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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104650, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828368

RESUMO

Sex pheromone-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in the agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors. Scopula subpunctaria is a widespread tea pest in China with Type II sex pheromone components. However, limited information is available on the biosynthesis and transportation of Type II sex pheromone components. In this study, we constructed an S. subpunctaria sex pheromone gland (PG) transcriptome and obtained 85,246 transcripts. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) thought to epoxidize dienes and trienes to epoxides in the PG and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory genes (CSPs) thought to be responsible for the binding and transportation of sex pheromone components. In present study, a total of 79 CYPs, 29 OBPs and 17 CSPs were identified. We found that SsubCYP341A and SsubCYP341B_ortholog1 belonged to the CYP341 family and were more highly expressed in the PG than in the female body. Of these, SsubCYP341A was the seventh-most PG-enriched CYP in the PG transcriptome. Two CYP4 members, CYP340BD_ortholog2 and CYP4G, were the top two most PG-enriched CYPs. Tissue expression and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SsubOBP25, 27, and 28 belonged to the moth pheromone-binding protein family; they were distinctly expressed in the antennae and were more abundant in male antennae than in female antennae. SsubCSP16 was distributed into the same clade as CSPs from other moths that showed high binding affinities to sex pheromone components. It indicated that all the above-mentioned genes could be involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis or transportation. Our study provides large-scale PG sequence information that can be used to identify potential targets for the biological control of S. subpunctaria by disrupting its sex pheromone biosynthesis and transportation pathways.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , Atrativos Sexuais , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes , China , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Receptores Odorantes , Chá , Transcriptoma
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531906

RESUMO

Objective purpose: This review synthesized the literature examining the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based exercise on physiological, psychological, and rehabilitative outcomes in various populations. Design: A systematic review. Data sources: 246 articles were retrieved using key words, such as "VR", "exercise intervention", "physiological", "psychology", and "rehabilitation" through nine databases including Academic Search Premier and PubMed. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: 15 articles which met the following criteria were included in the review: (1) peer-reviewed; (2) published in English; (3) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials or causal-comparative design; (4) interventions using VR devices; and (5) examined effects on physiological, psychological, and/or rehabilitative outcomes. Descriptive and thematic analyses were used. Results: Of the 12 articles examining physiological outcomes, eight showed a positive effect on physical fitness, muscle strength, balance, and extremity function. Only four articles examined the effects on psychological outcomes, three showed positive effects such that VR exercise could ease fatigue, tension, and depression and induce calmness and enhance quality of life. Nine articles investigated the effects of VR-based exercise on rehabilitative outcomes with physiological and/or psychological outcomes, and six observed significant positive changes. In detail, patients who suffered from chronic stroke, hemodialysis, spinal-cord injury, cerebral palsy in early ages, and cognitive decline usually saw better improvements using VR-based exercise. Conclusion: The findings suggest that VR exercise has the potential to exert a positive impact on individual's physiological, psychological, and rehabilitative outcomes compared with traditional exercise. However, the quality, quantity, and sample size of existing studies are far from ideal. Therefore, more rigorous studies are needed to confirm the observed positive effects.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
3.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1281-1287, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370114

RESUMO

Nattokinase (NK, E.C. 3.4.21.62) is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis natto that shows promise for the treatment of thrombotic disease. In this study, we assessed the effects of NK on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a principal malignancy of the liver that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Crude extracts of NK (NCE) were isolated from fermentation medium by centrifugation and separated into three fractions (<10 K, 100~30 K and >30K). Orthotopic HCC mouse models were established and NCE was administered by oral gavage. H&E staining was performed to examine the pathology of HCC livers. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate FOXM1, CD31, CD44 and vimentin expression in the liver. Compared to PBS groups, NCE increased the survival rates of HCC-bearing mice to 31% and decreased ascites. Low-intensity ultrasound imaging showed that the hypoechoic mass area was lower in NCE-treated mice and that tumor growth significantly decreased. IHC staining showed that the expression of FOXM1 was inhibited by NCE treatment. Immunofluorescence results revealed lower levels of CD31, CD44 and vimentin in the NCE groups. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NCE from Bacillus subtilis natto improves survival and inhibits tumor growth in HCC mice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Subtilisinas/farmacologia , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/análise , Receptores de Hialuronatos/análise , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/análise , Subtilisinas/isolamento & purificação , Vimentina/análise
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1564: 207-213, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891402

RESUMO

Curcuminoids, the major bioactive constituents of traditional medicine known as turmeric, have exhibited extensive therapeutic benefits. Excited by violet-blue light, curcuminoids can emit native fluorescence, making them possible to be detected with high sensitivity and specificity by laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF). Here, a commercial 445 nm laser diode was used as an excitation source to construct a confocal laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector and then a complete capillary electrophoresis (CE) system coupled with LIF detection was established. With three major curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxy curcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxy curcumin (BDMC) as target analytes, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was proposed using mixed micelles consisting of Triton X-100 and SDS to sensitize the native fluorescence of curcuminoids and enhance their separation efficiency. Fluorescence spectra revealed that the mixed micelles induced fluorescence synergism could enhance the signals of three curcuminoids by 77-, 57-, and 47-fold for curcumin, DMC, and BDMC. After systematic investigation, the optimal separation buffer for curcuminoids was chosen as follows: 20 mM Triton X-100, 20 mM SDS, 30% (v/v) methanol in 10 mM borax solution at pH 10.0. Under these conditions, a baseline separation of three curcuminoids was achieved within 10 min and the detection limits were found to be 4.1, 2.6, and 0.4 ng/mL for curcumin, DMC, and BDMC, respectively. Furthermore, the developed MEKC-LINF method was validated in terms of precision, linearity, accuracy and successfully applied for the determination of three curcuminoids in turmeric, medicinal turmeric liniment, curry seasoning, and human urine samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Lasers , Micelas , Tampões (Química) , Calibragem , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/análise , Diarileptanoides , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Metanol/química , Octoxinol/química , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 375, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725340

