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1.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134773, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants and modifiable risk factors (including environmental exposure and lifestyle) greatly contribute to the development of lung cancer. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of these risk factors, especially their interactive effects, has not been well quantified. METHODS: A total of 398,577 participants were included in this analysis. There were 2504 incident lung cancer cases identified over an average 10.4-year follow-up. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations between risk factors and incident lung cancer. We further developed a polygenic risk score and evaluated whether environmental factors modified the effect of genetic risk on incident lung cancer. Furthermore, we calculated the PAF for each risk factor, as well as their gene-environment additive interaction, and then combined them to create a weighted PAF that takes into consideration participants with overlapping risk factors. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that smoking was the leading risk factor for lung cancer with a PAF of 63.73%. We observed additive interactions between smoking, PM2.5, NOx, and genetic risk, with PAFs of 17.85% (smoking-high genetic risk interaction), 10.79% (smoking-intermediate genetic risk interaction), 5.30% (NOx-high genetic risk interaction), 6.55% (PM2.5-high genetic risk interaction), and 4.99% (PM2.5-intermediate genetic risk interaction). We estimated that 73.46% of lung cancer cases could be attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors after adjusting for the correlation between them. CONCLUSION: High genetic risk and several modifiable factors may increase the risk of incident lung cancer. Participants with a high genetic risk may be more vulnerable to developing lung cancer if exposed to smoking and/or high air pollution. Our findings provide evidence that the majority of incident lung cancer cases could be prevented by eliminating modifiable risk factors.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380809

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs) are one kind of replacement chemistry for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Recent studies have shown that Cl-PFESAs could interfere with thyroid function in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the link between Cl-PFESAs and thyroid function remains scarce. In this study, we focused on two representative legacy perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and two PFOS alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs) in the general adult population from a cross-sectional study, the "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China". Three serum thyroid hormones (THs), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4), were measured. We fitted generalized linear regression, restricted cubic spline regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression models to assess associations of individual Cl-PFESAs, legacy PFAS, and PFAS mixtures with THs, respectively. We found individual PFAS and their mixtures were nonlinearly associated with THs. The estimated changes of the TSH level (µIU/mL) at the 95th percentile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the 5th percentile were -0.74 (95% CI: -0.94, -0.54) and -1.18 (95% CI: -1.37, -0.98), respectively. The present study provided epidemiological evidence for the association of 6:2 Cl-PFESA with thyroid hormone levels in the general adult population.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 155028, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High atmospheric temperature has been associated with the occurrence of bacillary dysentery (BD). Recent studies have suggested that hot extremes may influence health outcomes, however, none have examined the association between hot extremes and BD risk, especially at the national level. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect and attributable burden of hot extremes on bacillary dysentery (BD) cases and to identify populations at high risk of BD. METHODS: Daily incident BD data of 31 capital cities from 2010 to 2018 were collected from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, weather data was obtained from the fifth generation of the European Re-Analysis Dataset. Three types of hot extremes, including hot day, hot night, and hot day and night, were defined according to single or sequential occurrence of daytime hot and nighttime hot within 24 h. A two-stage analytical strategy combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) was used to evaluate city-specific associations and national pooled estimates. RESULTS: Hot extremes were significantly associated with the risk of BD on lagged 1-6 days. The overall cumulative relative risk (RR) was 1.136 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.022, 1.263] for hot day, 1.181 (95% CI: 1.019, 1.369) for hot night, and 1.154 (95% CI: 1.038, 1.283) for hot day and night. Northern residents, females, and children younger than or equal to 14 years old were vulnerable under hot night, southern residents were vulnerable under hot day, and males were vulnerable under hot day and night. 1.854% (95% CI: 1.294%, 2.205%) of BD cases can be attributable to hot extremes, among which, hot night accounted for a large proportion. CONCLUSIONS: Hot extremes may significantly increase the incidence risk and disease burden of BD. Type-specific protective measures should be taken to reduce the risk of BD, especially in those we found to be particularly vulnerable.

