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1.
Glycoconj J ; 38(5): 551-560, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515908

RESUMO

Methylene blue (MB) is one of the most common cationic dyes to detect heparin. As the sulfate residue presented in heparin was the main contributor to bind with MB, the UV performance of the MB with selectively desulfated heparin derivatives was investigated. It was found that the sulfate residue in different heparin analogues did not show the equal ability to attract MB binding. The stoichiometry of sulfate with MB among the heparin and derivatives was verified as a non-constant number. For the two selectively desulfated heparin derivatives: sulfate elimination at 6-O (6-OdeS) and N-acetylated heparin (N-deS-Acetyl), the MB to sulfate ratios were significantly higher than for heparin. For the not fully diminished sulfate at 2-O heparin derivative (2-OdeS), the MB-SO3- ratio of 2-OdeS was between 6-OdeS, N-deS-Acetlyl and heparin. Although in a distinct sulfation position, the MB-SO3- ratio of 6-OdeS and N-deS-Acetyl was almost equal, which agreed with the comparable total desulfation degree between 6-OdeS and N-deS-Acetyl. In addition, compared to heparin groups, the non-desulfated gs-HP showed no significantly different MB-SO3- ratio with heparin. The above results demonstrated that compared with the sulfate location and glycan composition of heparin, the content of sulfate was the most essential factor for the MB binding.

2.
J Inorg Biochem ; 224: 111581, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419760

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is one of the ubiquitous environmental pollutants which have raised wide concerns about the potential toxic effects and public health threat. For deeply investigating the nephrotoxicity induced by Cu, the effects of Cu on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney were first to analyze by combining metabolomics and molecular biology techniques. In this study, broiler chicks were fed with different contents of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg Cu) for 49 d. The results of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscope showed that Cu could induce apoptosis in kidney, characterized by the increasing of TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondrial vacuolation. Additionally, a total of 62 differential metabolites were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways including riboflavin metabolism, glutathione metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism, which were closely to mitochondrial metabolism. Meanwhile, the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and the change of mRNA and protein expression levels associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial dynamics confirmed that Cu could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Cu induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney. Moreover, this study highlighted the metabolic characteristics of Cu to kidney, which suggested that mitochondrial metabolism could be considered as an important factor influencing toxicity.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55140-55153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128171

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal which is being used widely in the industry and agriculture. However, the overuse of Cu makes it a common environmental pollutant. In order to investigate the testicular toxicity of Cu, the pigs were divided into three groups and were given Cu at 10 (control), 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The feeding period was 80 days. Serum hormone results showed that Cu exposure decreased the concentrations of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and increased the concentration of thyroxine (T4). Meanwhile, Cu exposure upregulated the expression of Cu transporter mRNA (Slc31a1, ATP7A, and ATP7B) in the testis, leading to increase in testicular Cu and led to spermatogenesis disorder. The Cu exposure led to an increased expression of antioxidant-related mRNA (Gpx4, TRX, HO-1, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, CAT), along with increase in the MDA concentration in the testis. In LG group, the ROS in the testis was significantly increased. Furthermore, the apoptotic-related mRNA (Caspase3, Caspase8, Caspase9, Bax, Cytc, Bak1, APAF1, p53) and protein (Active Caspase3) and the autophagy-related mRNA (Beclin1, ATG5, LC3, and LC3B) expression increased after Cu exposure. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the testicular tissue decreased, while the number of apoptotic cells increased, as a result of oxidative stress. Overall, our study indicated that the Cu exposure promotes testicular apoptosis and autophagy by mediating oxidative stress, which is considered as the key mechanism causing testicular degeneration as well as dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cobre , Testículo , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 218: 112284, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945902