RESUMO

Cadmium is a potentially toxic heavy metal to human health. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), a vegetable and oilseed crop, might also be a Cd hyperaccumulator, but there is little information on this trait in rapeseed. We evaluated Cd accumulation in different oilseed accessions and employed a genome-wide association study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to Cd accumulation. A total of 419 B. napus accessions and inbred lines were genotyped with a 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array of Brassica. Wide genotypic variations in Cd concentration and translocation were found. Twenty-five QTLs integrated with 98 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at 15 chromosomes were associated with Cd accumulation traits. These QTLs explained 3.49-7.57% of the phenotypic variation observed. Thirty-two candidate genes were identified in these genomic regions, and they were 0.33-497.97 kb away from the SNPs. We found orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana located near the significant SNPs on the B. napus genome, including NRAMP6 (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 6), IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter 1), CAD1 (cadmium-sensitive 1), and PCS2 (phytochelatin synthase 2). Of them, four candidate genes were verified by qRT-PCR, the expression levels of which were significantly higher after exposure to Cd than in the controls. Our results might facilitate the study of the genetic basis of Cd accumulation and the cloning of candidate Cd accumulation genes, which could be used to help reduce Cd levels in edible plant parts and/or create more efficient hyperaccumulators.

6.
Front Physiol ; 9: 432, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740343

RESUMO

Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain. In the present study, we acquired 144,479 unigenes of S. exigua by assembling 65.81 giga base reads from 6 chemosensory organs (female and male antennae, female and male proboscises, and female and male labial palps), and identified many differentially expressed genes in the gustatory and olfactory organs. Analysis of the transcriptome data obtained 159 putative chemosensory genes, including 24 odorant binding proteins (OBPs; 3 were new), 19 chemosensory proteins (4 were new), 64 odorant receptors (57 were new), 22 ionotropic receptors (16 were new), and 30 new gustatory receptors. Phylogenetic analyses of all genes and SexiGRs expression patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were investigated. Our results found that several of these genes had differential expression features in the olfactory organs compared to the gustatory organs that might play crucial roles in the chemosensory system of S. exigua, and could be utilized as targets for future functional studies to assist in the interpretation of the molecular mechanism of the system. They could also be used for developing novel behavioral disturbance agents to control the population of the moths in the future.

7.
Front Physiol ; 9: 90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497384

RESUMO

The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG). Overall, 74 putative receptor genes from chemosensory receptor gene families, including 53 ORs, 17 GRs, and 4 IRs were identified. Expression patterns of these receptors on the antennae, maxillary and labial palps, and remaining body segments of both male and female A. chinensis were performed using quantitative real time-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results revealed that 23 ORs, 6 GRs, and 1 IR showed male-biased expression profiles, suggesting that they may play a significant role in sensing female-produced sex pheromones; whereas 8 ORs, 5 GRs, and 1 IR showed female-biased expression profiles, indicating that these receptors may be involved in some female-specific behaviors such as oviposition site seeking. These results lay a solid foundation for deeply understanding CLB olfactory processing mechanisms. Moreover, by comparing our results with those from chemosensory receptor studies in other cerambycid species, several highly probable pheromone receptor candidates were highlighted, which may facilitate the identification of additional pheromone and/or host attractants in CLB.

8.
Mol Cell ; 57(3): 456-66, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601754

RESUMO

Shuttling of macromolecules between different cellular compartments helps regulate the timing and extent of different cellular activities. Here, we report that LC3, a key initiator of autophagy that cycles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, becomes selectively activated in the nucleus during starvation through deacetylation by the nuclear deacetylase Sirt1. Deacetylation of LC3 at K49 and K51 by Sirt1 allows LC3 to interact with the nuclear protein DOR and return to the cytoplasm with DOR, where it is able to bind Atg7 and other autophagy factors and undergo phosphatidylethanolamine conjugation to preautophagic membranes. The association of deacetylated LC3 with autophagic factors shifts LC3's distribution from the nucleus toward the cytoplasm. Thus, an acetylation-deacetylation cycle ensures that LC3 effectively redistributes in an activated form from nucleus to cytoplasm, where it plays a central role in autophagy to enable the cell to cope with the lack of external nutrients.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Acetilação , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
10.
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 17(3): 174-6, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15760533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and its role in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: VEGF protein and mRNA expressions at the site of focal ischemia/reperfusion of rat cerebrum were assessed with immunohistochemistry and hybridization techniques. RESULTS: In normal cerebral tissue there was lower expression of VEGF. It was found to be expressed in the penumbra area after ischemia. With the prolongation of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion, enhanced expression of VEGF tended to decline to normal level, while it enhanced in the penumbra area. CONCLUSION: Enhanced VEGF expression might play a protective role in focal ischemia/reperfusion injury to the cerebrum.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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