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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126853, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported the effects of long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution on years of life lost (YLL), but these effects may not represent the full impact. This study aims to estimate potential benefits in life time from adhering to daily ambient PM2.5 concentration standards/guidelines. METHODS: This study evaluated the relationship between daily ambient PM2.5 level and YLL using a two-stage approach with generalized additive models and meta-analysis. Potential life expectancy gains were then estimated by presuming that daily PM2.5 levels were in compliance with the Chinese and WHO standards. In addition, the attributable fraction of YLL due to excess PM2.5 exposure was also calculated. RESULTS: During 2013-2016, 459,468 non-accidental deaths were recorded in the six cities of Pearl River Delta, China. Each 10 µg/m3 increment in four-day average (lag03) level of PM2.5 was related to an increment of 13.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.74, 20.87] years of life lost. Implementation of the WHO guidelines might avoid 180,980.83 YLLs (95% CI: 78,116.07, 283,845.60), which corresponded to 0.39 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.62) years of increased life time per death. Additionally, an estimated 0.15% (95% CI: 0.06%, 0.23%) or 2.04% (95% CI: 0.88%, 3.20%) of YLLs could be attributed to PM2.5 exposures higher than the Chinese or WHO guidelines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that people might live longer by controlling daily PM2.5 concentration and highlights the need to adopt stricter standards in China.

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(1): e1003027, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) is one leading cause of disease burden, but no study has quantified the association between daily PM2.5 exposure and life expectancy. We aimed to assess the potential benefits in life expectancy by attaining the daily PM2.5 standards in 72 cities of China during 2013-2016. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied a two-stage approach for the analysis. At the first stage, we used a generalized additive model (GAM) with a Gaussian link to examine the city-specific short-term association between daily PM2.5 and years of life lost (YLL); at the second stage, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate the regional and national estimations. We further estimated the potential gains in life expectancy (PGLE) by assuming that ambient PM2.5 has met the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS, 75 µg/m3) or the ambient air quality guideline (AQG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) (25 µg/m3). We also calculated the attributable fraction (AF), which denoted the proportion of YLL attributable to a higher-than-standards daily mean PM2.5 concentration. During the period from January 18, 2013 to December 31, 2016, we recorded 1,226,849 nonaccidental deaths in the study area. We observed significant associations between daily PM2.5 and YLL: each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-day-averaged (lag02) PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to an increment of 0.43 years of life lost (95% CI: 0.29-0.57). We estimated that 168,065.18 (95% CI: 114,144.91-221,985.45) and 68,684.95 (95% CI: 46,648.79-90,721.11) years of life lost can be avoided by achieving WHO's AQG and Chinese NAAQS in the study area, which corresponded to 0.14 (95% CI: 0.09-0.18) and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.04-0.07) years of gain in life expectancy for each death in these cities. We observed differential regional estimates across the 7 regions, with the highest gains in the Northwest region (0.28 years of gain [95% CI: 0.06-0.49]) and the lowest in the North region (0.08 [95% CI: 0.02-0.15]). Furthermore, using WHO's AQG and Chinese NAAQS as the references, we estimated that 1.00% (95% CI: 0.68%-1.32%) and 0.41% (95% CI: 0.28%-0.54%) of YLL could be attributable to the PM2.5 exposure at the national level. Findings from this study were mainly limited by the unavailability of data on individual PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that significantly longer life expectancy could be achieved by a reduction in the ambient PM2.5 concentrations. It also highlights the need to formulate a stricter ambient PM2.5 standard at both national and regional levels of China to protect the population's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Análise de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado/normas
3.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(2): 340-347, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with various health outcomes. Its effect on hand-grip strength, a measurement of the construct of muscle strength and health status, remains largely unknown. METHODS: We used the survey data from 31,209 adults ≥ 50 years of age within Wave 1 of the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health in six low- and middle-income countries. The outdoor concentration of fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) was estimated using satellite data. Domestic fuel type and ventilation were used as indicators of indoor air pollution. We used multilevel linear regression models to examine the association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and hand-grip strength, as well as the potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: We found inverse associations between both indoor and outdoor air pollution and hand-grip strength. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in 3 years' averaged concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 corresponded to 0.70 kg (95% CI: -1.26, -0.14) lower hand-grip strength; and compared with electricity/liquid/gas fuel users, those using solid fuels had lower hand-grip strength (ß = -1.25, 95% CI: -1.74, -0.75). However, we did not observe a statistically significant association between ventilation and hand-grip strength. We further observed that urban residents and those having a higher education level had a higher association between ambient PM2.5 and hand-grip strength, and men, young participants, smokers, rural participants, and those with lower household income had higher associations between indoor air pollution and hand-grip strength. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both indoor and outdoor air pollution might be important risk factors of poorer health and functional status as indicated by hand-grip strength.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135046, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies examining the short-term effects of temperature on health were based on the daily scale, few were at the hourly level. Revealing the relationship between unfavorable temperatures on an hourly basis and health is conducive to the development of more accurate extreme temperature early warning systems and reasonable dispatch of ambulances. METHODS: Hourly data on temperature, air pollution (including PM2.5, O3, SO2 and NO2) and emergency ambulance calls (EACs) for all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases from January 16, 2014 to December 31, 2016 were obtained from Luoyang, China. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to assess the association between hourly temperature and ambulance calls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The fractions of EACs attributable to non-optimum temperatures were also estimated. RESULTS: Hourly temperature was associated with increased ambulance calls with a varying lag pattern. Extreme hot temperature (>32.1 °C) was positively associated with all-cause, cardiovascular diseases at lag 0-30 h and lag 0-9 h, while no significant effects were found for respiratory morbidity. Extreme cold temperature (<-2.5 °C) was positively associated with all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity at lag 56-157 h, 50-145 h and 123-170 h. An overall EACs fraction of 6.84% [Backward estimate, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.01%, 8.59%] could be attributed to non-optimum temperatures, and more contributions were caused by cold [Backward estimate: 6.06% (95% CI: 5.10%, 8.48%)] than by heat [Backward estimate: 0.79% (95% CI: 0.12%, 1.45%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Extreme hot temperature may lead to increased ambulance calls within a few hours, while extreme cold temperature may not increase ambulance calls until more than 2 days later. Effective measures, such as forming hourly temperature warning standards, optimizing ambulance services at extreme temperatures, etc., should be taken to reduce the unfavorable temperature - associated EACs burden.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Transtornos Respiratórios , Sons Respiratórios , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
6.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(6): 1019-1028, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845236

