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1.
Respir Med ; 172: 105983, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultra-low dose (100 mg) rituximab (RTX) administration in anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) positive patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) associated interstitial lung disease. METHODS: This retrospective study included anti-MDA5 antibody positive ILD subjects in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from November 2017 to March 2019. Independent predictors for 180-day mortality were measured by Cox regression analysis. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (non-cyclophosphamide (CTX)/RTX) (n = 10), Group 2 (CTX only) (n = 19) and Group 3 (RTX with/without CTX) (n = 11). The 180-day mortality was compared among 3 groups with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Post-RTX serological parameters as well as adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty patients were included with the mean age of 51.3 years. Elevated IL-10 level and CD4+/8+ ratio were considered as risk factors of 180-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend toward decrease, albeit non-significant, in 180-day mortality in Group 3 (P = 0.26). The administration of 100 mg RTX brought down B cell within 7 days that lasted for 180 days. There were 7 and 6 infection events observed within 2 months of CTX/RTX treatment in Group 2 and 3, with 5 and 2 fatal cases respectively. Cytomegalovirus infection accounted for half infection events in Group 3. CONCLUSION: We found a pronounced and prolonged B cell depletion following 100 mg RTX infusion and RTX add-on may be effective in anti-MDA5 positive ILD patients. However, infection, especially opportunistic infection, should be concerned during the treatment.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008919, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002079

RESUMO

Necrotrophic plant pathogen induces host reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which leads to necrosis in the host, allowing the pathogen to absorb nutrients from the dead tissues. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a typical necrotrophic pathogen that causes Sclerotinia stem rot in more than 400 species, resulting in serious economic losses. Here, we found that three S. sclerotiorum genes involved in copper ion import/transport, SsCTR1, SsCCS and SsATX1, were significantly up-regulated during infection of Brassica oleracea. Function analysis revealed that these genes involved in fungal ROS detoxification and virulence. On the host side, four genes putatively involved in copper ion homeostasis, BolCCS, BolCCH, BolMT2A and BolDRT112, were significantly down-regulated in susceptible B. oleracea, but stably expressed in resistant B. oleracea during infection. Their homologs were found to promote resistance to S. sclerotiorum and increase antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, copper concentration analysis indicated that copper flow from healthy area into the necrotic area during infection. A model was proposed that S. sclerotiorum utilizes host copper to detoxify ROS in its cells, whereas the resistant hosts may restrict the supply of essential copper nutrients to S. sclerotiorum by maintaining copper ion homeostasis during infection.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102451, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022581

RESUMO

The thalamus, with the highest density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the brain, plays a central role in thalamo-cortical circuits that are implicated in nicotine addiction. However, little is known about whether the thalamo-cortical circuits are potentially predictive of smoking relapse. In the current study, a total of 125 participants (84 treatment-seeking male smokers and 41 age-matched male nonsmokers) were recruited. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired from all participants. After a 12-week smoking cessation treatment with varenicline, the smokers were then divided into relapsers (n = 54) and nonrelapsers (n = 30). Then, we compared thalamic volume and seed-based thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) prior to the cessation treatment among relapsers, nonrelapsers and nonsmokers to investigate the associations between thalamic structure/function and smoking relapse. Increased thalamic volume was detected in smokers relative to nonsmokers, and in relapsers relative to nonrelapsers, especially on the left side. Moreover, decreased left thalamo-precuneus rsFC was detected in relapsers relative to nonrelapsers. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis showed that the thalamic volume and thalamo-precuneus rsFC predicted smoking relapse with an accuracy of 75.7%. These novel findings indicate that increased thalamic volume and decreased thalamo-precuneus rsFC are associated with smoking relapse, and these thalamic measures may be used to predict treatment efficacy of nicotine addiction and serve as a potential biomarker for personalized medicine.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 893-900, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mental health status caused by major epidemics is serious and lasting. At present, there are few studies about the lasting mental health effects of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of the Chinese public during the long-term COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A total of 1172 online questionnaires were collected, covering demographical information and 8 common psychological states: depression, anxiety, somatization, stress, psychological resilience, suicidal ideation and behavior, insomnia, and stress disorder. In addition, the geographical and temporal distributions of different mental states were plotted. RESULTS: Overall, 30.1% of smokers increased smoking, while 11.3% of drinkers increased alcohol consumption. The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, mental health problems, high risk of suicidal and behavior, clinical insomnia, clinical post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, moderate-to-high levels of perceived stress were 18.8%, 13.3%, 7.6%, 2.8%, 7.2%, 7.0%, and 67.9%, respectively. Further, the geographical distribution showed that the mental status in some provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities was relatively more serious. The temporal distribution showed that the psychological state of the participants was relatively poorer on February 20, 24 to 26 and March 25, especially on March 25. LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional design cannot make causal inferences. The snowball sampling was not representative enough. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the prevalence rate of mental disorders in the Chinese public is relatively low in the second month of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, people's mental state is affected by the geographical and temporal distributions.

