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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2190-2201, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884788

RESUMO

Based on the pollutant data provided by the environmental monitoring stations and the routine observation data of 11 national meteorological stations in Jiangxi Province from 2016 to 2019, the characteristics of ozone pollution and the relationships with meteorological factors were investigated in this study. The results showed that ozone pollution has become increasingly severe in Jiangxi Province in recent years. The annual mean concentration of ozone in Jiangxi Province (the maximum daily 8 h average) was 80.1 µg·m-3 in 2016 and reached up to 98.2 µg·m-3 in 2019, with an average annual growth rate of 6 µg·m-3. The number of over-standard days of ozone was 475 d, accounting for 72.6% of 2019 in Jiangxi Province. The average concentrations observed in summer were higher than those observed in the other seasons during 2016 to 2018, but in 2019, higher ozone concentrations were observed in autumn owing to the lower precipitation, more sufficient sunshine, and the resulting higher air temperature. Overall, the ozone concentrations were found to be positively correlated with air temperature and sunshine but negatively correlated with relative humidity in Jiangxi Province. A high ozone concentration usually appeared with an air temperature higher than 30℃, relative humidity of 20%-40%, and wind speed of 2-3 m·s-1. The spatial distribution of the ozone concentrations exhibited distinct characteristics with higher values observed in southern Jiangxi relative to those in the northern areas and lower values in northeastern Jiangxi compared with those in other regions. More serious ozone pollution was found in Ganzhou among the 11 cities in Jiangxi Province, with the highest annual concentration of 104.2 µg·m-3 observed in 2019. The results of the model analyses, including the HYSPLIT backward trajectory model and potential source contribution function model, indicated that there was a significant difference in the potential source contribution of ozone pollution in Ganzhou on seasonal scales, specifically in central Guangdong and the northwest of Jiangxi Province in spring, the northwest parts of Jiangxi Province in summer, and the north of Guangdong and central Anhui Province in autumn.

2.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Student loan debt has become a growing crisis. Considering that women are more likely than men to take on student loans and more likely to take on larger amounts, we examine whether the effects of student loans on young adults' mental health and substance use differ by gender. Participants: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data collected from 1997 to 2015. The NLSY97 consists of a nationally representative sample of American youths born between 1980 and 1984. Participants included 2,607 men and 3,004 women who reported college enrollment. Methods: We analyzed data using hybrid regression models. Results: Student loans have more negative effects on young men than young women, in terms of mental health problems, smoking, and heavy drinking. Particularly, young men tend to increase substance use in response to cumulative loan amounts. Conclusions: Borrowing patterns and the health consequences of student loans are gendered.

4.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100068, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762177

RESUMO

Triglyceride (TG) molecules represent the major storage form of fatty acids, and TG metabolism is essential to human health. However, the mechanistic details surrounding TG metabolism are complex and incompletely elucidated. Although it is known that angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) increases TGs through an ANGPTL3/8 complex that inhibits LPL, the mechanism governing ApoA5, which lowers TGs, has remained elusive. Current hypotheses for how ApoA5 acts include direct stimulation of LPL, facilitation of TG-containing particle uptake, and regulation of hepatic TG secretion. Using immunoprecipitation-MS and Western blotting, biolayer interferometry, functional LPL enzymatic assays, and kinetic analyses of LPL activity, we show that ApoA5 associates with ANGPTL3/8 in human serum and most likely decreases TG by suppressing ANGPTL3/8-mediated LPL inhibition. We also demonstrate that ApoA5 has no direct effect on LPL, nor does it suppress the LPL-inhibitory activities of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, or ANGPTL4/8. Importantly, ApoA5 suppression of ANGPTL3/8-mediated LPL inhibition occurred at a molar ratio consistent with the circulating concentrations of ApoA5 and ANGPTL3/8. Because liver X receptor (LXR) agonists decrease ApoA5 expression and cause hypertriglyceridemia, we investigated the effect of the prototypical LXR agonist T0901317 on human primary hepatocytes. We observed that T0901317 modestly stimulated hepatocyte ApoA5 release, but markedly stimulated ANGPTL3/8 secretion. Interestingly, the addition of insulin to T0901317 attenuated ApoA5 secretion, but further increased ANGPTL3/8 secretion. Together, these results reveal a novel intersection of ApoA5 and ANGPTL3/8 in the regulation of TG metabolism and provide a possible explanation for LXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia.

