial community using the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing in the months with or without bloom. The most interesting finding is that two major cyanobacteria, Planktothrix and Microcystis, dramatically alternated during a cyanobacterial bloom in 2016, which is less mentioned in previous studies. When the temperature of the water began increasing in July, Planktothrix appeared first and showed as a superior competitor for M. aeruginosa in NO3--rich conditions. Microcystis became the dominant genus when the water temperature increased further in August. Laboratory experiments confirmed the influence of temperature and the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) form on the growth of Planktothrix and Microcystis in a co-culture system. Besides, species interactions between cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacterial microorganisms, especially the prokaryotes, also played a key role in the alteration of Planktothrix and Microcystis. The present study exhibited the alteration of two dominant cyanobacteria in the different bloom periods caused by the temperature, TDN forms as well as the species interactions. These results helped the better understanding of cyanobacterial blooms and the factors which contribute to them.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Microcystis , Cianobactérias/genética , Lagos , Microcystis/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 175-186, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183695

RESUMO

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are fundamental components of aquatic ecosystems. Pollution in aquatic environment is a worldwide problem. Toxicological research on microalgae and cyanobacteria can help to establish a solid foundation for aquatic ecotoxicological assessments. Algae and cyanobacteria occupy a large proportion of the biomass in aquatic environments; thus, their toxicological responses have been investigated extensively. However, the depth of toxic mechanisms and breadth of toxicological investigations need to be improved. While existing pollutants are being discharged into the environment daily, new ones are also being produced continuously. As a result, the phenomenon of water pollution has become unprecedentedly complex. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on five kinds of aquatic pollutants, namely, metals, nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Further, we present information on emerging pollutants such as graphene, microplastics, and ionic liquids. Efforts in studying the toxicological effects of pollutants on microalgae and cyanobacteria must be increased in order to better predict the potential risks posed by these materials to aquatic ecosystems as well as human health.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Poluentes Ambientais , Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Food Chem ; 345: 128785, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310257

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the interactions between gluten and water-unextractable arabinoxylan (WUAX), which changed the conformation and aggregation of gluten during the thermal treatment. In this work, the interactions between water-unextractable arabinoxylan and wheat gluten during thermal treatment were extensively evaluated by different techniques. The results showed that the extra WUAX could impair the viscoelasticity as well as weaken the thermal properties of gluten. The fluorescence spectra revealed the extra WUAX changed the conformation of gluten molecules. Besides, chemical interaction measurement indicated that the extra WUAX prevented the formation of partial disulfide bonds and had a major effect on the hydrophobic interaction of gluten. In summary, these results indicated that WUAX disrupted the covalent crosslinking by affecting disulfide bonds between gluten proteins, and dominated the folding/unfolding process of gluten via the competition with gluten for water, resulting in the poor quality of whole wheat-based foods.


Assuntos
Glutens/química , Temperatura Alta , Água/química , Xilanos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Triticum/química , Viscosidade
16.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 737, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277584

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms are a global ecological problem that directly threatens human health and crop safety. Cyanobacteria have toxic effects on aquatic microorganisms, which could drive the selection for resistance genes. The effect of cyanobacterial blooms on the dispersal and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) of concern to human health remains poorly known. We herein investigated the effect of cyanobacterial blooms on ARG composition in Lake Taihu, China. The numbers and relative abundances of total ARGs increased obviously during a Planktothrix bloom. More pathogenic microorganisms were present during this bloom than during a Planktothrix bloom or during the non-bloom period. Microcosmic experiments using additional aquatic ecosystems (an urban river and Lake West) found that a coculture of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii increased the richness of the bacterial community, because its phycosphere provided a richer microniche for bacterial colonization and growth. Antibiotic-resistance bacteria were naturally in a rich position, successfully increasing the momentum for the emergence and spread of ARGs. These results demonstrate that cyanobacterial blooms are a crucial driver of ARG diffusion and enrichment in freshwater, thus providing a reference for the ecology and evolution of ARGs and ARBs and for better assessing and managing water quality.

