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1.
Genomics ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014523

RESUMO

Pectin methyl-esterases (PMEs) play crucial roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified 81 PbrPMEs in pear. Whole-genome duplication and purifying selection drove the evolution of PbrPME gene family. The expression of 47 PbrPMEs was detected in pear pollen tube, which were assigned to 13 clusters by an expression tendency analysis. One of the 13 clusters presented opposite expression trends towards the changes of methyl-esterified pectins at the apical cell wall. PbrPMEs were localized in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Repression of PbrPME11, PbrPME44, and PbrPME59 resulted in the inhibition of pear pollen tube growth and abnormal deposition of methyl-esterified pectins at pollen tube tip. Pharmacological analysis confirmed that reduced PbrPME activities repressed the pollen tube growth. Overall, we have explored the evolutionary characteristics of PbrPME gene family and found the key PbrPME genes that control the growth of pollen tube, which deepened the understanding of pear fertility regulation.

2.
Genomics ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057915

RESUMO

P-type ATPases are integral membrane transporters that play important roles in transmembrane transport in plants. However, a comprehensive analysis of the P-type ATPase gene family has not been conducted in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) or other Rosaceae species. Here, we identified 419 P-type ATPase genes from seven Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia). Structural and phylogenetic analyses revealed that P-type ATPase genes can be divided into five subfamilies. Different subfamilies have different conserved motifs and cis-acting elements, which may lead to functional divergence within one gene family. Dispersed duplication and whole-genome duplication may play critical roles in the expansion of the P-type ATPase family. Purifying selection was the primary force driving the evolution of P-type ATPase family genes. Based on the dynamic transcriptome analysis and transient transformation of Chinese white pear fruit, Pbr029767.1 in the P3A subfamily were found to be associated with malate accumulation during pear fruit development. Using a co-expression network, we identified several transcription factors that may have regulatory relationships with the P-type ATPase gene family. Overall, this study lays a solid foundation for understanding the evolution and functions of P-type ATPase genes in Chinese white pear and six other Rosaceae species.

3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 14, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BAHD acyltransferase superfamily exhibits various biological roles in plants, including regulating fruit quality, catalytic synthesizing of terpene, phenolics and esters, and improving stress resistance. However, the copy numbers, expression characteristics and associations with fruit aroma formation of the BAHD genes remain unclear. RESULTS: In total, 717 BAHD genes were obtained from the genomes of seven Rosaceae, (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus avium, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Pyrus communis and Rubus occidentalis). Based on the detailed phylogenetic analysis and classifications in model plants, we divided the BAHD family genes into seven groups, I-a, I-b, II-a, II-b, III-a, IV and V. An inter-species synteny analysis revealed the ancient origin of BAHD superfamily with 78 syntenic gene pairs were detected among the seven Rosaceae species. Different types of gene duplication events jointly drive the expansion of BAHD superfamily, and purifying selection dominates the evolution of BAHD genes supported by the small Ka/Ks ratios. Based on the correlation analysis between the ester content and expression levels of BAHD genes at different developmental stages, four candidate genes were selected for verification as assessed by qRT-PCR. The result implied that Pbr020016.1, Pbr019034.1, Pbr014028.1 and Pbr029551.1 are important candidate genes involved in aroma formation during pear fruit development. CONCLUSION: We have thoroughly identified the BAHD superfamily genes and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their phylogenetic relationships, expansion patterns, and expression characteristics in seven Rosaceae species, and we also obtained four candidate genes involved in aroma synthesis in pear fruit. These results provide a theoretical basis for future studies of the specific biological functions of BAHD superfamily members and the improvement of pear fruit quality.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 225: 117524, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525631

RESUMO

Four kinds of main-chain benzoxazine polymers (PBZ) containing triarylamine (TAA) units were synthesized by Mannich reaction and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques, etc. Thermal, optical, photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied. The 50% of char residue is left in N2 at 800 °C. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and easily spin-coated onto indium­tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. All the polymers have voltage window ranging from 0 to 1.8 V, and the colors change from yellowish to dark red when voltage is applied. Meanwhile, device assembled from polymer exhibit significant color changes. Furthermore, the polymers also have promising potential application in explosive detection and resistance memory devices.

5.
Lab Med ; 51(1): 41-46, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine a method to reduce specimen hemolysis rates in pediatric blood specimens. METHODS: A total of 290 blood specimens from pediatric patients were classified into the capped group or uncapped group. The hemolysis index and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured using an automated biochemical analyzer. Also, we performed a paired test to measure the concentration of free hemoglobin in specimens from 25 randomly selected healthy adult volunteers, using a direct spectrophotometric technique. RESULTS: The hemolytic rate of capped specimens was 2-fold higher than that of uncapped specimens. We found significant differences for LDH. Also, there was a significant difference in the concentration of free hemoglobin in the random-volunteers test. CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating the residual negative pressure of vacuum blood-collection tubes was effective at reducing the macrohemolysis and/or microhemolysis rate.