5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1560-1563, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018290

RESUMO

The characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) fundus images generally consist of multiple types of lesions which provided strong evidence for the ophthalmologists to make diagnosis. It is particularly significant to figure out an efficient method to not only accurately classify DR fundus images but also recognize all kinds of lesions on them. In this paper, a deep learning-based multi-label classification model with Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) was proposed, which can both make DR classification and automatically locate the regions of different lesions. To reducing laborious annotation work and improve the efficiency of labeling, this paper innovatively considered different types of lesions as different labels for a fundus image so that this paper changed the task of lesion detection into that of image classification. A total of five labels were pre-defined and 3228 fundus images were collected for developing our model. The architecture of deep learning model was designed by ourselves based on ResNet. Through experiments on the test images, this method acquired a sensitive of 93.9% and a specificity of 94.4% on DR classification. Moreover, the corresponding regions of lesions were reasonably outlined on the DR fundus images.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877335

RESUMO

Early screening of PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) based on plain CT (computed tomogra-phy) images is of great significance. Therefore, this work conducted a radiomics-aided diagnosis analysis of PDAC based on plain CT images. We explored a novel MSTA (multiresolution-statistical texture analysis) architecture to extract texture features and built machine learning models to classify PDACs and HPs (healthy pancreases). We also performed significance tests of differences to analyze the relationships between histopathological characteristics and texture features. The MSTA architecture originates from the analysis of histopathological characteristics and combines multiresolution analysis and statistical analysis to extract texture features. The MSTA architecture achieved better experimental results than the traditional architecture that scales the coefficient matrices of the multiresolution analysis. In the validation of the classifica-tions, the MSTA architecture achieved an accuracy of 81.19% and an AUC (area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.92). In the test of the classifications, it achieved an accuracy of 77.66% and an AUC of 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.87). Moreover, the significance tests of differences showed that the extracted texture features may be relevant to the histopathological characteristics. The MSTA architecture is beneficial for the radiomics-aided diagnosis of PDAC based on plain CT images. Its texture features can potentially enhance radiologists' imaging interpretation abilities.

7.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020953997, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880500

RESUMO

Unplanned surgery cancellation (USC) was an important quality management issue in the course of medical care for surgical patients, which caused inappropriate use of hospital resources and had negative impacts on quality and safety. This study used Lean Six Sigma to reduce the incidence of USC. Following the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) process, the main factors influencing the USC were identified, such as the time of informing patient admission, the time of submitting operation notice, and the management of test report follow-up. A series of measures were implemented including improving the health education content of virtual bed patients, standardizing the way of communication between the Admission Management Center and the patients, improving the timing of anesthesia evaluation, optimizing the process of operation notice with an information system, and implementing the regulations of virtual bed management. The incidence of USC reduced from 10.21% in Jan. 2016 to 3.8% in Dec. 2016, and the Z-score increased from 1.25 to 1.68, which improved patient safety and demonstrated that Lean Six Sigma was an effective method to solve cross-department issues in hospital.

8.
Langmuir ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894945

RESUMO

Catalytic hydrogenations represent fundamental processes and allow for atom-efficient and clean functional group transformations for the production of chemical intermediates and fine chemicals in chemical industry. Herein, the Ru/CoO nanocomposites have been constructed and applied as nanocatalysts for the hydrogenation of phenols and furfurals into the corresponding cyclohexanols and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohols, respectively. The functionalized ionic liquid acted not only as a ligand for stabilizing the Ru/CoO nanocatalyst but also as a thermoregulated agent. The as-obtained nanocatalyst showed superior activity, and it could be conveniently recovered via the thermoregulating phase separation. In six recycle experiments, the catalysts maintained excellent performance. It was observed that the catalytic performance highly hinged on the molar ratio of Ru to Co in the nanocatalyst. The catalyst characterization was carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and UV-vis. Especially, the characterization by HRTEM and HAADF-STEM images of the nanocatalyst demonstrated that Ru(0) and Co(II) species were distributed uniformly and the Ru and Co(II) species were close to each other. However, Co(0) was generated and an electronic transfer from Co to Ru species could occur under the hydrogenation conditions. The 13C NMR characterization indicated further that Co(II) sites were mainly responsible for phenol adsorption. Meanwhile, the adjacent electron-rich Ru(0) sites can promote H2 dissociation and favor for the sequential hydrogenation.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 319, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950999