RESUMO

Gestational hypertension (GH) is a common complication during pregnancy. GH is regarded as a potential public health challenge for pregnant women and infants. Limited evidence has linked ambient air pollution to an increased GH risk. However, most of the studies were conducted in developed countries, with inconsistent results obtained. The present study was performed to explore whether exposure to particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) was related to elevated odds of GH in a Chinese population. This population-based cohort study involved 38 115 pregnant women in Wuhan, China. All information was collected from the Wuhan Maternal and Child Health Management Information System, using standardized quality control. The daily air pollutant data for PM2.5 and O3 were obtained from the 20 monitoring stations of the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center during 2014. The nearest monitor approach was applied to individual exposure assessment of PM2.5 and O3 for each participant. After adjusting for major confounders and other air pollutants, a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations was found to correlate to a 1.14-fold [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09, 1.20] and a 1.05-fold (95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) increase in GH risk, respectively. Additionally, stronger relationships between GH risk and PM2.5 and O3 exposure were observed in women who conceived in winter and summer, respectively. These findings suggest that air pollutants may contribute to the development of GH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Idade Materna , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133956, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution have been conducted on a daily time scale, while hourly associations remain unclear. METHODS: We collected the hourly data of emergency ambulance calls (EACs), ambient air pollution, and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2016 in Luoyang, a central Chinese city in Henan Province. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the hourly effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2) on EACs for all natural causes and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We further examined the effect modification by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure using stratified analyses. RESULTS: In the single-pollutant models, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were associated with an immediate increase in all-cause morbidity at 0, 0, 12, 10 h, separately, after exposure to these pollutants (excess risks: 0.19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%, 0.35%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.24%), 0.28% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.54%) and 0.52% (95% CI: 0.06%, 0.99%), respectively). These effects remained generally stable in two-pollutant models. SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with an immediate increase in risk of cardiovascular morbidity, but the effects on respiratory morbidity were relatively more delayed. The stratified analyses suggested that temperature could modify the association between PM2.5 and EACs, humidity and atmospheric pressure could modify the association between SO2 and EACs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 may have transiently acute effects on all-cause morbidity and subacute effects on respiratory morbidity. SO2 and NO2 may also have immediate effects on cardiovascular morbidity. Findings of this study have important implications for the formation of hourly air quality standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ambulâncias , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108581, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323395