6.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(1): 57-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurofilament light has shown promise as a biomarker for diagnosis, staging and prognosis in a wide range of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. This study explored the utility of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light in distinguishing primary psychiatric disorders from neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, a common diagnostic dilemma for psychiatrists and neurologists. METHODS: This cross-sectional retrospective pilot study assessed cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light on patients referred to a tertiary neuropsychiatry service from 2009 to 2017 for diagnostic assessment of neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms, where a neurodegenerative disorder was a differential diagnosis, who received lumbar punctures as part of a comprehensive workup. The most recent gold-standard clinical consensus diagnosis was categorised into psychiatric disorder or neurodegenerative or neurological disorder. Data from healthy controls were available for comparison. Data extraction and diagnostic categorisation was blinded to neurofilament light results. RESULTS: A total of 129 participants were included: 77 neurodegenerative or neurological disorder (mean age 57 years, including Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia), 31 psychiatric disorder (mean age 51 years, including schizophrenia, major depressive disorder) and 21 healthy controls (mean age 66 years). Neurofilament light was significantly higher in neurodegenerative or neurological disorder (M = 3560 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals = [2918, 4601]) compared to psychiatric disorder (M = 949 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals = [830, 1108]) and controls (M = 1036 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals = [908, 1165]). Neurofilament light distinguished neurodegenerative or neurological disorder from psychiatric disorder with an area under the curve of 0.94 (95% confidence intervals = [0.89, 0.98]); a cut-off of 1332 pg/mL was associated with 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION: Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light shows promise as a diagnostic test to assist with the often challenging diagnostic dilemma of distinguishing psychiatric disorders from neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. Further studies are warranted to replicate and expand on these findings, including on plasma neurofilament light.

7.
Stroke ; 51(2): 489-497, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884904

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Selection of patients with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment generally relies on dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography perfusion. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging requires injection of contrast, whereas computed tomography perfusion requires high doses of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a deep learning (DL)-based algorithm for assisting the selection of suitable patients with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment based on 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL). Methods- A total of 167 image sets of 3-dimensional pCASL data from 137 patients with acute ischemic stroke scanned on 1.5T and 3.0T Siemens MR systems were included for neural network training. The concurrently acquired dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce labels of hypoperfused brain regions, analyzed using commercial software. The DL and 6 machine learning (ML) algorithms were trained with 10-fold cross-validation. The eligibility for endovascular treatment was determined retrospectively based on the criteria of perfusion/diffusion mismatch in the DEFUSE 3 trial (Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke). The trained DL algorithm was further applied on twelve 3-dimensional pCASL data sets acquired on 1.5T and 3T General Electric MR systems, without fine-tuning of parameters. Results- The DL algorithm can predict the dynamic susceptibility contrast-defined hypoperfusion region in pCASL with a voxel-wise area under the curve of 0.958, while the 6 ML algorithms ranged from 0.897 to 0.933. For retrospective determination for subject-level endovascular treatment eligibility, the DL algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92%, with a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.95. When applied to the GE pCASL data, the DL algorithm achieved a voxel-wise area under the curve of 0.94 and a subject-level accuracy of 92% for endovascular treatment eligibility. Conclusions- pCASL perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with the DL algorithm provides a promising approach for assisting decision-making for endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

9.
Thorac Cancer ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to analyze the prognostic value of the combination of serum ALP and pleural effusion LDH (AL score) for malignant pleural effusion (MPE) patients. METHODS: This study includes retrospective, descriptive and observational research from 1 June 2006 to 1 December 2017, which aimed to identify prognostic factors related to MPE patients. We analyzed the association of various clinical features, routinely tested markers from peripheral blood and MPE at diagnosis and overall survival (OS). All MPE patients were assigned to three groups according to their AL score. The impact of the AL score and other prognostic factors were evaluated with multivariable regression. RESULTS: According to their AL score, 193 patients were assigned to three groups with 25 in group 0 (sALP < 65 U/L and pLDH < 155 U/L), 121 in group 1 (sALP > 65 U/L or pLDH > 155 U/L) and 47 (sALP > 65 U/L and pLDH > 155 U/L) in group 2. For groups 0, 1 and 2, median survival times (MST) were 23, 15 and 7 months, respectively. Among the three groups, MST, serum albumin level, C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the ratios of platelet-to-lymphocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte showed significant differences. The counts of neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and AL score (0 vs. 1, P = 0.038, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.858, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.034, 3.339]; 0 vs. 2, P = 0.001, HR: 2.993, 95% CI: [1.556, 5.531]) were independent prognostic indicators for OS of MPE patients. CONCLUSION: AL score is a promising indicator which can be used to predict the prognosis of MPE patients. It can assist physicians in the selection of patients for appropriate palliative treatment. KEY POINTS: To our knowledge, this paper is the first study that combined two enzymes (sALP and pLDH) from serum and pleural effusion and studied the prognostic value for MPE patients. It has been proved to be a promising indicator to assist physicians select patients for appropriate palliative treatment.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16546, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723225