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16-0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestantes/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos Somatoformes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
10.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 436-442, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatization is a common comorbidity in anxious people. From January 31 to February 2, 2020, a high prevalence of moderate to severe anxiety was detected due to COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of somatization among Chinese participants with anxiety receiving online crisis interventions from Feb 14 to Mar 29 during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A total of 1134 participants who participated in online crisis interventions completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and demographic questions online. Somatization was defined as the average score of each item ≥ 2 in SCL-90 somatization subscale. Moderate to severe anxiety was defined as a score ≥ 10 in the GAD-7 scale. RESULTS: Among all participants, 8.0% reported moderate to severe anxiety and 7.4% reported somatization. After March 1, the prevalence of anxiety with or without somatization did not significantly change (both p > 0.05), while the prevalence of somatization increased significantly (p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that somatization was associated with chronic disease history (with an odds ratio of 4.80) and female gender (with an odds ratio of 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the history of chronic diseases is associated with somatization in individuals with anxiety, indicating some stress-related mechanisms. Chinese men in crisis intervention need more attention because they are more likely to report anxiety comorbid somatization.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 510-514, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our best knowledge, this was the first time to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of psychological disturbances, including depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia and suicide, among frontline medical staff, who were working with the COVID-10 infected patients directly. METHODS: Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire scale (GAD-7), Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) somatization, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the suicidal module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used for online survey. RESULTS: A total of 606 frontline hospital staff and1099 general population were recruited. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia, and suicide risk in frontline medical staffs were 57.6%, 45.4%, 12.0%, 32.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Except for suicide risk, the prevalence of other psychological disorders in frontline medical staff were higher than those in general population (all p<0.01). Among the frontline medical staff, the daily working hours were associated with all psychological disturbance (all p<0.01), women with anxiety (p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) with anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.02, p = 0.03). Age was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and insomnia (all p<0.01). Finally, years of working and family income were negatively associated with suicide risk (p = 0.03, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that during the outbreak of COVID-19, the frontline medical staff are more likely to suffer from psychological disturbances than general population. It is noticeable that daily working hours are a risk factor for all measured psychological disturbances, and some other variables may be involved in certain psychological disturbances of frontline medical staff.

12.
Cancer Lett ; 495: 165-179, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920199

RESUMO

By establishing the Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) infected-bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation model in APCMin/+ mice, we investigated the role of BMSCs in the development of intestinal tumors induced by F. nucleatum. ApcMin/++F. nucleatum + BMSCs mice showed increased susceptibility to intestinal tumors and accelerated tumor growth. BMSCs could also enhance tumor-initiating capability, invasive traits after F. nucleatum infection in vitro, and tumorigenicity in a nude murine model. Mechanistically, BMSCs were recruited to the submucosa, migrated to the mucosal layer, and might activate the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin/TGIF axis signaling. Further mechanistic results illustrated increased production of the Wnt3a protein was found in ApcMin/++F. nucleatum + BMSCs mice, and BMSCs were likely the major source of Wnt3a. Intriguingly, a deletion of Wnt3a via BMSC interference or antagonist analogs led to a significantly attenuated capacity of ApcMin/++F. nucleatum mice to generate intestinal tumors. The findings suggest that BMSCs have the potential to migrate and accelerate F. nucleatum-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by modulating Wnt3a secretion; knockdown of BMSC-derived Wnt3a or antagonist analogs could attenuate carcinogenesis. Thus, Wnt3a might be a potential pharmaceutical target for the prevention and treatment of F. nucleatum-related colorectal cancer.