RESUMO

Although myopia has been largely ignored among the elderly population, there is an increased risk of myopia with advancing age. Ambient air pollution is one potential contributor to vision impairments, but few epidemiological studies have demonstrated such an association. This cross-sectional survey collected the information of 33,626 subjects aged ≥50 years in six developing countries during 2007-2010. Myopia was identified based on questions related to symptoms of myopia. The annual concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were estimated with the satellite data and chemical transport model. We examined the associations between the two pollutants and myopia using mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust variance estimation (sandwich estimation). We observed J-shaped associations between the two pollutants and myopia, and identified 12 and 54 µg/m3 as the threshold concentrations. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.21) and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.38) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above their threshold, respectively. In addition, the interaction analysis suggested a synergistic interaction of these two pollutants on myopia in the additive model, with a synergistic index of 1.81 (Bootstrapping 95% CI: 0.92, 4.94). Our results indicate that long-term exposures to PM2.5 and O3 might be important environmental risk factors of myopia in the elderly, and suggest that more efforts should be taken to reduce airborne PM2.5 and O3 levels to protect vision health.

9.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184496

RESUMO

To evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and hyperuricemia, we prospectively followed 1748 traffic police officers without hyperuricemia at baseline (2009-2014) from 11 districts in Guangzhou, China. We calculated six-year average PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations using data collected from air monitoring stations. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28-1.68) for PM10, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.00-1.51) for SO2, and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) for NO2. We also identified changes in the ratio of serum uric acid to serum creatinine concentrations (ua/cre) per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants as 11.54% (95% CI: 8.14%-14.93%) higher for PM10, 5.09% (95% CI: 2.76%-7.42%) higher for SO2, and 5.13% (95% CI: 2.35%-7.92%) higher for NO2, respectively. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with a higher incidence of hyperuricemia and an increase in ua/cre among traffic police officers.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 136-142, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effects of short-term and long-term exposure to ambient fine particle matter (PM2.5) on acute nasopharyngitis. METHODS: A total of 9468 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited from 10 communities in four cities of Guangdong, China during the baseline survey in 2014, and they were followed-up from January 2015 to December 2016. Air pollution exposure was assessed based on the daily concentrations (short-term) and annual concentrations (long-term) of the nearby air monitoring station and the survey date. A mixed-effect logistic model and Cox proportional hazards model were used to quantify the short-term and long-term associations after adjustment for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Significantly positive associations were found between both short-term and long-term exposures of PM2.5 and acute nasopharyngitis. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.23) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in daily PM2.5 at lag2 day (short-term effects), and the hazard risk was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.25) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 (long-term effects). Stronger associations between short-term PM2.5 exposure and acute nasopharyngitis were observed among men (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17) and participants aged above 65 years (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23) in the stratified analyses. No significant association was found in women (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.10) or young participants ≤65 years (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04). However, for the long-term exposure, the hazard risk was higher for participants younger than 65 years (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.32) than the older group (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that both short-term and long-term exposures to higher concentrations of PM2.5 could increase the risk of acute nasopharyngitis.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Nasofaringite/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190318, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848806

