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3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14135-14138, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687696

RESUMO

We report a novel nanostructured chemosensing ensemble PyNp-C13/UD, obtained by self-assembling uranine dye (UD) and an amphiphilic pyridinium salt PyNp-C13. The ensemble was developed for the fluorescence turn-on sensing of ATP in aqueous solutions and inside living cells. The assembly operates via an indicator displacement assay (IDA) method with an ultra-low detection limit of 6.8 nM.

4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(37): 5630-5640, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains a serious threat for long-term survival of the recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), since very few factors or measures have shown impact on overcoming HCC recurrence after OLT. Postoperative infection suppresses tumor recurrence and improves patient survival in lung cancer and malignant glioma probably via stimulating the immune system. Post-transplant infection (PTI), a common complication, is deemed to be harmful for the liver transplant recipients from a short-term perspective. Nevertheless, whether PTI inhibits HCC recurrence after OLT and prolongs the long-term survival of HCC patients needs to be clarified. AIM: To investigate the potential influence of PTI on the survival and tumor recurrence of patients with HCC after OLT. METHODS: A total of 238 patients with HCC who underwent OLT between August 2002 and July 2016 at our center were retrospectively included and accordingly subdivided into a PTI group (53 patients) and a non-PTI group (185 patients). Univariate analyses, including the differences of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and post-recurrence survival (PRS), between the PTI and non-PTI subgroups as well as survival curve analysis were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were compared using the log rank test. The variables with a P-value < 0.1 in univariate analyses were included in the multivariate survival analysis by using a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS and RFS rates of the whole cohort were 86.6%, 69.0%, and 63.6%, and 75.7%, 60.0%, and 57.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates for the PTI patient group (96.0%, 89.3%, and 74.0%) were significantly higher than those for the non-PTI group (84.0%, 63.4%, and 60.2%) (P = 0.033). The absence of PTI was an independent risk factor for dismal OS (relative risk [RR] = 2.584, 95%CI: 1.226-5.449) and unfavorable RFS (RR = 2.683, 95%CI: 1.335-5.390). Subgroup analyses revealed that PTI remarkably improved OS (P = 0.003) and RFS (P = 0.003) rates of HCC patients with vascular invasion (IV), but did not impact on OS (P = 0.404) and RFS (P = 0.304) of patients without VI. Among the patients who suffered post-transplant tumor recurrence, patients with PTI showed significantly better OS (P = 0.026) and PRS (P = 0.042) rates than those without PTI. CONCLUSION: PTI improves OS and RFS of the transplant HCC patients at a high risk for post-transplant death and tumor recurrence, which is attributed to suppressive effect of PTI on HCC recurrence.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(50): 18108-18115, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593347

RESUMO

A highly oriented mesoporous graphitic carbon nanospring (OGCS) with graphitic layers that are perpendicular to the axis is prepared by hydrothermal treatment of epoxy resin at 500 °C and annealing at 1400 °C. Water plays an important role in not only forming the graphitic carbon nanospring with a high [002] orientation and a large amount of active edge-plane sites, but also in the generation of the mesoporous structure, which facilitate fast K-ion adsorption and diffusion. In situ and ex situ measurements confirm that OGCS undergoes K-adsorption in mesopores and then K-intercalation in the graphite layer to form KC8 with a low discharge voltage. The spring-like nanostructure can expand one-dimensionally along the axial direction to accommodate the volume variation. The OGCS electrode thus shows a much better K-storage performance than that of unoriented graphitic carbon.

6.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 1-12, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562913

RESUMO

During extrusion of some polymers, fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3-D printers emit billions of particles per minute and numerous organic compounds. The scope of this study was to evaluate FFF 3-D printer emission-induced toxicity in human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Emissions were generated from a commercially available 3-D printer inside a chamber, while operating for 1.5 h with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) filaments, and collected in cell culture medium. Characterization of the culture medium revealed that repeat print runs with an identical filament yield various amounts of particles and organic compounds. Mean particle sizes in cell culture medium were 201 ±â€¯18 nm and 202 ±â€¯8 nm for PC and ABS, respectively. At 24 h post-exposure, both PC and ABS emissions induced a dose dependent significant cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, necrosis, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in SAEC. Though the emissions may not completely represent all possible exposure scenarios, this study indicate that the FFF could induce toxicological effects. Further studies are needed to quantify the detected chemicals in the emissions and their corresponding toxicological effects.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/toxicidade , Butadienos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Cimento de Policarboxilato/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Necrose , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/ultraestrutura , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11129-11136, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487456