13.
Physiol Rep ; 8(17): e14564, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889791

RESUMO

Two consecutive maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) performed 24 hr apart (2-day CPET protocol) are increasingly used to evaluate post-exertional malaise (PEM) and related disability among individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This protocol may extend to other fatiguing illnesses with similar characteristics to ME/CFS; however, 2-day CPET protocol reliability and minimum change required to be considered clinically meaningful (i.e., exceeding the standard error of the measure) are not well characterized. To address this gap, we evaluated the 2-day CPET protocol in Gulf War Illness (GWI) by quantifying repeatability of seven CPET parameters, establishing their thresholds of clinically significant change, and determining whether changes differed between veterans with GWI and controls. Excluding those not attaining peak effort criteria (n = 15), we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), the smallest real difference (SRD%), and repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and peak exercise in 15 veterans with GWI and eight controls. ICC values at peak ranged from moderate to excellent for veterans with GWI (mean [range]; 0.84 [0.65 - 0.92]) and were reduced at the VAT (0.68 [0.37 - 0.78]). Across CPET variables, the SRD% at peak exercise for veterans with GWI (18.8 [8.8 - 28.8]) was generally lower than at the VAT (28.1 [9.5 - 34.8]). RM-ANOVAs did not detect any significant group-by-time interactions (all p > .05). The methods and findings reported here provide a framework for evaluating 2-day CPET reliability, and reinforce the importance of carefully considering measurement error in the population of interest when interpreting findings.

14.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974850

RESUMO

Nicotine addiction is characterized as a neural circuit dysfunction, particularly with regard to the alterations in central reward pathways. The insula, a cortical region that is thought to play a central role in this reward circuitry, has been implicated in the maintenance of nicotine addiction. However, it remains largely unclear about the white matter (WM) microstructural alterations of insula in nicotine addiction and whether the WM alterations of insula could predict smoking cessation outcomes. In this study, 58 male nicotine-dependent smokers and 34 matched male nonsmoking controls were recruited. After a 12-week smoking cessation treatment with varenicline, 38 smokers relapsed, and 20 did not relapse. Diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography were used to investigate the differences of WM tracts of insula between smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, in the left hemisphere, smokers showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fiber tracts of anterior insula cortex-to-nucleus accumbens and posterior insula cortex-to-nucleus accumbens; in the right hemisphere, smokers showed higher FA, and lower axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) in the fiber tracts of anterior insula cortex-to-medial orbitofrontal cortex, posterior insula cortex-to-medial orbitofrontal cortex, and posterior insula cortex-to-nucleus accumbens. However, there were no differences of WM diffusion properties between relapsers and nonrelapsers. This study is the first using probabilistic tractography to exclusively clarify the precise roles of insular WM tracts in smokers, which may provide new insights into the underlying neurobiology of nicotine addiction.

16.
Cancer Cell ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946775

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB), which is a subtype of neural-crest-derived malignancy, is the most common extracranial solid tumor occurring in childhood. Despite extensive research, the underlying developmental origin of NB remains unclear. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we generate transcriptomes of adrenal NB from 160,910 cells of 16 patients and transcriptomes of putative developmental cells of origin of NB from 12,103 cells of early human embryos and fetal adrenal glands at relatively late development stages. We find that most adrenal NB tumor cells transcriptionally mirror noradrenergic chromaffin cells. Malignant states also recapitulate the proliferation/differentiation status of chromaffin cells in the process of normal development. Our findings provide insight into developmental trajectories and cellular states underlying human initiation and progression of NB.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12254-12261, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866374

RESUMO

The increasing use of nanoscale TiO2 particles (nTiO2) and their subsequent leakage into aquatic environments poses a threat to the ecosystem. One major concern is that nTiO2 may alter the environmental behaviors of arsenic (As) and disrupt the equilibrium of As accumulation and speciation in organisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of nTiO2 on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of As(V) in the mussel Perna viridis. Exposure to nTiO2 significantly increased As accumulation in mussels. Our As speciation analysis demonstrated that nTiO2 treatment increased the proportion of inorganic As and reduced that of organic As, displaying inhibitory effects on the methylation and detoxification of inorganic As in mussels. Analysis of enzyme systems related to As metabolism in mussels demonstrated that nTiO2 might limit the methylation of inorganic As by suppressing the GST activity and GSH content. The strong adsorption capacity and weak desorption rate of As by nTiO2, which could result in the disruption of As distribution and decrease of the amount of As involved in biotransformation, might serve as another mechanism to the limition on As methylation in mussels. Moreover, exposure to nTiO2 disturbed the osmotic adjustment system in mussels by reducing arsenobetaine and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, resulting in enhanced toxicity of As after coexposure. The findings indicate, for the first time, that nTiO2 can block the transformation and detoxification of As in mussels, which would increase the risk of As to marine animals and even humans via the food chain, and may disrupt the biogeochemical cycle of As in natural environments.