RESUMO

Importance: Which cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, overweight or obesity, and dyslipidemia) are more sensitive to long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and whether participants with these conditions are more susceptible to the cardiovascular effects of air pollution remain unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the associations among long-term exposure to air pollutants, cardiometabolic risk factors, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 through December 31, 2009, in 3 cities in Northeastern China. Participants were adults aged 18 to 74 years who had lived in study area for 5 years or longer. Data analysis was performed from May 1 through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Long-term (2006-2008) exposure to air pollutants was measured using a spatiotemporal statistical model (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5] and ≤1.0 µm [PM1.0]) and data from air monitoring stations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10.0 µm [PM10.0], sulfur dioxide [SO2], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ozone [O3]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular disease was determined by self-report of physician-diagnosed CVD. Blood pressure, body mass index, and levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured using standard methods. Results: Participants included 15 477 adults (47.3% women) with a mean (SD) age of 45.0 (13.5) years. The prevalence of CVD was 4.8%, and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors ranged from 8.6% (hyperbetalipoproteinemia) to 40.5% (overweight or obesity). Mean (SD) air pollutant concentrations ranged from 35.3 (5.5) µg/m3 (for NO2) to 123.1 (14.6) µg/m3 (for PM10.0). Associations with air pollutants were identified for individuals with hyperbetalipoproteinemia (eg, odds ratio [OR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.03-1.78] for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0) and the weakest association for those with for overweight or obesity (eg, OR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09] for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0). Cardiometabolic risk factors only partially mediated associations between air pollution and CVD. However, they modified the associations such that greater associations were found in participants with these cardiometabolic conditions (eg, ORs for CVD and per 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.12-1.33] in participants with hyperbetalipoproteinemia and 1.07 [95% CI, 0.98-1.16] in participants without hyperbetalipoproteinemia). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based study of Chinese adults with CVD, long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, and the strongest associations were observed for hyperbetalipoproteinemia. In addition, participants with cardiometabolic risk factors may have been more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution on CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Exposição por Inalação , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
12.
Chemosphere ; 222: 665-670, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735966

RESUMO

The World Health Organization sets up the Ambient Air Quality Guidelines mainly based on short-term and long-term health effects of air pollution. Previous studies, however, have generally revealed a non-threshold concentration-response relationship between air pollution and health, making it difficult to determine a concentration, below which no obvious health effects can be observed. Here we proposed a novel approach based on the concept of "number needed to treat", specifically, we calculated the reduction in air pollution concentrations needed to avoid one death corresponding to different hypothetical concentration standards; the one with the smallest value would be the most practical concentration standard. As an example, we applied this approach to the daily standard of ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) in four Chinese cities. The calculation was based on the association between daily mortality and ambient PM2.5, which was examined by a generalized additive model with adjustment of important covariates. Significant associations were observed between PM2.5 and mortality. Our analyses suggested that it is appropriate to have 50 µg/m3 as the daily standard of ambient PM2.5 for the study area, compared to the current standard of which were directly adopted from the national standard of 75 µg/m3. This novel approach should be considered when planning and/or revising the ambient air quality guidelines/standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/normas , China , Cidades , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Environ Res ; 172: 81-88, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776734

RESUMO

Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China. Values for nine serum liver function biomarkers were determined by full-automatic blood biochemical analyzer. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between PFAAs and continuous liver function biomarkers and logistic regression to assess markers dichotomized per clinical reference intervals. Results indicated that serum PFAAs concentrations were associated with liver biomarker levels suggestive of hepatotoxicity, especially for liver cell injury. For example, a 1 ln-unit increase in total- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure was associated with a 7.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9%, 11.0%] higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in serum. Interestingly, we observed association between branched PFAA isomers and liver biomarkers. For example, one ln-unit increase in branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers exposure was associated with a 4.3% increase in ALT level (95% CI: 1.2%, 7.4%) and a 33.0% increased odds of having abnormal ALT (95% CI: 5.0%, 67.0%). Also, we found that PFNA had positive association with ALT [(6.2%, 95% CI: 3.1%, 9.4%) and AST levels (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.5%, 4.5%)]. Logistic regression results showed that PFPeA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA and PFTeDA had statistically association with abnormal prealbumin. Conclusively, our results support previous studies showing association between PFAAs exposure and liver function biomarkers. We found new evidence that branched PFAAs isomer exposure is associated with the risk of clinically relevant hepatocellular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos , Hepatopatias , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Caprilatos , China , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Environ Res ; 170: 252-259, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597289