RESUMO

4-Amion-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Temp) was grafted into sodium lignosulfonate (SL) to obtain hindered amine-modified lignosulfonate (SL-Temp). Then, the polymer surfactant (SL-Temp-CTAB) was prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and SL-Temp. Obtained SL-Temp-CTAB was used as an emulsifier to prepare a green emulsifiable concentrate (EC) of avermectin (AVM), which shows good emulsifying property and storage stability. The prepared AVM green EC can form AVM-loaded microspheres with nanometer particle size distribution after emulsification in water. After ultraviolet irradiation for 70 h, the AVM retention rate of the green EC prepared using SL-Temp-CTAB was 75.8%, which is much higher than that of commercial EC (0.4%) and the green EC prepared using unmodified SL (31.4%). Moreover, the AVM green EC prepared using SL-Temp-CTAB has slow-release performance, and the release equilibrium time is 5.3 times the commercial EC. Therefore, the newly prepared AVM green EC using a lignin-based functional emulsifier shows good antiphotolysis and slow-release performance compared to the traditional EC.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Emulsificantes/síntese química , Lignina/química , Cetrimônio/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Cinética , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11303-11309, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532626

RESUMO

Although the water gas shift (WGS) reaction has sparked intensive attention for the production of high-purity hydrogen, the design of cost-efficient catalysts with noble metal-like performance still remains a great challenge. Here, we successfully overcome this obstacle by using Se-incorporated MoS2 with a 1T phase. Combining the optimized electronic structure, additional active sites from edge sites, and a sulfur vacancy based on the 1T phase, as well as the high surface ratio from the highly open structure, the optimal MoS1.75Se0.25 exhibits superior activity and stability compared to the conventional 2H-phase MoS2, with poor activity, large sulfur loss, and rapid inactivation. The hydrogen production of MoS1.75Se0.25 is 942 µmol, which is 1.9 times higher than MoS2 (504 µmol) and 2.8 times higher than MoSe2 (337 µmol). Furthermore, due to the lattice stabilization via Se-incorporation, MoS1.75Se0.25 exhibited excellent long-term stability without obvious change in more than 10 reaction rounds. Our results demonstrate a pathway to design efficient and cost-efficient catalysts for WGS.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374962

RESUMO

In situ injection of Fe(II)-activated persulfate was carried out to oxidize chlorinated hydrocarbons and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in groundwater in a contaminated site in North China Plain. To confirm the degradation of contaminants, an oxidant mixture of persulfate, ferrous sulfate, and citric acid was mixed with the main contaminants including 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) and benzene before field demonstration. Then the mixed oxidant solution of 6 m3 was injected into an aquifer with two different depths of 8 and 15 m to oxidize a high concentration of TCP, other kinds of chlorinated hydrocarbons, and BTEX. In laboratory tests, the removal efficiency of TCP reached 61.4% in 24 h without other contaminants but the removal rate was decreased by the presence of benzene. Organic matter also reduced the TCP degradation rate and the removal efficiency was only 8.3% in 24 h. In the field test, as the solution was injected, the oxidation reaction occurred immediately, accompanied by a sharp increase of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and a decrease in pH. Though the concentration of pollutants increased due to the dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at the initial stage, BTEX could still be effectively degraded in subsequent time by persulfate in both aquifers, and their removal efficiency approached 100%. However, chlorinated hydrocarbon was relatively difficult to degrade, especially TCP, which had a relatively higher initial concentration, only had a removal efficiency of 30%-45% at different aquifers and monitoring wells. These finding are important for the development of injection technology for chlorinated hydrocarbon and BTEX contaminated site remediation.

10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6589-6600, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice smut and rice blast are listed as two of the three major diseases of rice. Owing to the small size and similar structure of rice blast and rice smut spores, traditional microscopic methods are troublesome to detect them. Therefore, this paper uses microscopy image identification based on the synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method. RESULTS: The distance transformation-Gaussian filtering-watershed algorithm method was proposed to separate the adherent rice blast spores, and the accuracy was increased by about 10%. Four shape features (area, perimeter, ellipticity, complexity) and three texture features (entropy, homogeneity, contrast) were selected for decision-tree model classification. The confusion-matrix algorithm was used to calculate the classification accuracy, in which global accuracy is 82% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.81. At the same time, the detection accuracy is as high as 94%. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method can be used to detect rice disease quickly and precisely. The proposed method can be combined with a spore trap, which is vital to devise strategies early and to control rice disease effectively. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Fungos/química , Fungos/citologia , Microscopia/instrumentação , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(11): 645-663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290376