18.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic value of real-time ultrasound shear wave elastography (US-SWE) in evaluating the histological stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one 8-week-old rabbits were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (experimental groups), and seven rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group). All rabbits underwent real-time US-SWE at various time points to document the histological stages of NAFLD. We categorized the histological stages as normal, NAFL, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH. We measured the elastic modulus of the liver parenchyma and analyzed the diagnostic efficacy of real-time US-SWE using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the four histological stages. RESULTS: The mean, minimum, and maximum elastic modulus increase for NAFL, borderline NASH, and NASH. For the mean, minimum, and maximum elastic modulus, AUCs are 0.891 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.716-0.977), 0.867 (95% CI: 0.686-0.965), and 0.789(95% CI:0.594-0.919) for differentiating normal liver from liver with NAFLD, respectively; AUCs are 0.846 (95% CI: 0.660-0.954), 0.818 (95% CI: 0.627-0.937), and 0.797(95% CI:0.627-0.913) for differentiating normal liver or liver with NAFL from liver with borderline NASH or NASH, respectively; AUCs are 0.889 (95% CI: 0.713-0.976), 0.787 (95% CI: 0.591-0.918), and 0.895 (95% CI:0.720-0.978) for differentiating liver with NASH from liver with lower severity NAFLD or normal liver, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time US-SWE is an accurate, noninvasive technique for evaluating the histological stages of NAFLD by measuring liver stiffness. We recommend using the mean elastic modulus to differentiate the histological stages, with the minimum and maximum elastic modulus as valuable complements.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008621, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970673

RESUMO

Ross River virus (RRV) is the most common and widespread arbovirus in Australia. Epidemiological models of RRV increase understanding of RRV transmission and help provide early warning of outbreaks to reduce incidence. However, RRV predictive models have not been systematically reviewed, analysed, and compared. The hypothesis of this systematic review was that summarising the epidemiological models applied to predict RRV disease and analysing model performance could elucidate drivers of RRV incidence and transmission patterns. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for studies of RRV using population-based data, incorporating at least one epidemiological model and analysing the association between exposures and RRV disease. Forty-three articles, all of high or medium quality, were included. Twenty-two (51.2%) used generalised linear models and 11 (25.6%) used time-series models. Climate and weather data were used in 27 (62.8%) and mosquito abundance or related data were used in 14 (32.6%) articles as model covariates. A total of 140 models were included across the articles. Rainfall (69 models, 49.3%), temperature (66, 47.1%) and tide height (45, 32.1%) were the three most commonly used exposures. Ten (23.3%) studies published data related to model performance. This review summarises current knowledge of RRV modelling and reveals a research gap in comparing predictive methods. To improve predictive accuracy, new methods for forecasting, such as non-linear mixed models and machine learning approaches, warrant investigation.

20.
J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg ; 81(6): 549-554, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence and favorable prognosis. Surgery is the standard treatment for CSDH, and bur hole evacuation is the most widely employed technique. However, if mixed computed tomography (CT) density is found, burr hole hematoma evacuation is prone to recurrence. Endoscopic examination of the hematoma cavity provides a novel strategy. Here, we present a modification of burr hole evacuation by using neuroendoscopy through a novel small trapezoid bone flap and assess the advantages and risks of the procedure. METHODS: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with CSDH of mixed CT density were included in this study. Radiographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data were collected and analyzed. In all procedures the burr hole was replaced by a small trapezoidal cross-sectional bone flap, ∼2 cm in diameter. Neuroendoscopy was employed after the subdural cavity was cleaned and drained. The CSDH cavity was inspected thoroughly. If a blood clot, septa, stretching of cortical vessels, or intraluminal trabecular structures with active bleeding were found, the surgeon aspirated the region with a syringe pipe and/or used bipolar electrocoagulation. RESULTS: All 25 patients who received 26 neuroendoscopy-assisted operations achieved favorable clinical outcomes. The recurrence rate was 4%. The average operation time was slightly increased compared with the traditional burr hole evacuation due to the use of the neuroendoscope and eventual subsequent treatment. CONCLUSION: Neuroendoscopy provides excellent illumination and vision when a small bone flap is employed. The main advantages of this technique include the precise treatment of structures which are related with progression and recurrence of CSDH, and the minimally invasive nature of the procedure.

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