5.
Nano Lett ; 21(5): 2199-2206, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600181

RESUMO

Liver metastasis (LM) occurs in various cancers, and its early and accurate diagnosis is of great importance. However, the detection of small LMs is still a great challenge because of the subtle differences between normal liver tissue and small metastases. Herein, we prepare glutathione (GSH)-responsive hyaluronic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (HIONPs) for highly sensitive diagnosis of LMs through a facile one-pot method. HIONPs greatly enhance the signal of MRI in tumor metastases as T1 contrast agent (CA), whereas they substantially decrease the signal of liver as T2 CA as they aggregate into clusters upon the high GSH in liver. Consequently, MRI contrasted by HIONPs clearly distinguishes metastatic tumors (bright) from surrounding liver tissues (dark). HIONPs with superior LM contrasting capability and facile synthesis are very promising for clinical translation and indicate a new strategy to develop an ultrasensitive MRI CA for LM diagnosis that exploits high GSH level in the liver.

6.
Biomater Sci ; 9(6): 2221-2229, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507179

RESUMO

Theranostic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as promising candidates for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Manganese dioxide (MnO2)-based NPs are potential contrast agents with excellent paramagnetic property and biocompatibility, exhibiting satisfactory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects and biological safety. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has gained increasing interest due to its tumor-targeting ability, which can improve the tumor affinity of manganese dioxide (MnO2)-based NPs. In this study, HA-coated and albumin (BSA)-templated MnO2 and polydopamine hybrid nanoparticles (HMDNs) with tumor-targeting and superior imaging capability were fabricated via modifying the nanoparticles prepared by integrating dopamine polymerization and MnO2 biomineralization. The modification was found to enhance the cellular uptake of HMDNs by cancer cells. The prepared HMDN had high MRI contrasting capability with a longitudinal relaxivity of 22.2 mM-1 s-1 and strong photothermal therapy (PTT) effects with nearly complete tumor ablation under laser irradiation in vivo. HMDNs also showed effective clearance through kidneys, with no toxicity to important tissues. Therefore, HMDNs with superior imaging and PTT capability presented a new method to prepare tumor-targeting multifunctional nanotheranostics.

7.
Magn Reson Med ; 85(3): 1322-1334, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To correct the temporal B0 drift in chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging in real-time with extra free-induction-decay (FID) readout. THEORY AND METHODS: The frequency stabilization module of the recently proposed frequency-stabilized CEST (FS-CEST) sequence was further simplified by replacing the original three k-space lines of gradient-echo (GRE) readout with a single k-space line of FID readout. The B0 drift was quantified using the phase difference between the odd and even parts of the FID signal in the frequency stabilization module and then used to update the B0 frequency in the succeeding modules. The proposed FS-CEST sequence with FID readout (FID FS-CEST) was validated in phantoms and 16 human subjects on cross-vendor scanners. RESULTS: In the Siemens experiments, the FID FS-CEST sequence successfully corrected the user-induced B0 drift, generating consistent amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) images and magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) spectra with those from the non-frequency-stabilized CEST (NFS-CEST) sequence without B0 drift. In the Philips experiments, the FID FS-CEST sequence produced more stable APTw images and MTRasym spectra than the NFS-CEST sequence in the presence of practical B0 drift. Quantitatively, the SD of the APTw signal values in the deep gray matter from 15 subjects was 0.26% for the FID FS-CEST sequence compared to 1.03% for the NFS-CEST sequences, with the fluctuations reduced by nearly three-quarters. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed FS-CEST sequence with FID readout can effectively correct the temporal B0 drift on cross-vendor scanners.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239171

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) forms a localized complex with ANGPTL4 to reduce its lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-inhibitory activity and enable increased postprandial uptake of fatty acids (FA) into adipose tissue. Because prolonged cold exposure may increase adipose tissue FA uptake and decrease circulating triglycerides (TG) by reducing ANGPTL4 expression and inducing ANGPTL8 expression (and thus ANGPTL4/8 expression), we investigated the effect of temperature on ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL4/8 LPL-inhibitory activities in vitro. As the ANGPTL4(E40K) mutation results in decreased TG, we also characterized ANGPTL4(E40K) and ANGPTL4(E40K)/8 complex LPL-inhibitory activities. Interestingly, while ANGPTL3, ANGPTL3/8, and ANGPTL4 showed similar LPL inhibition at 37 °C and 22 °C, the already reduced LPL-inhibitory activity of ANGPTL4/8 at 37 °C was even more decreased at 22 °C. At 37 °C, ANGPTL4(E40K) manifested decreased LPL-inhibitory activity compared to ANGPTL4/8, while ANGPTL4(E40K)/8 had even further reduced potency. Remarkably, ANGPTL4/8, ANGPTL4(E40K), and ANGPTL4(E40K)/8 were each actually capable of stimulating LPL activity at 22 °C. Together, these results indicate that ANGPTL4/8 stimulation of LPL activity at low temperatures may represent an additional mechanism for further increasing adipose tissue FA uptake during cold exposure, beyond that already occurring due to decreased ANGPTL4 expression and increased ANGPTL8 expression. In addition, because ANGPTL4(E40K) has decreased LPL-inhibitory activity compared to ANGPTL4/8, our findings also suggest why ANGPTL4(E40K) carriers have decreased circulating TG levels.

