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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641574

RESUMO

Wuliangye baijiu is one of the most famous baijiu in China, with a rich, harmonic aroma profile highly appreciated by consumers. Thousands of volatiles have been identified for the unique aroma profile. Among them, fatty acid esters have been identified as the main contributors to the aroma profile. In addition, many non-ester minor compounds, many of which are more polar than the esters, have been identified to contribute to the characteristic aroma unique to Wuliangye baijiu. The analysis of these minor compounds has been challenging due to the dominance of esters in the sample. Thus, it is desirable to fractionate the aroma extract into subgroups based on functional group or polarity to simplify the analysis. This study attempts a new approach to achieve simultaneous volatile extraction and fractionation using tandem LiChrolut EN and silica gel solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns. A baijiu sample (10 mL, diluted in 40 mL of water) was first passed through the LiChrolut EN (1.0 g) column. The loaded LiChrolut EN column was then dried with air and coupled with a silica gel (5.0 g) SPE column with anhydrous Na2SO4 (10.0 g) in between. The volatile compounds were eluted from the LiChrolut EN column and simultaneously fractionated on the silica gel column based on polarity. The simultaneous extraction and fractionation technique enabled the fractionations of all fatty acid esters into less polar fractions. Fatty acids, alcohols, pyrazines, furans, phenols, hydroxy esters, and other polar compounds were collected in more polar fractions. This technique was used to study the volatile compounds in Wuliangye, Moutai, and Fengjiu baijiu. In addition to fatty acid esters, many minor polar compounds, including 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, p-cresol, and 2-acetylpyrrole, were unequivocally identified in the samples. The procedure is fast and straightforward, with low solvent consumption.

2.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577084

RESUMO

Smoke-derived taint has become a significant concern for the U.S. wine industry, particularly on the west coast, and climate change is anticipated to aggravate it. High volatile phenols such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, and o-, p-, m-cresols have been suggested to be related to smoke-exposed grape and wine. This paper describes an analytical approach based on ethylene glycol/polydimethylsiloxane (EG/PDMS)-stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) to quantify or estimate the concentrations of some smoke-related volatile phenols in wines. Correlation coefficients with R2 ≥ 0.990 were obtained. This method can quantify most smoked-related volatile phenols down to 0.5 µg/L in wine in selective ion monitoring mode. Recovery for the targeted volatile phenols ranged from 72.2% to 142.4% in the smoke-tainted wine matrix, except for 4-vinylguaiacol. The standard deviations of the volatile phenols were from 0 to 23% in smoke-tainted wine. The approach provides another tool to evaluate wine smoke exposure and potential smoke taint.

3.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110493, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399489

RESUMO

Pungency is increasingly being recognized as an important factor of overall sensory quality, palatability, and consumer preference of distilled spirits. The characterization of pungency is necessary to evaluate the potential sensory quality of distilled spirits. In this study, the temporal profiles of pungency of Baijiu with different aging times were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) methods, considering both pungency intensity and pungency sub-qualities. TI results indicated significant differences in release rate of pungency during Baijiu consumption. Compared to young Baijiu, old Baijiu tend to show higher release rate of pungency, the areas under the curve and duration of pungency were significantly decreased in old Baijiu. The TDS results showed significant differences in the combination of dominant sub-qualities, as well as in the maximum dominance rates and the dominant duration of sub-qualities among Baijiu. The young Baijiu were mainly characterized by the dominant sub-qualities of "burning" and "numbing", whereas for old Baijiu, "burning", "prickle", and "drying" were dominant. The application of TI and TDS provided dynamic and temporal profiles of pungency to fully characterize pungency differences of distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Sensação , Paladar , Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor
4.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(4): 3504-3530, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146450