RESUMO

Copper poses huge environmental and public health concerns due to its widespread and persistent use in the past several decades. Although it is well established that at higher levels copper causes nephrotoxicity, the exact mechanisms of its toxicity is not fully understood. Therefore, this experimental study for the first time investigates the potential molecular mechanisms including transcriptomics, metabolomics, serum biochemical, histopathological, cell apoptosis and autophagy in copper-induced renal toxicity in pigs. A total of 14 piglets were randomly assigned to two group (7 piglets per group) and treated with a standard diet (11 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed) and a high copper diet (250 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed). The results of serum biochemical tests and renal histopathology suggested that 250 mg/kg CuSO4 in the diet significantly increased serum creatinine (CREA) and induced renal tubular epithelial cell swelling. Results on transcriptomics and metabolomics showed alteration in 804 genes and 53 metabolites in kidneys of treated pigs, respectively. Combined analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics indicated that different genes and metabolism pathways in kidneys of treated pigs were involved in glycerophospholipids metabolism and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, copper induced mitochondrial apoptosis characterized by increased bax, bak, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 expressions while decreased bcl-xl and bcl2/bax expression. Exposure to copper decreased the autophagic flux in terms of increased number of autophagosomes, beclin1 and LC3b/LC3a expression and p62 accumulation. These results indicated that the imbalance of glycosphingolipid metabolism, the impairment of autophagy and increase mitochondrial apoptosis play an important role in copper induced renal damage and are useful mechanisms to understand the mechanisms of copper nephrotoxicity.

5.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 105(5): 908-915, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713505

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diet type (normal or low Ca and P diets) and 25(OH)D3 supplementation (with or with not 2000 IU/kg 25(OH)D3 ) during late gestation on the serum biochemistry and reproductive performance of aged sows and newborn piglets. A total of 40 sows, which are at their 7th parity, were divided into four groups: control group (standard diet), low Ca group, 25(OH)D3 group and low Ca plus 25(OH)D3 group respectively (10 in each group). The blood of sows on day 100 and 114 of gestation and newborn piglets was collected for serum biochemical analyses. Results showed that the reproductive performance of sows was not influenced by diet type or 25(OH)D3 supplementation (p > 0.05). And the addition of 25(OH)D3 to diet low Ca group caused that the content of serum TG in sows on day 100 of gestation was not different from that of the control group (p > 0.05). The addition of 25(OH)D3 significantly decreases the content of serum TG in sows on day 114 of gestation (p < 0.05). The addition of 25(OH)D3 significantly increased the content of serum UREA and CREA in newborn piglets (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding 2000 IU/kg 25(OH)D3 to aged sows at late gestation had no effects on reproductive performance, but partly contributed to keeping serum TG balance in sows and may indicate increased pressure on kidneys in newborn piglets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Suínos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8871328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532499

RESUMO

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an effective substrate for mitochondrial energy metabolism and is known to prevent neurodegeneration and attenuate heavy metal-induced injury. In this study, we investigated the function of ALC in the recovery of mouse spermatogonia cells (GC-1 cells) after heat stress (HS). The cells were randomly divided into three groups: control group, HS group (incubated at 42°C for 90 min), and HS + ALC group (treatment of 150 µM ALC after incubated at 42°C for 90 min). After heat stress, all of the cells were recovered at 37°C for 6 h. In this study, the content of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cell supernatant and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was markedly decreased, while the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase3) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. Furthermore, the number of autophagosomes and the expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Beclin1, and LC3II) and protein levels of p62 were increased, but the expression of LAMP1 was decreased in the HS group compared to the CON group. However, treatment with ALC remarkably improved cell survival and decreased cell oxidative stress. It was unexpected that levels of autophagy were markedly increased in the HS + ALC group compared to the HS group. Taken together, our present study evidenced that ALC could alleviate oxidative stress and improve the level of autophagy to accelerate the recovery of GC-1 cells after heat stress.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/citologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129572, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485040