9.
Chin J Sociol ; 6(4): 521-546, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240525

RESUMO

Prior studies of assortative mating have shown that people tend to marry someone of the same educational level, but why individuals value a mate's education and the process of mate selection itself remain a black box in predominantly quantitative studies. With online dating's growing popularity, research needs to examine how online daters navigate dating markets given educational preferences they hold and "freedom of choice" offered by technologies. This study aims to investigate individuals' educational preferences and how educational preferences shape mate selection processes in online dating. In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 university-educated, heterosexual online daters (13 men, 16 women) in Shanghai. Data were analyzed through a combination of abductive and inductive coding strategies. Results showed that both educational levels and university prestige were primary mate selection criteria in online dating. Both genders considered educational sorting essential for achieving cultural matching, but only men emphasized the importance of spouse's education for their future children's education. Furthermore, guided by their educational preferences, online daters deliberately chose dating platforms and screened dating candidates. We argue that online daters' emphasis on university prestige is rooted in China's hierarchical higher education system, and gendered rationales for educational preferences stem from ingrained gender roles in Chinese families. Seemingly "personal" preferences are therefore shaped by cultural norms and institutional contexts. Moreover, results suggest that online dating may reinforce social closure among China's educational elites.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17989, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093609

RESUMO

Urinary metabolomics is a useful non-invasive tool for large-scale screening of disease-related metabolites. However, no comprehensive urinary metabolomic analysis of vitiligo is presently available. To investigate the urine metabolic pattern of vitiligo patients, we conducted a combined cross-sectional and prospective self-control cohort study and an untargeted urinary metabolomic analysis. In the cross-sectional study, 295 vitiligo patients and 192 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled, and 71 differential metabolites between two groups were identified. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, biopterin metabolism, vitamin B9 (folate) metabolism, selenoamino acid metabolism, and methionine and cysteine metabolism showed significant enrichment in vitiligo patients compared with the status in healthy controls. In the self-control cohort, 46 active vitiligo patients were recruited to analyse the urinary metabolic signatures after treatment. All of these patients were asked to undertake follow-up visits every 2 months three times after first consulting and the disease stage was evaluated compared with that at the last visit. Folate metabolism, linoleate metabolism, leukotriene metabolism, alkaloid biosynthesis, and tyrosine metabolism were predicted to be involved in vitiligo activity. Our study is the first attempt to reveal urinary metabolic signatures of vitiligo patients and provides new insights into the metabolic mechanisms of vitiligo.

11.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4535-4543, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal distal humeral physeal fractures are rare and difficult to diagnose. Thus, missed diagnoses and delayed healing are possible. Few studies have reported surgical treatment, because a callus may develop at the fracture site 5 d after the fracture, resulting in difficult reduction, and reduction of the limb may cause further physeal injury. Other surgical challenges include the provision of adequate anesthesia and complexity of the operation. However, without appropriate reduction and fixation, a varus elbow deformity may develop. Manual reduction and percutaneous pin fixation are ideal treatment options. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-day-old neonate with left elbow pain accompanied by limited movement for 4 d was admitted, and diagnosed with delayed physeal fracture of the distal humerus based on physical examination, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was treated by manual reduction combined with percutaneous pin fixation under arthrography. Postoperatively, the reduction was successful. The upper limbs could have been lifted and the fingers could have been moved freely on the second day after the operation. CONCLUSION: The techniques of manual reduction and percutaneous pin fixation, to treat neonatal distal humeral physeal fractures, are safe and reliable.

