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1.
Planta ; 253(1): 8, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387047

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism underlying white petal color in Brassica napus was revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying flower color in this crop are known less. Here, we performed metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the yellow-flowered rapeseed cultivar 'Zhongshuang 11' (ZS11) and the white-flowered inbred line 'White Petal' (WP). The total carotenoid contents were 1.778-fold and 1.969-fold higher in ZS11 vs. WP petals at stages S2 and S4, respectively. Our findings suggest that white petal color in WP flowers is primarily due to decreased lutein and zeaxanthin contents. Transcriptome analysis revealed 10,116 differentially expressed genes with a fourfold or greater change in expression (P-value less than 0.001) in WP vs. ZS11 petals, including 1,209 genes that were differentially expressed at four different stages and 20 genes in the carotenoid metabolism pathway. BnNCED4b, encoding a protein involved in carotenoid degradation, was expressed at abnormally high levels in WP petals, suggesting it might play a key role in white petal formation. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the transcriptome data. The results of this study provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in rapeseed petals, and the candidate genes identified in this study provide a resource for the creation of new B. napus germplasms with different petal colors.

2.
Anal Methods ; 12(41): 4996-5003, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021259

RESUMO

Different valence states of chromium ions possess huge differences in toxicity. Hence, it is an innovative idea to design a reasonable probe to detect Cr according to the toxicity characteristics of different valence states. We report a novel, rapid, simple and accurate probe for the detection of Cr3+ and Cr6+ ions. As a probe, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are successfully modified using tartaric acid (TA) and 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) via a two-step modification; the probe shows an increase in the sensitivity towards Cr6+ and decreases towards Cr3+, which is consistent with their toxicity characteristics, benefiting the assessment of total Cr toxicity. The proposed probe achieves considerable two-channel (ultraviolet absorption spectrum and naked eye vision) detection of Cr3+ and Cr6+ providing wide linearity regions and low detection limits. Meanwhile, the results of the interference experiments and analysis of the real samples showed high selectivity and accuracy of the proposed method. With popularization, this method possesses great potential in environmental monitoring and control.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881902

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), a key enzyme in carotenoid metabolism, cleaves carotenoids to form apo-carotenoids, which play a major role in plant growth and stress responses. CCD genes had not previously been systematically characterized in Brassica napus (rapeseed), an important oil crop worldwide. In this study, we identified 30 BnCCD genes and classified them into nine subgroups based on a phylogenetic analysis. We identified the chromosomal locations, gene structures, and cis-promoter elements of each of these genes and performed a selection pressure analysis to identify residues under selection. Furthermore, we determined the subcellular localization, physicochemical properties, and conserved protein motifs of the encoded proteins. All the CCD proteins contained a retinal pigment epithelial membrane protein (RPE65) domain. qRT-PCR analysis of expression of 20 representative BnCCD genes in 16 tissues of the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') revealed that members of the BnCCD gene family possess a broad range of expression patterns. This work lays the foundation for functional studies of the BnCCD gene family.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Dioxigenases/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Brassica napus/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Dioxigenases/classificação , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825473

RESUMO

The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein family is important in the export of toxins and other substrates, but detailed information on this family in the Brassicaceae has not yet been reported compared to Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we identified 57, 124, 81, 85, 130, and 79 MATE genes in A. thaliana, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea, and Brassica nigra, respectively, which were unevenly distributed on chromosomes owing to both tandem and segmental duplication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes could be classified into four subgroups, shared high similarity and conservation within each group, and have evolved mainly through purifying selection. Furthermore, numerous B. napusMATE genes showed differential expression between tissues and developmental stages and between plants treated with heavy metals or hormones and untreated control plants. This differential expression was especially pronounced for the Group 2 and 3 BnaMATE genes, indicating that they may play important roles in stress tolerance and hormone induction. Our results provide a valuable foundation for the functional dissection of the different BnaMATE homologs in B. napus and its parental lines, as well as for the breeding of more stress-tolerant B. napus genotypes.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210032