4.
Environ Int ; 160: 107084, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the associations between residential green space and blue space (water) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incidence, which have rarely been examined. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis using data of the UK Biobank study, a large prospective cohort. Incident cases of IBD were ascertained through linkage to health administrative datasets. Residential green space, blue space and natural environment (land coverage percentage) were estimated using land use data. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the associations between the exposures and IBD incidence with adjustment for a wide array of potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 216,868 participants without IBD at baseline were studied with an average follow-up of 11.7 years, contributing to 2.5 million person-years. During the follow-up, 1271 incident IBD cases were identified. In fully adjusted models, participants with green space coverage at 300 m buffer in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles had 18.2% [HR = 0.818, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.715, 0.936] and 15.4% (HR = 0.846, 95%CI: 0.736, 0.972) lower risks of incident IBD compared with those in the 1st tertile, respectively. Similar results were found for blue space [HR = 0.858 (95%CI: 0.750, 0.982) for 2nd vs 1st tertile; HR = 0.785 (95%CI: 0.685, 0.899) for 3rd vs 1st tertile]. Negative associations were also observed for natural environment. Stronger associations were observed in participants from more deprived areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that residential green space, blue space and natural environment might be protective factors against IBD.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 817: 152789, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low temperature and air pollution exposures have been associated with the risk of anxiety, their combined effects remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent and interactive effects of low temperature and air pollution exposures on anxiety. METHOD: Using a case-crossover study design, the authors collected data from 101,636 outpatient visits due to anxiety in three subtropical Chinese cities during the cold season (November to April in 2013 through 2018), and then built conditional logistic regression models based on individual exposure assessments [temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and twelve cold spell definitions. Additive-scale interactions were assessed using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). RESULTS: Both cold spell and air pollution were significantly associated with outpatients for anxiety. The effects of cold spell increased with its intensity, ranging from 8.98% (95% CI: 2.02%, 16.41%) to 15.24% (95% CI: 6.75%, 24.39%) in Huizhou. Additionally, each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 was associated with a 1.51% (95% CI: 0.61%, 2.43%), 1.58% (95% CI: 0.89%, 2.28%), 13.95% (9.98%, 18.05%) and 11.84% (95% CI: 8.25%, 15.55%) increase in outpatient visits for anxiety. Synergistic interactions (RERI >0) of cold spell with all four air pollutants on anxiety were observed, especially for more intense cold spells. For particulate matters, these interactions were found even under mild cold spell definitions [RERI: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.21) for PM2.5, and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.33) for PM10]. Stratified analyses yielded a pronounced results in people aged 18-65 years. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that both cold spell and air pollution are important drivers of the occurrence of anxiety, and simultaneous exposure to these two factors might have synergistic effects on anxiety. These findings highlight the importance of controlling air pollution and improving cold-warning systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(19): 28527-28537, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988821

RESUMO

Much attention has been paid to the health effects of ambient particulate matter pollution; the effects of gaseous air pollutants have not been well studied. Emergency ambulance calls (EACs) may provide a better indicator of the acute health effects than the widely used health indicators, such as mortality and hospital admission. We estimated the short-term associations between gaseous air pollutants [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)] and EACs for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in seven Chinese cities from 2014 to 2019. We used generalized additive models and random-effects meta-analysis to examine the city-specific and pooled associations. Stratified analyses were conducted by age, sex, and season. A total of 1,626,017 EACs were observed for all-cause EACs, including 230,537 from cardiovascular diseases, and 96,483 from respiratory diseases. Statistically significant associations were observed between NO2 and EACs for all-cause diseases, while the effects of SO2 were positive, but not statistically significant in most models. No significant relationship was found between O3 and EACs. Specifically, each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 2-day moving average concentration of NO2 was associated with a 1.07% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40%, 1.76%], 0.76% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.34%) and 0.06% (95% CI: -1.57%, 1.73%) increase in EACs due to all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. Stratified analysis showed a larger effect of NO2 on all-cause EACs in the cold season [excess relative risk (ERR): 0.33% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.60%) for warm season, ERR: 0.77% (95% CI: 0.31%, 1.23%) for cold season]. Our study indicates that acute exposures to NO2 might be an important trigger of the emergent occurrence of all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and this effect should be of particular concern in the cold season. Further policy development for controlling gaseous air pollution is warranted to reduce the emergent occurrence of cardiopulmonary diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambulâncias , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(22): 32788-32799, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020151