12.
Stud Fam Plann ; 51(3): 273-291, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944963

RESUMO

In China, premarital sexual and reproductive behavior is seldom considered and poorly understood. Increases in premarital pregnancy are thought to not only illuminate a decoupling of marriage and sexual/reproductive behavior but also serve as a key feature of family change in East Asia. This study assesses change across cohorts in the likelihood of premarital pregnancy and the extent to which change differs by educational attainment. Drawing on the 2017 China Fertility Survey, we apply a discrete-time, competing-risk survival analysis to a nationally representative sample of 221,990 women born between 1960 and 1999. Women born in the 1980s and 1990s are more likely than those born in the 1960s and 1970s to experience a pregnancy prior to first marriage. This cohort trend is driven by increases in premarital pregnancy among women with a high school education or less. The less educated women and their college counterparts increasingly diverge in the likelihood of experiencing a premarital pregnancy. The diverging patterns of premarital pregnancy underscore the urgency to shift the focus of China's family planning programs from fertility control to reproductive health, with an emphasis on providing information and services to disadvantaged unmarried individuals.

13.
Thyroid ; 30(12): 1820-1830, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746755

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to examine the association of urinary iodine concentration with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) risk, and particularly, to investigate whether the HT-related genetic variations might modify the effects of urinary iodine on HT in the Chinese Han population. Methods: We conducted a case-control study with 1723 Chinese (731 cases, 992 controls). The associations between urinary iodine concentration and HT risk were analyzed using logistic regression models. The effects of interactions between the genetic risk scores (GRSs) and urinary iodine on HT risk were assessed by including the respective interaction terms in the models. We also applied restricted cubic spline regression to estimate the possible nonlinear relationship. The multinomial logistic regression models were performed to determine the associations of urinary iodine with euthyroid-HT and hypothyroidism-HT. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, the odds of HT increased with increasing quartiles of urinary iodine concentration: adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] were 1.45 [1.06-1.99], 1.66 [1.17-2.34], and 2.07 [1.38-3.10] for the quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with the first quartile (p for trend <0.001). Multivariable restricted cubic spline regression analysis further demonstrated that there was a near-linear association between urinary iodine concentration and HT risk (p-overall <0.001; p-nonlinear = 0.074). However, we did not find significant interactions between urinary iodine and GRSs on the risk of HT (all p for interaction >0.05). Interestingly, we found that each increment of urinary iodine was associated with a more than twofold increase in the odds of hypothyroidism-HT (adjusted OR = 2.64 [CI = 1.73-4.05]), but not with euthyroid-HT (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Higher urinary iodine concentration was associated with increased risk of HT, and this association was near linear, indicating that increased urinary iodine has a continuous and graded impact on HT risk. Moreover, the iodine-HT association was not modified by genetic predisposition to HT. Interestingly, urinary iodine concentration was significantly associated with increased risk of hypothyroidism.

14.
Biomater Sci ; 8(18): 5210-5218, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844846

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has a remarkable impact on the preclinical development of future medicines. However, the complicated preparation and systemic toxicity to living systems prevent them from translation to clinical applications. In the present report, we developed a polyepicatechin-based on/off switchable ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visible theranostic nanoparticle (PEMN) for image-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) using our strategy of integrating polymerization and biomineralization into the protein template. We have exploited natural polyphenols as the near infra-red (NIR) switchable photothermal source and MnO2 for the MRI-guided theranostics. PEMN demonstrates excellent MRI contrast ability with a longitudinal relaxivity value up to 30.01 mM-1 s-1. PEMN has shown great tumor inhibition on orthotopic breast tumors and the treatment could be made switchable with an on/off interchangeable mode as needed. PEMN was found to be excretable mainly through the kidneys, avoiding potential systemic toxicity. Thus, PEMN could be extremely useful for developing on-demand therapeutics via'see it and treat it' means with distinguished MRI capability and on/off switchable photothermal properties.