RESUMO

No evidence exists concerning the association between blood pressure and ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), a major component of PM2.5 (≤ 2.5 µm) particles, and potentially causing more hazardous health effects than PM2.5. We aimed to examine the associations of blood pressure in adults with both PM1 and PM2.5 in China. In 2009, we randomly selected 24,845 participants aged 18-74 years from 33 communities in China. Using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer, we measured blood pressure. Long-term exposure (2006-08) to PM1 and PM2.5 were estimated using a spatial statistical model. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and blood pressure and hypertension prevalence, controlling for multiple covariates. A 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1 was significantly associated with an increase of 0.57 (95% CI 0.31-0.83) mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.19 (95% CI 0.03-0.35) mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and a 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) increase in odds for hypertension. Similar associations were detected for PM2.5. Furthermore, PM1-2.5 showed no association with blood pressure or hypertension. In summary, both PM1 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with elevated blood pressure levels and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. In addition, most of the pro-hypertensive effects of PM2.5 may come from PM1. Further longitudinal designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(2): 283-290, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener places may be protective against diabetes mellitus (DM) but evidence is scarce and comes mainly from developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of residential greenness with DM prevalence and glucose-homeostasis markers in Chinese adults and whether these associations were mediated by air pollution, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS: In 2009, a total of 15,477 adults from the cross-sectional 33 Communities Chinese Health Study provided blood samples and completed a questionnaire. We considered fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin concentrations, as well as the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and ß-cell function, as glucose-homeostasis markers. DM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association's recommendations. Residential greenness was estimated by two satellite-derived vegetation indexes - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter ≤2.5 µm were used as air pollution proxies. Associations were assessed by two-level adjusted logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS: A 0.1-unit increase in NDVI500 m and SAVI500 m was significantly associated with lower odds of DM by factors of 0.88 (95% Confidence Interval 0.82-0.94) and 0.80 (0.72-0.90), respectively. Higher greenness was also significantly associated with lower fasting and 2-h glucose levels, 2-h insulin level, as well as lower insulin resistance and higher ß-cell function. Air pollution and body mass index significantly mediated 6.9-51.1% and 8.6-78.7% these associations, respectively, while no mediation role was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher residential greenness appears to be associated with a lower prevalence of DM. This association might be due to glucose and insulin metabolism and pancreatic ß-cell function. Lower levels of air pollution and body mass index can be pathways linking greenspace to diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Plantas , Características de Residência , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Glicemia/análise , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Imagens de Satélites
16.
Environ Res ; 168: 141-145, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient PM2.5 is considered harmful to the respiratory system. However, little has been shown about the long-term association between ambient PM2.5 and asthma. METHODS: A survey from 2007 to 2010 was conducted among adults over 50 years of age in six low- and middle- income countries (including China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa), which belonged to one part of a prospective cohort study - the Study on global AGEing and adult health. The yearly mean PM2.5 concentrations of the residential communities of participants were estimated from remote sensing data. A mixed effects model was applied to investigate the association between ambient PM2.5 and asthma. RESULTS: A total of 4553 asthma patients were identified among the 29,249 participants in this study, producing a prevalence of 15.57%. For each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted prevalence ratio of asthma was 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.01, 1.08) after controlling for the effects of sex, age, BMI, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure. Further analyses showed that males and smokers might be particularly vulnerable populations. Additionally, it was estimated that about 5.12% of the asthma cases in the study population (95% Confidence Interval: 1.44%, 9.23%) could be attributed to long-term PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 might be an important risk factor of asthma. Effective air pollution reduction measures should be taken to reduce PM2.5 concentrations in order to reduce the associated asthma cases and disease burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Países em Desenvolvimento , Material Particulado , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Federação Russa , África do Sul
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 168-173, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollutant directly contacts with the eyes, however, the effect of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on vision impairment, such as presbyopia, has been kept largely unknown. METHODS: We surveyed a total of 36,620 participants aged 50 years and above in six low- and middle-income countries. Ambient annual concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 for the residential community were estimated using satellite data and chemical transport model. A mixed effects model was utilized to assess the effects of ambient PM2.5 and O3 on presbyopia, as well as their combined effects. RESULTS: A total of 13,841 presbyopia cases were identified among the participants with a prevalence rate of 41.17%. For both PM2.5 and O3, we found a J-shaped exposure-response relationship with the threshold being identified at 15 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 55 µg/m3 for O3. The odds ratio (OR) of presbyopia was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.21) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 above 15 µg/m3 and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.54) for O3 above 55 µg/m3 after adjusting for various potential confounding factors. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and O3 on presbyopia in the additive model, the combined effect was significantly larger than the sum of their individual effects, with a synergistic index of 2.39. CONCLUSION: This study supports that exposures to ambient PM2.5 and O3 might be important risk factors of presbyopia among old adults, and simultaneously exposure to high level of the two pollutants could intensify their individual effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Presbiopia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Environ Pollut ; 243(Pt B): 815-823, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243190