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), a bio accumulative herbicide is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Due to continuous application, atrazine persists in the environment and causes deleterious impacts including neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and gut microbiota disorders. Therefore, this study for the first time reports the variation in the gut microbiota, induction of process of apoptosis and autophagy in mice induced by ATR. Results indicated that TUNEL-positive hepatocytes suggestive of apoptosis were increased in livers of different experimental mice. Results on metabolic analysis in liver tissues indicated an overall change in seventy-six metabolites particularly Uridine 5'-diphosphate, Propenoylcarnitine and Chinenoside V resulting in generation of energy-related metabolic disorders and imbalance of oxidation/autoxidation status. Results on gut microbiome inquisition showed that ATR changed the richness and diversity of gut microbiota of mice and number of Firmicutes. Moreover, results also revealed that ATR induced apoptosis via disruption of apoptotic (Bax, Bcl2, and Casp3) and autophagy (LC3/Map1lc3a, Beclin 1/Becn1 and P62/Sqstm1) genes. Results of our experimental study confirmed that changes in gut microbiota play a significant role in process of gut immune regulation and inflammation via different metabolites. In conclusion, the findings of our study provide a new idea for the involvement of mechanisms of detoxification in liver and inquisition of gut microbiota plays crucial role in regulation of physiological activities through liver-gut axis to mitigate toxic effects in animals.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Herbicidas , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Autofagia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Camundongos
8.
Clin Immunol ; 225: 108679, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485895

RESUMO

HER2-targeted therapy has not benefited patients with low levels of HER2 expression; however, combination therapy may be effective. Primary analysis of a phase IIb trial investigating the HER2-derived vaccine nelipepimut-S (NPS) did not benefit the intention-to-treat population, but subset analysis showed a benefit in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The subset analysis of this multicenter, randomized, single-blind, phase IIb trial identified significant improvement in 36-month disease-free survival (DFS) between NPS (n = 55) and placebo (n = 44) in TNBC (HR 0.25, p = 0.01) and those who express HLA-A24 (HR 0.41, p = 0.05). The TNBC cohort demonstrated improved 36-month DFS in those with HER2 1+ expression (HR 0.17, p = 0.01), HLA-A24 positivity (HR 0.08, p < 0.01), or in those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR 0.21, p < 0.01). NPS vaccination with trastuzumab was associated with improved 36-month DFS among patients with TNBC. The observed benefit to this high-risk subgroup warrants confirmation in a phase III trial.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Antígeno HLA-A24/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Efeito Placebo , Medicina de Precisão , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 65: 126721, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess copper (Cu) is an oxidative stress factor which associates with a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cu in primary chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEHs). METHODS: CEHs were isolated from 13 days old chicken embryos and followed by different concentration Cu (0, 10, 100, 200 µM) and/or ALC treatment (0.3 mg/mL) for 12 or 24 h. The effects of Cu exposure in CEHs were determined by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and ATP levels. The expression of mitochondrial dynamics-related genes and proteins were also detected. RESULTS: Results showed that Cu treatment (100 or 200 µM) significantly decreased CEHs viability, MMP and ATP levels, increased ROS and MDA levels in 12 or 24 h. The up-regulated mitochondrial fission genes and protein in 100 and 200 µM Cu groups suggested Cu promoted mitochondrial division but not fusion. However, the co-treatment of ALC and Cu alleviated those changes compared with the 100 or 200 µM Cu groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we speculated that Cu increased the oxidative stress and induced mitochondria dysfunction via disturbing mitochondrial dynamic balance in CEHs, and this process was not completely reversible.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124888, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360697

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), a transition metal with essential cellular functions, exerts toxic effects when present in excess by inducing oxidative stress. However, the Cu-induced crosstalk between mitophagy and apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, the mechanism of Cu-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by mitophagy and apoptosis was explored in vivo and in vitro. In in vivo experiments, chickens were fed a diet with various levels of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg) for 7 weeks, which led to ultrastructural damage, mitophagy, and apoptosis in liver tissue. In vitro experiments on primary chicken hepatocytes showed that Cu treatment for 24 h increased the numbers of mitophagosomes and upregulated PINK1, parkin, and p62 mRNA levels and parkin and p62 protein levels, inducing mitophagy. Moreover, treatment with 3- methyladenine (3-MA) aggravated Cu-induced S-phase arrest in cell cycle; increased the apoptotic rate; increased p53, Bak1, Bax, Cyt C, and Caspase3/cleaved-caspase3 mRNA and protein levels; and decreased Bcl2 mRNA and protein levels. However, rapamycin (Rapa) had the opposite effects on the above factors. In general, the results reveal that Cu exposure can cause mitophagy through the PINK1/Parkin pathway in chicken livers, and that mitophagy might attenuate Cu-induced mitochondrial apoptosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mitofagia , Animais , Apoptose , Cobre/toxicidade , Fígado , Mitocôndrias , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5332, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087697