RESUMO

Corian®, a solid-surface composite (SSC), is composed of alumina trihydrate and acrylic polymer. The aim of the present study was to examine the pulmonary toxicity attributed to exposure to SSC sawing dust. Male mice were exposed to either phosphate buffer saline (PBS, control), 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1000 µg of SSC dust, or 1000 µg silica (positive control) via oropharyngeal aspiration. Body weights were measured for the duration of the study. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and tissues were collected for analysis at 1 and 14 days post-exposure. Enhanced-darkfield and histopathologic analysis was performed to assess particle distribution and inflammatory responses. BALF cells and inflammatory cytokines were measured. The geometric mean diameter of SSC sawing dust following suspension in PBS was 1.25 µm. BALF analysis indicated that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, inflammatory cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in the 500 and 1000 µg SSC exposure groups at days 1 and 14, suggesting that exposure to these concentrations of SSC induced inflammatory responses, in some cases to a greater degree than the silica positive control. Histopathology indicated the presence of acute alveolitis at all doses at day 1, which was largely resolved by day 14. Alveolar particle deposition and granulomatous mass formation were observed in all exposure groups at day 14. The SSC particles were poorly cleared, with 81% remaining at the end of the observation period. These findings demonstrate that SSC sawing dust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation and damage that warrants further investigation. Abbreviations: ANOVA: Analysis of Variance; ATH: Alumina Trihydrate; BALF: Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid; Dpg: Geometric Mean Diameter; FE-SEM: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy; IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee; IFN-γ: Interferon Gamma; IL-1 Β: Interleukin-1 Beta; IL-10: Interleukin-10; IL-12: Interleukin-12; IL-2: Interleukin-2; IL-4: Interleukin-4; IL-5: Interleukin-5; IL-6: Interleukin-6; KC/GRO: Neutrophil-Activating Protein 3; MMAD: Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter; PBS: Phosphate-Buffered Saline; PEL: Permissible Exposure Limit; PM: Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes; PNOR: Particles Not Otherwise Regulated; SEM/EDX: Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy-Dispersive X-Ray; SSA: Specific Surface Area; SSC: Solid Surface Composite; TNFα: Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha; VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds; σg: Geometric Standard Deviation.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340583

RESUMO

(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

14.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3543-3555, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150025

RESUMO

By adjusting the polarity and conformation via the sulfomethylation modification, the bio-renewable enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) combined with alkyl polyglucoside (APG) was used as an emulsifier to stabilize the oil-in-water (O/W) high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) for the first time under neutral conditions. The structure and sulfonation degree of the sulfomethylated lignin (EHL-XS) were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and an automatic potentiometric titrator. The effects of the EHL-XS concentration, sulfonation degree and oil/water ratio on the microstructure and stability of HIPEs were investigated using an optical microscope and a rheometer. The results suggest that commercial lignosulfonates (LS) could not to stabilize HIPEs due to their high hydrophilicity. However, by using EHL-XS with sulfonation degree between 0.89 and 1.05 mmol g-1, up to 2.0 wt% of EHL-XS with the assistance of 3.5 wt% APG could stabilize HIPEs containing 80 vol% of internal oil phase, which were super stable and displayed no significant microstructure changes over one month. Rheological investigation indicated that HIPEs with smaller droplet size and higher oil/water ratio exhibited higher surface elasticity and stability due to the tighter overall droplet packing. In addition, the EHL-XS stabilized O/W HIPEs could be used as encapsulates for the protection and delivery of the environmentally sensitive curcumin. It was found that such HIPEs encapsulation system exhibited superior UV protection of at least 30% higher than curcumin dispersed in bulk oil after 72 h of UV irradiation or 30 days at room temperature, respectively. Meanwhile, such HIPEs within curcumin also demonstrated good inhibitory activity against S. aureus.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(26): 23573-23583, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184459

RESUMO

3D printing of silicone elastomers with the direct ink writing (DIW) process has demonstrated great potential in areas as diverse as flexible electronics, medical devices, and soft robotics. However, most of current silicones are not printable because of their low viscosity and long curing time. The lack of systematic research on materials, devices, and processes during printing makes it a huge challenge to apply the DIW process more deeply and widely. In this report, aiming at the dilemmas in materials, devices, and processes, we proposed a comprehensive guide for printing highly stretchable silicone. Specifically, to improve the printability of silicone elastomers, nanosilica was added as a rheology modifier without sacrificing any stretching ability. To effectively control print speed and accuracy, a theoretical model was built and verified. With this strategy, silicone elastomers with different mechanical properties can all be printed and can realize infinite time and high speed printing (>25 mm/s) while maintaining accuracy. Here, super-stretchable silicone that can be stretched to 2000% was printed for the first time, and complex structures can be printed with high quality. For further demonstration, prosthetic nose, data glove capable of detecting fingers' movement, and artificial muscle that can lift objects were printed directly. We believe that this work could provide a guide for further work using the DIW process to print soft matters in a wide range of application scenarios.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146342