RESUMO

Mackerel has received considerable attention in the global food market as one of the most important pelagic commercial fish species. The quality of mackerel is influenced by species, season, fishing area, nutritional status, catching method, handling, and storage. Due to the mackerel's perishability, its quality is mainly measured by sensory procedures. Although considerable effort has been made to explore quick and reliable quality analysis, developing a practical and scientific sensory evaluation of mackerel has been an active ongoing study area to meet the quality evaluation demand of the industry. Different sensory evaluation methods have been used to assess the mackerel fish quality, including Palatability and Spoilage test, Torry scheme, EU scheme, Quality Index Method, Catch damage index and Processed fish damage index, Affective test, Discriminative test, and Descriptive test. Each method has its strength and weakness. Despite mackerel sensory evaluation protocols having undergone partial harmonization, specific sample process needs to be carefully followed to minimize the change during sample preparation. This review summarizes the sensory evaluation methods in mackerel research, the factors affecting sensory evaluation, and then updates the latest advances in mackerel sensory evaluation and offers guidance for presenting its application in the mackerel chain. Also, each technique's advantages and limitations are discussed. In our opinion, the future trends for sensory evaluation of mackerel should be consumer-centric.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5691-5701, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973767

RESUMO

Aroma-active compounds in northern highbush blueberries "Bluecrop" (Vaccinium corymbosum "Bluecrop") and "Elliott" (Vaccinium corymbosum "Elliott") were isolated using solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. The aroma-active compounds were compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a polar and a chiral column and odor activity values (OAVs). The results showed that both cultivars had similar aroma-active compounds, but the flavor dilution (FD) factors and OAV values varied, responsible for the subtle aroma differences. AEDA (FD ≥ 64) suggested that the important aroma-active compounds in both cultivars could be ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, methional, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 2-methylbutanoic acid, α-terpineol, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, ß-damascenone, geraniol, geranyl acetone, o-cresol, eugenol, and vanillin. Different isomers can have different sensory thresholds and attributes. Enantiomer analysis revealed that although S-(+)-linalool was dominant in blueberry, R-(-)-linalool had a higher FD value and OAVs than that of the (S)-isomer. The S-(-)-α-terpineol was slightly elevated than R-(+)-α-terpineol in both cultivars.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa , Aromatizantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109656, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233235

RESUMO

The drying technology is crucial to the quality of Congou black tea. In this study, the aroma dynamic characteristics during the variable-temperature final firing of Congou black tea was investigated by electronic nose (e-nose) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Varying drying temperatures and time obtained distinctly different types of aroma characteristics such as faint scent, floral aroma, and sweet fragrance. GC × GC-TOFMS identified a total of 243 volatile compounds. Clear discrimination among different variable-temperature final firing samples was achieved by using partial least squares discriminant analysis (R2Y = 0.95, Q2 = 0.727). Based on a dual criterion of variable importance in the projection value (VIP > 1.0) and one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05), ninety-one specific volatile biomarkers were identified, including 2,6-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene and 2,5-diethylpyrazine with VIP > 1.5. In addition, for the overall odor perception, e-nose was able to distinguish the subtle difference during the variable-temperature final firing process.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Nariz Eletrônico , Odorantes/análise , Chá , Temperatura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(12): 11079-11085, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222848

RESUMO

The main objective of this work was to develop an analytical method that can be used in a dairy manufacturing facility for the quantitation of phospholipids in dairy products. Total lipids from a dairy matrix were obtained first by Folch extraction. The total lipid extract was then applied to a silica gel-based solid-phase extraction column, and triglycerides and other nonpolar lipids were separated from the phospholipids and sphingolipids. Quantitation was performed by hydrophilic interaction HPLC coupled to evaporative light-scattering detection using a quaternary separation method. The method was validated using a commercial whey protein phospholipid concentrate and was used to analyze phospholipid and sphingolipid composition in buttermilk, whey protein concentrate, whey protein phospholipid concentrate, and several other dairy ingredients. This method was sensitive and reproducible and can be used in the dairy industry as a research tool to develop new value-added dairy phospholipid products, then later as a standard protocol for quality assurance analysis of current and future products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Laticínios/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/análise , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Esfingolipídeos/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 331: 127335, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574944