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based cancer immunotherapies have shown great promise for inducing clinical regressions by targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAA). To expand the TAA landscape of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we performed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of HLA class I-bound peptides from 35 PDAC patient tumors. This identified a shared HLA-A*0101 restricted peptide derived from co-transcriptional activator Vestigial-like 1 (VGLL1) as a putative TAA demonstrating overexpression in multiple tumor types and low or absent expression in essential normal tissues. Here we show that VGLL1-specific CTLs expanded from the blood of a PDAC patient could recognize and kill in an antigen-specific manner a majority of HLA-A*0101 allogeneic tumor cell lines derived not only from PDAC, but also bladder, ovarian, gastric, lung, and basal-like breast cancers. Gene expression profiling reveals VGLL1 as a member of a unique group of cancer-placenta antigens (CPA) that may constitute immunotherapeutic targets for patients with multiple cancer types.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Antígeno HLA-A1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111366, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010598

RESUMO

To explore the effects of copper (Cu) on energy metabolism and AMPK-mTOR pathway-mediated autophagy in kidney, a total of 240 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomized into four equal groups and fed on the diets with different levels of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg) for 49 d. Results showed that excess Cu could induce vacuolar degeneration and increase the number of autophagosomes in kidney, and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and mRNA levels of energy metabolism-related genes were decreased with the increasing dietary Cu level. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the positive expressions of Beclin1 and LC3-II were mainly located in cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and increased significantly with the increasing levels of Cu. The mRNA levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-I, LC3-II, Dynein and the protein levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-II/LC3-I and p-AMPKα1/AMPKα1 were markedly elevated in treated groups compared with control group (11 mg/kg Cu). However, the mRNA and protein levels of p62 and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly decreased with the increasing levels of Cu. These results suggest that impaired energy metabolism induced by Cu may lead to autophagy via AMPK-mTOR pathway in kidney of broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126974, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470726

RESUMO

Copper is a widespread heavy metal in environment and has toxic effects when exposed. However, study of copper-induced male reproductive toxicity is still insufficient to report, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Keeping in view, RNA-Seq and metabolomic were performed to identify metabolic pathways that were distressed in mouse spermatogonia with the effect of copper sulfate, and the integrated analysis of the mechanism of copper administered GC-1 cells from metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Our results demonstrated that many genes and metabolites were regulated in the copper sulfate-treated cells. The differential metabolites analysis showed that 49 and 127 metabolites were significantly different in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. Meanwhile, a total of 2813 genes were up-regulated and 2488 genes were down-regulated in the treatment groups compared to those in the control groups. Interestingly, ophthalmic acid and gamma glutamylleucine were markedly increased by copper treatment in two modes. By integrating with transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we revealed that 37 and 22 most related pathways were over-enriched in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. Whereas, amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism play essential role in the potential relationship between DEGs and metabolites, which suggests that amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism may be the major metabolic pathways disturbed by copper in GC-1 cells. This study provides important clues and evidence for understanding the mechanisms responsible for copper-induced male spermatogenesis toxicity, and useful biomarkers indicative of copper exposure could be discovered from present study.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110715, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450432