RESUMO

As the demand for multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) incorporation into industrial and biomedical applications increases, so does the potential for unintentional pulmonary MWCNT exposure, particularly among workers during manufacturing. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs raises the potential for development of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer among those exposed; however, there are currently no effective biomarkers for detecting lung fibrosis or predicting the risk of lung cancer resulting from MWCNT exposure. To uncover potential mRNAs and miRNAs that could be used as markers of exposure, this study compared in vivo mRNA and miRNA expression in lung tissue and blood of mice exposed to MWCNTs with in vitro mRNA and miRNA expression from a co-culture model of human lung epithelial and microvascular cells, a system previously shown to have a higher overall genome-scale correlation with mRNA expression in mouse lungs than either cell type grown separately. Concordant mRNAs and miRNAs identified by this study could be used to drive future studies confirming human biomarkers of MWCNT exposure. These potential biomarkers could be used to assess overall worker health and predict the occurrence of MWCNT-induced diseases.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/sangue , Pulmão/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(15): 1338-1349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218961

RESUMO

Axl, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) belonging to the TAM (Axl, Mer, Tyro3) family, participates in many signal transduction cascades after mostly being stimulated by Growth arrestspecific 6(Gas6). Axl is widely expressed in many organs, such as macrophages, endothelial cells, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. Over-expression and activation of Axl are associated with promoting chemotherapy resistance, cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis in many human cancers, such as breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Therefore, the research and development of Axl inhibitors is of great significance to strengthen the means of cancer treatment, especially to solve the problem of drug resistance. Axl inhibitors have attracted more and more researchers' attention in recent years. This review discusses the research progress of Axl inhibitors in recent years.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Biophys J ; 116(10): 1873-1886, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054773

RESUMO

For over 20 years, genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators have illuminated dynamic Ca2+ signaling activity in living cells and, more recently, whole organisms. We are just now beginning to understand how they work. Various fluorescence colors of these indicators have been developed, including red. Red ones are promising because longer wavelengths of light scatter less in tissue, making it possible to image deeper. They are engineered from a red fluorescent protein that is circularly permuted and fused to a Ca2+-sensing domain. When Ca2+ binds, a conformational change in the sensing domain causes a change in fluorescence. Three factors can contribute to this fluorescence change: 1) a shift in the protonation equilibrium of the chromophore, 2) a change in fluorescence quantum yield, and 3) a change in the extinction coefficient or the two-photon cross section, depending on if it is excited with one or two photons. Here, we conduct a systematic study of the photophysical properties of a range of red Ca2+ indicators to determine which factors are the most important. In total, we analyzed nine indicators, including jRGECO1a, K-GECO1, jRCaMP1a, R-GECO1, R-GECO1.2, CAR-GECO1, O-GECO1, REX-GECO1, and a new variant termed jREX-GECO1. We find that these could be separated into three classes that each rely on a particular set of factors. Furthermore, in some cases, the magnitude of the change in fluorescence was larger with two-photon excitation compared to one-photon because of a change in the two-photon cross section, by up to a factor of two.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215916, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Blood vessels of the retina provide an easily-accessible, representative window into the condition of microvasculature. We investigated how retinal vessel structure captured in fundus photographs changes with age, and how this may reflect features related to patient health, including blood pressure. RESULTS: We used two approaches. In the first approach, we segmented the retinal vasculature from fundus photographs and then we correlated 25 parameterized aspects ("traits")-comprising 15 measures of tortuosity, 7 fractal ranges of self-similarity, and 3 measures of junction numbers-with participant age and blood pressure. In the second approach, we examined entire fundus photographs with a set of algorithmic CHARM features. We studied 2,280 Sardinians, ages 20-28, and an U.S. based population from the AREDS study in 1,178 participants, ages 59-84. Three traits (relating to tortuosity, vessel bifurcation number, and vessel endpoint number) showed significant changes with age in both cohorts, and one additional trait (relating to fractal number) showed a correlation in the Sardinian cohort only. When using second approach, we found significant correlations of particular CHARM features with age and blood pressure, which were stronger than those detected when using parameterized traits, reflecting a greater signal from the entire photographs than was captured in the segmented microvasculature. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that automated quantitative image analysis of fundus images can reveal general measures of patient health status.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(47): 6751-6754, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119232

RESUMO

An amine-induced phase transition strategy is developed for converting white phosphorus into red or black phosphorus. Amorphous red phosphorus is prepared through the chemical dissolution of white phosphorus in amines and post-treatment at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the phase transformation mechanism involves an amine-induced nucleophile attack on white phosphorus and the generation of polyphosphorus ions. The amorphous phosphorus exhibits a specific capacity of 955.5 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1 after 1000 cycles, and a capacity retention of 1210.2 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1 for Li-ion batteries. This methodology is also applicable to produce red phosphorus micro-spheres and black phosphorus particles by varying the types of organic amines and the reaction temperature.

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