RESUMO

We aimed to estimate the spatiotemporal trends in the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to both household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP) and ambient particulate matter (APM) from 1990 to 2019 and compared the possible differences between the burdens attributable to APM and HAP. The number of deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years of life lost (YLLs) of COPD attributable to HAP from solid fuels and APM during 1990-2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019. The proportion of YLLs in DALYs and average YLLs per COPD death were also calculated. Subgroup analyses by sex, age, and socio-demographic index (SDI) were conducted. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used to assess the temporal trend of age-standardized rate of mortality (ASMR) and DALYs (ASDR). Over the past 30 years, we observed a clear downward trend in COPD deaths attributable to HAP and an upward trend by 97.61% in COPD deaths attributable to APM. The global COPD burden attributable to APM in 2019 was higher than those due to HAP, except in low-SDI regions. For both HAP and APM, YLLs continued to predominate in DALYs of COPD, with an average YLLs per death of more than 10 years in different regions. The ASMR was higher in males and lower in high-SDI regions. The ASMR and ASDR attributable to HAP decreased globally in all age groups during 1990-2019, while those attributable to APM increased among people older than 80 years and in regions with lower SDI. Our study reveals an increasing trend in APM-attributable COPD burden over the past three decades. Comparatively, the global burden due to HAP decreased markedly, but it was still pronounced in low-SDI regions. Continued efforts on PM mitigation are needed for COPD prevention.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
8.
Environ Int ; 158: 106913, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the associations of legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and glucose homeostasis remain discordant. Understanding of PFAS alternatives is limited, and few studies have reported joint associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of novel PFAS alternatives (chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids, Cl-PFESAs and perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) and two legacy PFASs (Perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) with glucose-homeostasis markers and explore joint associations of 13 legacy and alternative PFASs with the selected outcomes. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of 1,038 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. Associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives with glucose-homeostasis were explored in single-pollutant models using generalized linear models with natural cubic splines for PFASs. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models were applied to assess joint associations of exposures and outcomes. Sex-specific analyses were also conducted to evaluate effect modification. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, both legacy (PFOA, PFOS) and alternative (Cl-PFESAs and PFBA) PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers in single-pollutant models. For example, in the total study population, estimated changes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fasting glucose at the 95th percentile of 6:2Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the thresholds were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.21) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.62). Positive joint associations were found in BKMR models with 6:2Cl-PFESA contributing most. Sex-specific associations existed in both single- and multi-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Legacy and alternative PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers. 6:2Cl-PFESA was the primary contributor. Sex-specific associations were also identified. These results indicate that joint associations and effect modification should be considered in risk assessment. However, further studies are recommended to strengthen our findings and to elucidate the mechanisms of action of legacy and alternative PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Sulfônicos
9.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111974, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research attention has been paid to anthropogenic heat emissions (AE), temperature increase generated by human activity such as lighting, transportation, manufacturing, construction, and building climate controls. However, there is no epidemiological data available to investigate the association between anthropogenic heat emissions and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of conditions that increase risk of stroke, heart disease and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between AE and MetS in China. METHODS: We recruited 15,477 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, a cross-sectional study in northeastern China. We retrieved anthropogenic heat flux by collecting socio-economic and energy consumption data as well as satellite-based nighttime light and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets, including emissions from buildings, transportation, human metabolism, and industries. We also measured MetS components consisting of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to assess the associations between AE and MetS. RESULTS: The median flux of total AE was 30.98 W/m2 and industrial AE was the dominant contributor (87.64%). The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of MetS for the 75th and 95th percentiles of the total AE against the threshold were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.38) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.47, 1.85). Greater AE was associated with higher odds of MetS in a dose-response pattern, and the lowest point of U-shape curve indicated the threshold effect. Participants who are young and middle-aged exhibited stronger associations between AE and MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel findings reveal that AE are positively associated with MetS and that associations are modified by age. Further investigations into the mechanisms of the effects are needed.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Glicemia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150634, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597565