RESUMO

The linkage between ambient air pollution exposure and occurrence of diabetes mellitus is not well defined. This study examined the association between exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese elderly people. We surveyed 11,504 adults aged ≥50 years in China, estimated the annual concentrations of ambient PM2.5 using a satellite-based model of aerosol optical depth information. We employed a generalized mixed effects model to examine the association between PM2.5 and the prevalence of diabetes and explored potential effect modifiers. We estimated diabetes burden attributable to ambient PM2.5 if the observed association is indeed causal. The diabetes prevalence among the participants was 6.5% (n = 745). Our analysis found a statistically significant association between PM2.5 and diabetes. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12, 1.43) for each 10 µg/m3 increment in ambient PM2.5. Stratified analyses found a lower association among the participants with higher consumption of fruit. We estimated that 22.02% (95% CI: 8.59%, 43.29%) of the diabetes cases could be ascribable to ambient PM2.5. Our finding suggests that PM2.5 exposures could increase the risk of diabetes, and if causal, could be responsible for substantial burden of diabetes among the Chinese elderly; and higher intakes of fruit might reduce the harmful effects of PM2.5, however, due to the limitation of the cross-sectional study design, more studies are warranted to confirm this observation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência
20.
Environ Int ; 119: 485-492, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the lipidemic effects of air pollution, particularly in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with lipid levels and dyslipidemias in China. METHODS: In 2009, a total of 15,477 participants aged 18-74 years were recruited from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study conducted in three Northeastern China cities. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured in participants' blood specimens. Three year (2006-08) average air pollution concentrations were assessed using data from 33 communities (particles with diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) were predicted using a spatial statistical model) or 11 air monitoring stations (particles with diameters ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)). Associations were evaluated by two-level logistic and generalized linear regression models. RESULTS: We detected many significant associations between exposure to air pollutants (especially for PM1 and PM2.5) and blood lipid levels. Most of the associations suggested deleterious effects on blood lipid markers (e.g., a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1 was associated with 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.0), 2.9% (95% CI: -3.3, 9.3), and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.6, 3.9) higher levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, respectively, but 1.4% (95% CI: -1.8, -0.9) lower HDL-C levels), although beneficial associations were found for O3. In analysis with dyslipidemias, all the observed associations suggested deleterious lipidemic effects of air pollutants, and no significant beneficial association was observed for O3. Stratified analyses showed that the associations were stronger in overweight or obese participants; sex and age modified the associations, but the pattern of effects was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient air pollution was associated with both altered lipid profiles and dyslipidemias, especially among overweight or obese participants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso/sangue , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
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