RESUMO

Comprehensive 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was combined with descriptive sensory analysis to elucidate the specificity of strong-aroma type Baijiu (Chinese liquor) from different regions, based on regionally distinct flavor characterized by chemical and sensory profiles. Numerous potential aroma compounds (262) were identified, among which 58 aroma compounds were significantly different between the samples from Sichuan and Jianghuai regions. Relationships between these potential aroma compounds and sensory attributes were investigated by partial least squares regression and network analysis. The compounds that dominantly contributed to the important sensory attributes were identified. The high pyrazines, furanoids, and carbonyls amounts contributed to the high intensities of the cellar, toasted, and grain aroma profiles of the Sichuan region samples, while the high ester and alcohol levels contributed to the fruity and floral aroma profiles of the Jianghuai region samples. This approach may have practical application in flavor characterization of other alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , China , Ésteres/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Pirazinas/análise , Paladar
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(38): 10403-10413, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146815

RESUMO

Aroma compounds in three surimi samples, made from freshwater silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and saltwater Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus) and Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis, odor activity value, and odor recombination study. Results demonstrated that the most potent aroma-active compounds in the surimi were hexanal, (Z)-4-heptenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal, (E,Z,Z)-2,4,7-tridecatrienal, and (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, contributing fishy, green, oily, or metallic odors. The other aroma contributors in surimi were 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, giving a typical popcorn note, could also be an important aroma contributor as a result of the high flavor dilution factor. Pacific whiting and Alaska pollock surimi samples both had higher levels of dimethyl trisulfide and methional, whereas the silver carp surimi sample had more (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal. In general, the silver carp surimi sample had more aldehydes contributing stronger "river water, fishy" and "grassy, green" aromas. In contrast, saltwater surimi showed stronger "sea breeze-like" and "sulfur-like" odors.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Adulto , Animais , Carpas , Feminino , Gadiformes , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Masculino , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13775-13777, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779309

RESUMO

The Second International Flavor and Fragrance Conference was successfully held on May 28-31, 2018, in Wuxi, China. The congress shared the progresses and discoveries in the research areas of flavor and fragrance perception, flavor analysis, thermal and biomediated generation of flavor, biological activities of aroma and flavor, and flavor and fragrance encapsulation and delivery technologies. This special issue collected some original research papers as well as reviews on basic taste, flavor analysis, aroma and taste characterization, essential oil bioactivity, and other related topics.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Café/química , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tetraodontiformes , Vinho/análise
11.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547318

RESUMO

The analysis of volatile sulfur compounds using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is heavily influenced by matrix effects. The effects of a wine matrix, both non-volatile and volatile components (other than ethanol) were studied on the analysis of several common sulfur volatiles found in wine, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), methyl thioacetate (MeSOAc), and ethyl thioacetate (EtSOAc). Varying levels of devolatilized wine and common wine volatiles (acids, esters, alcohols) were added to synthetic wine samples to act as matrices. Sulfur standards were added and analyzed using gas chromatography with pulsed-flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD). Five internal standards were used to find best representatives of each compound despite matrix effects. Sensitivity remained stable with the addition of devolatilized wine, while addition of volatile components decreased sensitivity. DMS was found to be best measured against EMS; DMDS and the thioacetates were best measured against DES; H2S, MeSH, DEDS, and DMTS were best measured against DIDS. The method was used to quantitate the volatile sulfur compounds in 21 wines with various ethanol contents and volatile profiles.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Dissulfetos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Fotometria/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Sulfetos/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540469

RESUMO

Complications in the analysis of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in wine using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) arise from sample variability. Constituents of the wine matrix, including ethanol, affect the volatility and adsorption of sulfur volatiles on SPME fiber coatings (Carboxen- polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS); DVB-Carboxen-PDMS and DVB-PDMS), which can impact sensitivity and accuracy. Here, several common wine sulfur volatiles, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), methyl thioacetate (MeSOAc), and ethyl thioacetate (EtSOAc) are analyzed, using SPME followed by gas chromatography (GC), using a system equipped with a pulsed-flame photometric detection (PFPD) system, at various ethanol concentrations in a synthetic wine matrix. Ethyl methyl sulfide (EMS), diethyl sulfide (DES), methyl isopropyl sulfide (MIS), ethyl isopropyl sulfide (EIS), and diisopropyl disulfide (DIDS) are evaluated as internal standards. The absorption of volatile compounds on the SPME fiber is greatly affected by ethanol. All compounds exhibit a stark decrease in detectability with the addition of ethanol, especially between 0.0 and 0.5% v/v. However, the ratio of interested sulfur compounds to the internal standard becomes more stable when the total alcohol concentration exceeds 2%. EMS was found to best resemble DMS. EIS and DES were found to best resemble DMDS, MeSOAc, and EtSOAc. DIDS was found to best resemble DEDS, DMTS, H2S, and MeSH.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13870-13881, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544459