16.
J Lipid Res ; 61(8): 1203-1220, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487544

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)8 has been implicated in metabolic syndrome and reported to regulate adipose FA uptake through unknown mechanisms. Here, we studied how complex formation of ANGPTL8 with ANGPTL3 or ANGPTL4 varies with feeding to regulate LPL. In human serum, ANGPTL3/8 and ANGPTL4/8 complexes both increased postprandially, correlated negatively with HDL, and correlated positively with all other metabolic syndrome markers. ANGPTL3/8 also correlated positively with LDL-C and blocked LPL-facilitated hepatocyte VLDL-C uptake. LPL-inhibitory activity of ANGPTL3/8 was >100-fold more potent than that of ANGPTL3, and LPL-inhibitory activity of ANGPTL4/8 was >100-fold less potent than that of ANGPTL4. Quantitative analyses of inhibitory activities and competition experiments among the complexes suggested a model in which localized ANGPTL4/8 blocks the LPL-inhibitory activity of both circulating ANGPTL3/8 and localized ANGPTL4, allowing lipid sequestration into fat rather than muscle during the fed state. Supporting this model, insulin increased ANGPTL3/8 secretion from hepatocytes and ANGPTL4/8 secretion from adipocytes. These results suggest that low ANGPTL8 levels during fasting enable ANGPTL4-mediated LPL inhibition in fat tissue to minimize adipose FA uptake. During feeding, increased ANGPTL8 increases ANGPTL3 inhibition of LPL in muscle via circulating ANGPTL3/8, while decreasing ANGPTL4 inhibition of LPL in adipose tissue through localized ANGPTL4/8, thereby increasing FA uptake into adipose tissue. Excessive caloric intake may shift this system toward the latter conditions, possibly predisposing to metabolic syndrome.

19.
Cancer Med ; 9(13): 4561-4571, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the independent prognostic value of tumor size compared with other clinical and pathologic features of primary invasive cutaneous melanoma (CM). METHODS: This study included 28,593 patients with primary invasive CM in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database diagnosed from 2004 through 2016. Tumor size was divided into five subgroups (≤6, 7-12, 13-30, 31-42, and >42 mm). The primary endpoint was melanoma-specific survival (MSS). RESULTS: The relationship between tumor size and survival was piecewise. After adjusting for age, sex, primary site, histopathologic cell type, Breslow thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, regional metastasis, and distant metastasis, the hazard ratio (HR) of MSS increased with increasing tumor size until a peak at 31-42 mm (HRs, 1.33, 1.59, 2.41, respectively; all P < .0001), and then decreased when tumor size was larger than 42 mm using tumor size ≤ 6 mm as the reference (HR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 -2.42; P < .0001). This pattern mostly remained after stratification by T subcategories from T1 to T4 in localized primary CM except that tumor size >42 mm subgroup had the shortest MSS in T4. In addition, tumor size with a cutoff value of 12 mm showed stronger prognostic value for MSS (HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.80-2.98; P < .0001) than Breslow thickness and mitotic rate in primary CM with T1N0M0. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size was an important independent prognostic factor for MSS in patients with primary invasive CM. Tumor size larger than 30 mm would provide additional and important prognostic information in each T subcategory of localized CM. Furthermore, tumor size with a cutoff value of 12 mm has great potential in improving the accuracy of melanoma T1 substaging.

20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(4): 359-365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270767

RESUMO

Background: Linear cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a rare subtype of lupus erythematosus (LE) that develops linear lesions following the lines of Blaschko. Linear cutaneous lupus erythematosus may present as various subtypes of LE, including linear discoid lupus erythematosus. There are few reports about pigmentedlinear discoid lupus erythematosus in the literature. Aims: We aimed to summarize the clinical and pathological features of patients with pigmented linear discoid lupus erythematosus following the lines of Blaschko. Methods: Eighteen patients with pigmented linear discoid lupus erythematosus attending the outpatient department of the Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China, were enrolled in the study. We recorded clinical data including sex, age at onset, disease duration, location and distribution of the lesions, symptoms, trigger factors, antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing, therapy, and therapeutic responses. Histopathological features were also summarized. Results: All 18 patients presented with well-defined brownish pigmented linear or segmental macules or plaques, following the lines of Blaschko. All the lesions were located on the head or neck. Unilaterally distributed lesions were found in 94.4% of patients. Two patients showed low titers of ANA in a speckled pattern. No systemic involvement or progression to systemic LE was noted. The patients were clinically diagnosed as pigmented lichen planus (55.6%), pigmented linear discoid lupus erythematosus (33.3%), and linear morphea (11.1%) before histopathological examination. Limitations: The study was retrospective and direct immunofluorescence was not performed. Not all patients' information was available and 4 patients were lost to follow-up because their contact information was changed. Conclusion: Pigmented linear discoid lupus erythematosus mostly occurs on the head and neck. It manifests as brownish macules along the lines of Blaschko. Differentiation between pigmented linear discoid lupus erythematosus and other dermatoses that have a linear distribution can be difficult both clinically and pathologically, but histological details can help distinguish them.

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