RESUMO

Phosphorus transporter (PHT) genes encode H2PO4-/H+ co-transporters that absorb and transport inorganic nutrient elements required for plant development and growth and protect plants from heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the roles of PHTs in Brassica compared to Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we identified and extensively analyzed 336 PHTs from three diploid (B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. nigra) and two allotetraploid (B. juncea and B. napus) Brassica species. We categorized the PHTs into five phylogenetic clusters (PHT1-PHT5), including 201 PHT1 homologs, 15 PHT2 homologs, 40 PHT3 homologs, 54 PHT4 homologs, and 26 PHT5 homologs, which are unevenly distributed on the corresponding chromosomes of the five Brassica species. All PHT family genes from Brassica are more closely related to Arabidopsis PHTs in the same vs. other clusters, suggesting they are highly conserved and have similar functions. Duplication and synteny analysis revealed that segmental and tandem duplications led to the expansion of the PHT gene family during the process of polyploidization and that members of this family have undergone purifying selection during evolution based on Ka/Ks values. Finally, we explored the expression profiles of BnaPHT family genes in specific tissues, at various developmental stages, and under heavy metal stress via RNA-seq analysis and qRT-PCR. BnaPHTs that were induced by heavy metal treatment might mediate the response of rapeseed to this important stress. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of PHT family genes in Brassica species. Our findings improve our understanding of PHT family genes and provide a basis for further studies of BnaPHTs in plant tolerance to heavy metal stress.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049941

RESUMO

Brassica plants exhibit both high biomass productivity and high rates of heavy metal absorption. Metallothionein (MT) proteins are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins that play crucial roles in protecting plants from heavy metal toxicity. However, to date, MT proteins have not been systematically characterized in Brassica. In this study, we identified 60 MTs from Arabidopsis thaliana and five Brassica species. All the MT family genes from Brassica are closely related to Arabidopsis MTs, encoding putative proteins that share similar functions within the same clades. Genome mapping analysis revealed high levels of synteny throughout the genome due to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication events. We analyzed the expression levels of 16 Brassica napus MTs (BnaMTs) by RNA-sequencing and real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in plants under As3+ stress. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues. Our results suggest that BnaMT3C plays a key role in the response to As3+ stress in B. napus. This study provides insight into the phylogeny, origin, and evolution of MT family members in Brassica, laying the foundation for further studies of the roles of MT proteins in these important crops.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metalotioneína/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica napus/química , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Metalotioneína/química , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1872, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662447

RESUMO

Brassica napus L. is a widely cultivated oil crop and provides important resources of edible vegetable oil, and its quality is determined by fatty acid composition and content. To explain the genetic basis and identify more minor loci for fatty acid content, the multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM) was used to identify genomic regions associated with fatty acid content in a genetically diverse population of 435 rapeseed accessions, including 77 winter-type, 55 spring-type, and 303 semi-winter-type accessions grown in different environments. A total of 149 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were found to be associated with fatty acid content and composition, including 34 QTNs that overlapped with the previously reported loci, and 115 novel QTNs. Of these, 35 novel QTNs, located on chromosome A01, A02, A03, A05, A06, A09, A10, and C02, respectively, were repeatedly detected across different environments. Subsequently, we annotated 95 putative candidate genes by BlastP analysis using sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana homologs of the identified regions. The candidate genes included 34 environmentally-insensitive genes (e.g., CER4, DGK2, KCS17, KCS18, MYB4, and TT16) and 61 environment-sensitive genes (e.g., FAB1, FAD6, FAD7, KCR1, KCS9, KCS12, and TT1) as well as genes invloved in the fatty acid biosynthesis. Among these, BnaA08g08280D and BnaC03g60080D differed in genomic sequence between the high- and low-oleic acid lines, and might thus be the novel alleles regulating oleic acid content. Furthermore, RT-qPCR analysis of these genes showed differential expression levels during seed development. Our results highlight the practical and scientific value of mrMLM or QTN detection and the accuracy of linking specific QTNs to fatty acid content, and suggest a useful strategy to improve the fatty acid content of B. napus seeds by molecular marker-assisted breeding.

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