RESUMO

Qingke liquor is a very famous Tibetan alcoholic beverage made from "Qingke", hull-less highland barley, which is exclusively grown in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with an average altitude of 4000 m. Qingke liquor made in such an area whose quality or characteristics is a result of its geographic environment, including natural and human culture. In this study, the aroma compounds in two Qingke liquors made from highland barley grown at different elevations (QKH, high elevation, and QKL, low elevation) were compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), aroma intensity (Osme), odor activity values (OAVs, ratio of concentration to odor threshold), and aroma recombination. Results revealed ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ß-damascenone, 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), acetoin, and 2-methoxyphenol (OAV ≥ 10) as important aroma active compounds to Qingke liquors. However, QKH had higher OAVs for most of the compounds than that of QKL. An aroma recombination study confirmed the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Qingke liquor, whereas the aroma emission test demonstrated 3-methylbutanal as the key aroma compound for both Qingke liquors.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto , Feminino , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Tibet
14.
Food Chem ; 301: 125282, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387036

RESUMO

The main contributors to the cooked off-flavor in heat-sterilized lychee juice (HLJ) were studied by means of molecular sensory science. The HLJ which elicited cooked cabbage/potato and onion/garlic off-flavor was compared with fresh lychee juice (FLJ) having desired sensory attributes via chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative analysis and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) were conducted on both FLJ and HLJ. The results showed that compared with FLJ, 15 compounds had increased OAVs in HLJ, among which, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methional, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 2,4-dithiapentane presented cooked cabbage/potato, garlic/onion and sulfurous impression. The omission experiment proved that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS, 3-methylbutanal and 2,4-dithiapentane had significantly negative effects on the overall aroma of HLJ. Further studies on HLJs from other varieties of lychee confirmed that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS and 3-methylbutanal were responsible for the cooked off-flavor of HLJ in general.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Temperatura Alta , Litchi/química , Culinária , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Esterilização , Paladar
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4876-4884, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920213

RESUMO

The aroma compounds in young and aged Chinese rice wines (rice wines) with a clear difference in their overall aroma profiles were analyzed by comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA). In AEDA, more aroma-active regions with flavor dilution (FD) factors of ≥64 were detected in the aged rice wine than in the young rice wine. A total of 43 odorants were further identified and quantitated. The odor activity values (OAVs) revealed 33 aroma compounds with OAVs of ≥1 in young or aged rice wine. Among these aroma compounds with relatively higher OAVs, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, sotolon, benzaldehyde, 4-vinylguaiacol, methional, and 2,3-butanedione showed significant differences between young and aged rice wines. This difference was confirmed through a quantitative analysis of 34 rice wine samples with ages of 0-15 years. Then, the aroma profile of the aged rice wine was successfully simulated through an aroma recombination model. Omission models suggested that sotolon, vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde played key roles in the overall aroma of aged rice wine.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
16.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 314(3): G399-G407, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191942

RESUMO

Early gut mucosal restitution is a process by which intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) migrate over the wounded area, and its defective regulation occurs commonly in various critical pathological conditions. This rapid reepithelialization is mediated by different activating small GTP-binding proteins, but the exact mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Recently, it has been reported that interaction between p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factor (ß-PIX) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) activates small GTPases and plays an important role in the regulation of cell motility. Here, we show that induced association of ß-PIX with GIT1 is essential for the stimulation of IEC migration after wounding by activating Rac1. Levels of ß-PIX and GIT1 proteins and their association in differentiated IECs (line of IEC-Cdx2L1) were much higher than those observed in undifferentiated IECs (line of IEC-6), which was associated with an increase in IEC migration after wounding. Decreased levels of endogenous ß-PIX by its gene-silencing destabilized ß-PIX/GIT1 complexes, repressed Rac1 activity and inhibited cell migration over the wounded area. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of ß-PIX increased the levels of ß-PIX/GIT1 complexes, stimulated Rac1 activity, and enhanced intestinal epithelial restitution. Increased levels of cellular polyamines also stimulated ß-PIX/GIT1 association, increased Rac1 activity, and promoted the epithelial restitution. Moreover, polyamine depletion decreased cellular abundances of ß-PIX/GIT1 complex and repressed IEC migration after wounding, which was rescued by ectopic overexpression of ß-PIX or GIT1. These results indicate that ß-PIX/GIT1/Rac1 association is necessary for stimulation of IEC migration after wounding and that this signaling pathway is tightly regulated by cellular polyamines. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our current study demonstrates that induced association of ß-PIX with GIT1 is essential for the stimulation of intestinal epithelial restitution by activating Rac1, and this signaling pathway is tightly regulated by cellular polyamines.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Movimento Celular , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Reepitelização , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Food Chem ; 239: 622-630, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873614