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the lipid interference effects of legacy PFASs, however, no studies on PFAS alternatives and blood lipids have been published. In this study, we explored the association between Cl-PFESAs, a typical PFASs alternative in China, and blood lipid profiles in 1336 Guangzhou community residents using linear and non-linear regression models. The results showed a deleterious effect of Cl-PFESAs and blood lipids: adjusted estimates (ß) for TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C per natural log unit increase of 6:2 Cl-PFESA were 0.029 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.038), 0.075 (95% CI: 0.049, 0.101), 0.035 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.049) and -0.071 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.058), respectively. The association between Cl-PFESAs and dyslipidemia was also positively significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a non-linear relationship was observed in Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels using a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model. In summary, our research suggested a negative impact of Cl-PFESAs on blood lipid patterns and a possible non-linear association.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , China/epidemiologia , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Lipídeos , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113082, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases, however, its effect on length of hospital stays (LOS) and cost for these diagnoses remain unclear. METHODS: We collected hospital admission information for respiratory diseases from all 11 cities in the Shanxi Province of China during 2017-2019. We assessed individual-level exposure by using an inverse distance weighting approach based on geocoded residential addresses. A generalized additive model was built to delineate city-specific effects of SO2 on hospitalization, hospital expenditure, and length of hospital stay for respiratory diseases. The overall effects were obtained by random-effects meta-analysis. We further estimated the respiratory burden attributable to SO2 by comparing different reference concentrations. RESULTS: We observed significant effects of SO2 exposure on respiratory diseases. At the provincial level, each 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2 on lag03 was associated with a 0.63% (95% CI: 0.14-0.11) increase in hospital admission, an increase of 4.56 days (95% CI: 1.16-7.95) of hospital stay, and 3647.97 renminbi (RMB, Chinese money) (95% CI: 1091.05-6204.90) in hospital cost. We estimated about 6.13 (95% CI: 1.33-11.10) thousand hospital admissions, 65.77 million RMB (95% CI: 19.67-111.87) in hospital expenditure, and 82.13 (95% CI: 20.87-143.40) thousand days of hospital stay could have potentially been avoided had the daily SO2 concentrations been reduced to WHO's reference concentration (40 µg/m3). Variable values in correspondence with this reference concentration could reduce the hospital cost and LOS of each case by 52.67 RMB (95% CI: 15.75-89.59) and 0.07 days (95% CI: 0.02-0.117). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that short-term ambient SO2 exposure is an important risk factor of respiratory diseases, indicating that continually tightening policies to reduce SO2 levels could effectively reduce respiratory disease burden in Shanxi Province.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effects of different chemical components of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) on asthma is limited, and the methodology to compare the relative importance of different PM2.5 components is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the associations between PM2.5 components and asthma and investigate which constituent of PM2.5 possessed the most harmful effect on asthma. METHODS: A total of 45,690 subjects in 6 countries were surveyed from 2007 to 2010. We geocoded the residential community addresses of the participants and used satellite remote sensing and chemical transport modeling to estimate their annual average concentrations of PM2.5 constituents. Mixed-effects generalized additive models were utilized to examine the associations between PM2.5 constituents and prevalence of asthma. We further used counterfactual analyses to determine the potential number of asthma cases. RESULTS: We identified 6178 patients with asthma among the participants, producing an asthma prevalence of 13.5%. The odds ratio for asthma associated with per-SD increment was 1.12 for PM2.5 mass, 1.12 for organic carbon, 1.18 for black carbon, 1.19 for sulfate, 1.28 for ammonium, and 1.21 for nitrate after controlling for potential confounders. Our counterfactual analyses suggested that ammonium was responsible for a substantial decline in asthma cases (by 1382 cases, corresponding to 22.37% of overall cases) if the concentration was reduced to the 5th percentile of the current level. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that some chemical components of PM2.5 (including black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate) might be hazardous constituents contributing to the prevalence of asthma; among them, ammonium might be responsible for a substantial proportion of asthma cases if reduced to a certain level.

13.
Toxics ; 9(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564372

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) could have adverse effects on children's respiratory health. However, previous studies mainly focused on asthma and wheezing. Evidence for allergic rhinitis and bronchitic symptoms (e.g., persistent cough and phlegm) associated with O3 is limited, and results from existing studies are inconsistent. This study included a total of 59,754 children from the seven northeastern cities study (SNEC), who were aged 2 to 17 years and from 94 kindergarten, elementary and middle schools. Information on doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (AR), persistent cough, and persistent phlegm was collected during 2012-2013 using a standardized questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Information for potential confounders was also collected via questionnaire. Individuals' exposure to ambient ozone (O3) during the four years before the investigation was estimated using a satellite-based random forest model. A higher level of O3 was significantly associated with increased risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms. After controlling for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) were 1.13 (1.07-1.18), 1.10 (1.06-1.16), and 1.12 (1.05-1.20) for AR, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, respectively, associated with each interquartile range (IQR) rise in O3 concentration. Interaction analyses showed stronger adverse effects of O3 on AR in children aged 7-17 years than those aged 2-6 years, while the adverse association of O3 with cough was more prominent in females and children aged 7-12 years than in males and children aged 2-6 and 13-17 years. This study showed that long-term exposure to ambient O3 was significantly associated with higher risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms in children, and the association varies across age and gender. Our findings contribute additional evidence for the importance of controlling O3 pollution and protecting children from O3 exposure.