17.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-13, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356474

RESUMO

With the development of living standards, harmful substances in diet and food safety have seriously endangered people health and life. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which formed by Maillard reactions in processed food, have been shown a significantly associated with many chronic diseases, such as nephropathy, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and tumors. In recent years, the research about diet advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) have widespread controversy in academia. The main arguments include the production mechanism of dAGEs, metabolic pathways, and relationships with chronic diseases, especially related to the intestines, gut microbiota, and intestinal disorders. So this review attempts to briefly summarize the dAGE in following aspects, including the influencing factors, metabolism, absorption, and so forth. In addition, the effects of dAGEs on intestinal health and gut microbes were discussed, which can offer a goal for boff in to design low dAGEs products and provided some perspectives for further study with AGEs in the future.

18.
Food Chem ; : 128205, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092921

RESUMO

The content and composition of rice kernels are closely related to the textural properties of cooked rice. In this study, the mechanistic explanations of textural changes were linked to proton mobility, leaching behavior, and the molecular features of rice components during cooking. The decreasing trend of hardness and the formation of stickiness was mainly determined by the molecular mobility of components. The molecular weight (Mw) of starch and protein in leached solids increased with the leaching at 70-100 °C. The Mw of rice kernels at different cooking temperatures and times was similar, but the molecular size and volume varied at different stages of cooking. The dismission of the crystalline structure, C1 resonance, and lamellar structures after cooking at 100 °C for 10 min indicated that the structural evolution of starch in rice kernels was time- and temperature-dependent. These results provide a promising foundation for developing strategies to control rice cooking.

19.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 8852-8865, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975270

RESUMO

As a worldwide epidemic, overweight and obesity have long been an issue of great interest in a wide range of health areas, and the whole grain diet has been proven to be an effective and healthy manner to prevent them. Recent developments in the field of microRNAs (miRNAs) have led to a renewed interest in lipid metabolism, however, whether a whole grain diet regulates lipid metabolism through miRNAs is still unknown. Hence, our current study was carried out to explore the changes of miRNAs in mice with the treatment of whole grain diets (the brown rice group, BR and whole wheat group, WW) and to screen out miRNAs that can serve as a biomarker to evaluate and regulate lipid metabolism. After whole grain diet treatment for 8 weeks, the lipids both in serum and liver were reduced, as well as the body weight. Moreover, there were 136 miRNAs with significant differences among our three dietary patterns (the CS diet, BR diet and WW diet) analyzed by serum miRNAs sequencing, and only 16 miRNAs showed simultaneous differences in the BR or WW groups compared to the CS group, showing a consistent trend of change. The serum miRNA sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that miR-27a-3p was decreased in serum and WAT, while it was elevated both in the liver and ileum. We propose that circulating miR-27a-3p could be a novel candidate for a biomarker of whole grain diets for lipid metabolism through the assessment of the KEGG pathway, GO enrichment and the conservative analysis of miRNAs. The potential mechanisms of action could be through binding the 3'UTR of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), which were key enzymes for lipid synthesis, achieving regulation of lipid metabolism. A luciferase assay was also performed to verify the above mechanism, which shows that miR-27a-3p mimics transfection, repressing the luciferase activity of the two reporters carrying miR-27a-3p regulatory elements found in the 3'-UTR of HMGCR and FASN, respectively. Our study has provided new molecular mechanisms of whole grain diets for lipid metabolism, as well as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity.

20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 102-109, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933724

RESUMO

An effective broad-spectrum fungicide, azoxystrobin (AZ), has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems, potentially affecting the growth of aquatic microorganisms. In the present study, the eukaryotic alga Monoraphidium sp. and the cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. were exposed to AZ for 7 days. Our results showed that 0.2-0.5 mg/L concentrations of AZ slightly inhibited the growth of Monoraphidium sp. but stimulated Pseudanabaena sp. growth. Meanwhile, AZ treatment effectively increased the secretion of total organic carbon (TOC) in the culture media of the two species, and this phenomenon was also found in a freshwater microcosm experiment (containing the natural microbial community). We attempted to assess the effect of AZ on the function of aquatic microbial communities through metabolomic analysis and further explore the potential risks of this compound. The metabonomic profiles of the microcosm indicated that the most varied metabolites after AZ treatment were related to the citrate cycle (TCA), fatty acid biosynthesis and purine metabolism. We thereby inferred that the microbial community increased extracellular secretions by adjusting metabolic pathways, which might be a stress response to reduce AZ toxicity. Our results provide an important theoretical basis for further study of fungicide stress responses in aquatic microcosm microbial communities, as well as a good start for further explorations of AZ detoxification mechanisms, which will be valuable for the evaluation of AZ environmental risk.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Microbiota , Água Doce , Pirimidinas , Estrobilurinas
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