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace mineral due to its biological activity. Excessive Cu can induce inflammatory response in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Here, 240 broilers were used to study the effects of excessive Cu on oxidative stress and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in immune organs. Chickens were fed with diet containing different concentrations of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of Cu/kg dry matter). The experiment lasted for 49 days. Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) on day 49 were collected for histopathological observation and assessment of oxidative stress status. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. The results indicated that excess Cu could increase the number and area of splenic corpuscle as well as the ratio of cortex and medulla in thymus and BF. Furthermore, excessive Cu intake could decrease activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); but increase contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1, IL-1ß; up-regulate mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-1ß, IL-2, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB and protein levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, NF-κB, p-NF-κB in immune organs. In conclusion, excessive Cu could cause pathologic changes and induce oxidative stress with triggered NF-κB pathway, and might further regulate the inflammatory response in immune organs of chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Cobre/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/enzimologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Baço/enzimologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timo/enzimologia , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia
15.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(2): 133-138, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328606

RESUMO

Lycopene is an antioxidant which has potential anti-diabetic activity, but the cellular mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, different concentrations of lycopene were used to treat pancreatic alpha and beta cell lines, and the changes of cell growth, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP levels and expression of related cytokines were determined. The results exhibited that lycopene did not affect cell growth, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, ROS and ATP levels of alpha cells, while it promoted the growth of beta cells, increased the ratio of S phase, reduced the ROS levels and increased the ATP levels of beta cells. At the same time, lycopene treatment elevated the mRNA expression levels of tnfα, tgfß and hif1α in beta cells. These findings suggest that lycopene plays cell-specific role and activates pancreatic beta cells, supporting its application in diabetes therapy.


Assuntos
Células Secretoras de Glucagon/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Licopeno/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163444

RESUMO

Water technologies have become new solutions to water scarcity and could play an increasingly crucial role in the future. However, theoretic and empirical studies on the economic effect of water technologies which incorporate water resources into a sustainable economic growth model remain scarce in northwest China. This article attempts to build a water technology endogenous model based on "learning by doing" theory to identify the mechanisms of water technologies affect economic growth due to changing water consumption. Considering the case of Northwest China in this empirical research, we apply the stochastic production frontier model by using panel data from 1996 to 2017. The results shows that progress in water technologies has indeed increased GDP growth and the current level of water technologies is not a key factor in eliminating the constraints of water resources. In addition, water scarcity still constrains economic growth in Northwest China and progress in water science and technology is the main power of all water technologies. Finally, the speed of water science and technology slows as the amount of water consumption increase and the impact of water technical efficiency on economic growth depends on water institutions of different areas. This study may enhance the policy relevance of water technological governance and economic growth transformation, which were beneficial for informing policies towards sustainable water resource utilization in northwest China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/economia , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Tecnologia , Água , Recursos Hídricos
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(11): 2515-2523, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preclinical data provide evidence for synergism between HER2-targeted peptide vaccines and trastuzumab. The efficacy of this combination was evaluated in patients with HER2 low-expressing breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial enrolled disease-free patients after standard therapy completion (NCT01570036). Eligible patients were HLA-A2, A3, A24, and/or A26+, and had HER2 IHC 1+/2+, FISH nonamplified breast cancer, that was node positive and/or hormone receptor-negative [triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)]. Patients received trastuzumab for 1 year and were randomized to placebo (GM-CSF, control) or nelipepimut-S (NPS) with GM-CSF. Primary outcome was 24-month disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary outcomes were 36-month DFS, safety, and immunologic response. RESULTS: Overall, 275 patients were randomized; 136 received NPS with GM-CSF, and 139 received placebo with GM-CSF. There were no clinicopathologic differences between groups. Concurrent trastuzumab and NPS with GM-CSF was safe with no additional overall or cardiac toxicity compared with control. At median follow-up of 25.7 (interquartile range, 18.4-32.7) months, estimated DFS did not significantly differ between NPS and control [HR, 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-1.25; P = 0.18]. In a planned exploratory analysis of patients with TNBC, DFS was improved for NPS versus control (HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.81, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of NPS with trastuzumab is safe. In HER2 low-expressing breast cancer, no significant difference in DFS was seen in the intention-to-treat analysis; however, significant clinical benefit was seen in patients with TNBC. These findings warrant further investigation in a phase III randomized trial.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
18.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 46(1): 75-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of combined scalp acupuncture and cognitive training on cognitive and motor functioning in patients with stroke during the recovery stage. METHODS: Seventy patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. Patients in the experimental group additionally received scalp acupuncture and cognitive training, while the control group received sham scalp acupuncture and cognitive training. The cognitive and motor functioning of all patients were assessed using MMSE, LOTCA, and FMA, before and 12 weeks after treatment. In addition, the plasma BDNF and NGF levels were measured from peripheral blood samples using ELISA kits. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, the MMSE, LOTCA and FMA scores were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. In the experimental group, there was an improvement in the total MMSE score, orientation, spatial executive function, the total LOTCA score, and the score of command of language orientation post-treatment. Significant improvements of BDNF and NGF were found in the experimental group after treatment, while only significant improvements of NGF was found in the control group after treatment. Both BDNF and NGF in the experiment group were higher than those in the control group at the last day of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined scalp acupuncture and cognitive training can efficiently enhance cognitive and motor functions in patients with stroke during the recovery stage, which may be a more effective rehabilitation treatment after stroke than routine therapy and rehabilitation training alone.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Cognição , Destreza Motora , Psicoterapia/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Adulto , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Couro Cabeludo
19.
Leukemia ; 34(6): 1626-1636, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908357