14.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 11: 100153, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There was lack of data on the burdens and trends of upper and lower respiratory infections (URIs and LRIs) over the past three decades in China. METHODS: We estimated the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to upper and lower respiratory infections (URIs and LRIs) and attributable risk factors in China by a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. Incidence, mortality, and DALYs were stratified by sex, age, and province. Risk factors for respiratory infections were analyzed from exposure data. FINDINGS: The age-standardized incidence rates of URIs and LRIs were 179,077 and 3926 per 100,000 persons in 2019, with a 7•52% and 35•07% decrease from 1990, respectively. Moreover, 2801 and 185,264 persons died of URIs and LRIs in 2019, respectively. DALYs for URIs and LRIs also decreased from 1,516,727 in 1990 to 928,617 in 2019 and from 38,278,504 in 1990 to 4,020,676 in 2019. The burden of URIs and LRIs were generally similar in males and females, but relatively higher in the new-borns and the elderly. Child malnutrition and low birth weight were the most important cause of age-standardized DALYs of LRIs and URIs, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Future URI and LRI prevention strategies should focus on the maternal and child health, air pollution, and tobacco control, especially in young children and the elderly population. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFA0606200); National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041021); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (20ykpy86) and Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2019A1515110003); Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (No.: INV-006371).

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147060, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with mortality and hospital admission, emergency ambulance calls (EACs) could be a more accurate outcome indicator to reflect the health effects of short-term air pollution exposure. However, such studies have been scarce, especially on a multicity scale in China. METHODS: We estimated the associations of different diameter particles [i.e., inhalable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PMc), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] with EACs for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in seven Chinese cities. We collected data on EACs and air pollution from 2014 to 2019. We used generalized additive models and random-effects meta-analysis to examine the city-specific and overall associations. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine the effect modifications of gender, age, and season. RESULTS: Significant associations of PM10 and PM2.5 with EACs were observed, while the PMc associations were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses. Specifically, each 10 µg/m3 increase in 2-day moving average concentration of PM10 was associated with a 0.25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04%, 0.47%] increase in all-cause EACs, 0.13% (95% CI: -0.01%, 0.26%) in cardiovascular EACs, and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.04%, 0.66%) in respiratory EACs. The corresponding increases in daily EACs for PM2.5 were 0.30% (95% CI, 0.03%, 0.57%), 0.13% (95% CI, -0.07%, 0.33%), and 0.46% (95% CI, 0.01%, 0.92%). Season of the year also modifies the association between particulate matter pollution and EACs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 were positively associated with daily all-cause and respiratory-related EACs. The associations were stronger during warm season than cold season. Our findings suggest that the most harmful fraction of particulate matter pollution is PM2.5, which has important implications for current air quality guidelines and regulations in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambulâncias , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Thorax ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the effects of ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) on hospital cost and length of hospital stay for respiratory diseases in China. METHODS: We estimated ambient air pollution exposure for respiratory cases through inverse distance-weighted averages of air monitoring stations based on their residential address and averaged at the city level. We used generalised additive models to quantify city-specific associations in 11 cities in Shanxi and a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects. We further estimated respiratory burden attributable to PM2.5 using the standards of WHO (25 µg/m3) and China (75 µg/m3) as reference. RESULTS: Each 10 µg/m3 increase in lag03 PM2.5 corresponded to 0.53% (95% CI: 0.33% to 0.73%) increase in respiratory hospitalisation, an increment of 3.75 thousand RMB (95% CI: 1.84 to 5.670) in hospital cost and 4.13 days (95% CI: 2.51 to 5.75) in length of hospital stay. About 9.7 thousand respiratory hospitalisations, 132 million RMB in hospital cost and 145 thousand days of hospital stay could be attributable to PM2.5 exposures using WHO's guideline as reference. We estimated that 193 RMB (95% CI: 95 to 292) in hospital cost and 0.21 days (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.30) in hospital stay could be potentially avoidable for an average respiratory case. CONCLUSION: Significant respiratory burden could be attributable to PM2.5 exposures in Shanxi Province, China. The results need to be factored into impact assessment of air pollution policies to provide a more complete indication of the burden addressed by the policies.