RESUMO

Flavor stability of hard tea beverage was investigated over eight weeks of storage. The volatile compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and two-dimensional GC-MS. Quantitative analysis showed that the concentrations of linalool, citronellol, geranial, neral, geraniol, and nerol decreased dramatically during storage, whereas α-terpineol showed an increasing trend during storage. Heart-cut two-dimensional GC-MS (2D-GC-MS) chirality analysis showed that (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(-)-α-terpineol and (S)-(-)-4-terpineol dominated in the fresh hard tea samples, however, the configuration changed during storage for the terpene alcohols. The storage conditions did not change the configuration of limonene. A conversion of (R)-(-)-linalool to (S)-(+) form was observed during storage. Both (S)-α-terpineol and (S)-4-terpineol dominated at beginning of the storage, but (R)-(+)-α-terpineol became dominated after storage, suggested in addition to isomerization from (S)-α-terpineol, other precursors could also generate α-terpineol with (R)-isomer preference.


Assuntos
Chá , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos , Aromatizantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Isomerismo , Limoneno , Monoterpenos , Terpenos
18.
J Food Sci ; 82(12): 2816-2822, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131338

RESUMO

This study investigated the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Moutai liquors. The VSCs were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD). The influences of SPME fibers, ethanol content in the sample, pre-incubation time, and extraction temperature and time on the extraction of VSCs were optimized. The VSCs were optimally extracted using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, by incubating 10 mL diluted Chinese liquor (5% vol.) with 3 g NaCl at 30 °C for 15 min, followed by a subsequent extraction for 40 min at 30 °C. The optimized method was further validated. A total of 13 VSCs were identified and quantified in Moutai liquors. The aroma contribution of these VSCs were evaluated by their odor activity values (OAVs), with the result that 7 of 13 VSCs had OAVs > 1. In particular, 2-furfurylthiol, methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide, ethanethiol, and methional had relatively high OAVs and could be the key aroma contributors to Moutai liquors. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, a method for analyzing volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors has been developed. This method will allow an in-depth study the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors. Seven volatile sulfur compounds were identified as potential key aroma contributors for Moutai liquors, which can help to the quality control of Moutai liquors.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Molecules ; 22(7)2017 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672781

RESUMO

The key aroma compounds and the organoleptic quality of two Chinese Syrah wines from the Yunnan Shangri-La region and Ningxia Helan mountain region were characterized. The most important eighty aroma-active compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. In both Syrah samples, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2- and 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-phenethyl acetate, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, ß-damascenone, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, trans-whiskylactone, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, and sotolon were detected to have the highest odor intensities. In the chemical analysis, 72 compounds were quantitated by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on the Odor Activity Value (OAV), the aromas were reconstituted by combining aroma compounds in the synthetic wine, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to verify the chemical data. Fatty acid ethyl esters, acetate esters, and ß-damascenone were found with higher OAVs in the more fruity-smelling sample of Helan Mountain rather than Shangri-La.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Vinho/análise , Acetatos/química , China , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Norisoprenoides/química , Olfatometria
20.
Food Chem ; 214: 736-744, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27507532

RESUMO

The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and ß-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or ß-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Vinho/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Álcoois/análise , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Monoterpenos/análise , Norisoprenoides/análise , Oregon , Fenóis/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura , Terpenos/análise , Vitis/química
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