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting leukemia-associated antigens has shown promising results. Because of the heterogeneity of leukemia, vaccines with a single peptide have elicited only a limited immune response. Targeting several peptides together elicited peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in leukemia patients, and this was associated with clinical responses. Thus, the discovery of novel antigens is essential. In the current study, we investigated cyclin E as a novel target for immunotherapy. Cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 were found to be highly expressed in hematologic malignancies, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. We identified two HLA-A*0201 binding nonameric peptides, CCNE1M from cyclin E1 and CCNE2L from cyclin E2, which both elicited the peptide-specific CTLs. The peptide-specific CTLs specifically kill leukemia cells. Furthermore, CCNE1M and CCNE2L CTLs were increased in leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this was associated with desired clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 are potential targets for immunotherapy in leukemia.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Ciclina E/imunologia , Ciclinas/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-A2/imunologia , Leucemia/imunologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 195(2): 472-480, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444770

RESUMO

Chronic copper exposure impaired spermatogenesis in adult male mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic copper exposure can induce apoptosis of testicular cell and hypospermatogenesis via disturbing testosterone synthesis in adult male mice. In the present study, sixty CD-1 male mice were randomly divided into four groups, and were continuously administered for 8 weeks by oral gavage with copper sulfate at a dose of 0, 25, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively. We determined the content of serum and testicular copper, testicular coefficient, testicular histopathology, sperm count and motility, the mRNA and protein levels of Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, Leydig cell count, testosterone content, testosterone synthetase, and testosterone synthesis-related genes. The results showed that the copper levels in serum increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the copper levels in testes were significantly related to serum copper levels. Male mice given copper sulfate 100 and 150 dosage groups showed significant decreased in sperm motility and sperm number as well as increased in testes damage, and there was no significant change in testicular coefficient in the four groups. The mRNA levels of Bcl-2 decreased and Caspase-3 increased in 150 dosage group, and Bax increased in two higher dosage groups. Meanwhile, Caspase-3 and Bax proteins increased in 150 dosage group, and Bcl-2 protein decreased in three copper treatment groups. Nevertheless, there were no differences on the levels of testosterone content and testosterone synthetase of 3ß-HSD, 17ß-HSD, 17α-Hyd, and 20α-Hyd, mRNA levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Star, and quantity of Leydig cells in four groups. Overall, these data showed that chronic copper exposure led to copper residues in the testes, and the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg/day copper sulfate may induce hypospermatogenesis by increasing apoptosis without affecting testosterone secretion.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Cobre/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
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