17.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(3): 100139, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189495

RESUMO

The evidence for the effects of environmental factors on COVID-19 case fatality remains controversial, and it is crucial to understand the role of preventable environmental factors in driving COVID-19 fatality. We thus conducted a nationwide cohort study to estimate the effects of environmental factors (temperature, particulate matter [PM2.5, PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ozone [O3]) on COVID-19 case fatality. A total of 71,808 confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified and followed up for their vital status through April 25, 2020. Exposures to ambient air pollution and temperature were estimated by linking the city- and county-level monitoring data to the residential community of each participant. For each participant, two windows were defined: the period from symptom onset to diagnosis (exposure window I) and the period from diagnosis date to date of death/recovery or end of the study period (exposure window II). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between these environmental factors and COVID-19 case fatality. COVID-19 case fatality increased in association with environmental factors for the two exposure windows. For example, each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, O3, and NO2 in window I was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI 1.09, 1.13), 1.10 (95% CI 1.08, 1.13), 1.09 (95 CI 1.03, 1.14), and 1.27 (95% CI 1.19, 1.35) for COVID-19 fatality, respectively. A significant effect was also observed for low temperature, with a hazard ratio of 1.03 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) for COVID-19 case fatality per 1°C decrease. Subgroup analysis indicated that these effects were stronger in the elderly, as well as in those with mild symptoms and living in Wuhan or Hubei. Overall, the sensitivity analyses also yielded consistent estimates. Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and low temperature during the illness would play a nonnegligible part in causing case fatality due to COVID-19. Reduced exposures to high concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, and NO2 and low temperature would help improve the prognosis and reduce public health burden.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(28): 37195-37203, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715123

RESUMO

There are relatively few studies that focus on the health effects of exposure to size-specific particles on respiratory mortality in China. We aimed to examine the association between different particle sizes and mortality from cause-specific respiratory diseases. We used a time series model with a quasi-Poisson link to investigate the relationship between different particle sizes and mortality from respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), pneumonia, and asthma in Shenzhen during 2014-2017. A total of 3716 mortalities due to respiratory diseases were collected. Both PM1 and PM2.5 were associated with mortality of overall respiratory diseases, COPD, and pneumonia. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 at lag03 was associated with a 12.21% (95% CI: 2.59%, 22.75%) increase in respiratory mortality, and each IQR increase in PM2.5 at lag03 corresponded to a 12.09% (95% CI: 2.52%, 22.56%) increase in respiratory mortality. PM1-2.5 was not associated with mortality from all-cause or cause-specific respiratory diseases. This study suggests that both PM1 and PM2.5 may increase the risk of mortality due to respiratory diseases in Shenzhen, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 31(1): 54-62, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184496

RESUMO

To evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and hyperuricemia, we prospectively followed 1748 traffic police officers without hyperuricemia at baseline (2009-2014) from 11 districts in Guangzhou, China. We calculated six-year average PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations using data collected from air monitoring stations. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28-1.68) for PM10, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.00-1.51) for SO2, and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) for NO2. We also identified changes in the ratio of serum uric acid to serum creatinine concentrations (ua/cre) per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants as 11.54% (95% CI: 8.14%-14.93%) higher for PM10, 5.09% (95% CI: 2.76%-7.42%) higher for SO2, and 5.13% (95% CI: 2.35%-7.92%) higher for NO2, respectively. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with a higher incidence of hyperuricemia and an increase in ua/cre among traffic police officers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Environ Res ; 193: 110512, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential impacts of daily ambient fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) exposure on year of life lost (YLL) due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) remain uncertain. We aimed to estimate the improvement in IHD-related life expectancy by attaining the daily air quality standards of ambient PM2.5 in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was based on daily mortality data covering 96 Chinese cities from 2013 to 2016. Regional- and national-associations between IHD-related YLLs and daily PM2.5 were estimated by generalized additive models. We further evaluated the IHD-related avoidable YLLs with an assumption that the daily PM2.5 was below the ambient air quality standards of World Health Organization (WHO) and China, and calculated the improvement of life expectancy by dividing the avoidable YLLs by the overall number of IHD mortality. We totally recorded 1,485,140 IHD deaths from 2013 to 2016. At the national level, we found a positive association between IHD-related YLLs and daily PM2.5. Per 10 µg/m3 increment of four-day averaged ambient PM2.5 related to an increase of 0.40 IHD-related YLLs (95% CI: 0.28, 0.51). By achieving the WHO's air quality guideline, we estimated that an averaged number of 1346.94 (95% CI: 932.61, 1761.27) YLLs can be avoided for the IHD deaths in each city. On average, the life expectancy can be improved by 0.15 years (95% CI: 0.11, 0.19) for each death. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a nationwide picture of the life expectancy improvements by reaching the daily PM2.5 standards in China, indicating that people can live longer in an environment with higher air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Isquemia Miocárdica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência
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