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, common neuropathological lesions normally associated with some human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, remains poorly understood. In animals, ingestion of the tryptamine-alkaloid-rich phalaris pastures plants causes a disorder called Phalaris staggers, a neurological syndrome reported in kangaroos. The aim of the study was to characterise the clinical and neuropathological changes associated with spontaneous cases of Phalaris staggers in kangaroos. Gross, histological, ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical studies were performed to demonstrate neuronal accumulation of neuromelanin and aggregated α-synuclein. ELISA and mass spectrometry were used to detect serum-borne α-synuclein and tryptamine alkaloids respectively. We report that neurons in the central and enteric nervous systems of affected kangaroos display extensive accumulation of neuromelanin in the perikaryon without affecting neuronal morphology. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the typical structure of neuromelanin. While we demonstrated strong staining of α-synuclein, restricted to neurons, intracytoplasmic Lewy bodies inclusions were not observed. α-synuclein aggregates levels were shown to be lower in sera of the affected kangaroos compared to unaffected herd mate kangaroos. Finally, mass spectrometry failed to detect the alkaloid toxins in the sera derived from the affected kangaroos. Our preliminary findings warrant further investigation of Phalaris staggers in kangaroos, potentially a valuable large animal model for environmentally-acquired toxic synucleinopathy.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590372

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of 1,2-bis[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (S4), a sesamin derivative, on anti-inflammation and antiphotoaging in vitro and in vivo. Human skin fibroblasts were treated with S4 and did not show cytotoxicity under concentrations of 5-50 µM. In addition, S4 also reduced ultraviolet (UV)B-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, S4 inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) overexpression. Furthermore, S4 also inhibited UVB-induced Smad7 protein expression and elevated total collagen content in human dermal fibroblasts. For anti-inflammatory activity, S4 inhibited UVB-induced nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression and inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB) translocation into the nucleus. S4 ameliorated UVB-induced erythema and wrinkle formation in hairless mice. On histological observation, S4 also ameliorated UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia and collagen degradation. S4 reduced UVB-induced MMP-1, interleukin (IL)-6, and NF-ĸB expression in the mouse skin. The results indicated that S4 had antiphotoaging and anti-inflammatory activities, protecting skin from premature aging.

12.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819877977, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim of the study was to investigate the expression level and methylation status of the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and to evaluate the clinical utility of the marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We first used Immunohistochemistry (ICH) to explore the expression level of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues and then used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction to detect methylation status of secreted frizzled-related protein 2. RESULTS: Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression was notably reduced in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, whereas methylation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 was increased in the majority of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma specimens. CONCLUSION: Sum up, we have demonstrated the abnormal DNA hypermethylation, causing reduced or absent gene expression. Methylation testing of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 using epigenetic marker may be a significative screening method for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(11): 1448-1457, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506247

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Large longitudinal biomarkers database focusing on middle age is needed for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention. METHODS: Data for cerebrospinal fluid analytes, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar ß-amyloid with positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging-based brain structures, and clinical/cognitive outcomes were harmonized across eight AD biomarker studies. Statistical power was estimated. RESULTS: The harmonized database included 7779 participants with clinical/cognitive data: 3542 were 18∼65 years at the baseline, 5865 had longitudinal cognitive data for a median of 4.7 years, 2473 participated in the cerebrospinal fluid studies (906 had longitudinal data), 2496 participated in the magnetic resonance imaging studies (1283 had longitudinal data), and 1498 participated in the positron emission tomography amyloid studies (849 had longitudinal data). The database provides adequate power for detecting early biomarker changes, and demonstrates the feasibility of AD prevention trials on middle-aged individuals. DISCUSSION: The harmonized database is an optimum resource to design AD prevention trials decades before symptomatic onset.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11373-11379, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539240

RESUMO

Cadmium bioremediation with metal-binding proteins is primarily conducted using metallothioneins (MTs). However, in the present study, we investigated a non-MT cadmium-binding protein from Lentinula edodes (LECBP) as a remediation tool for cadmium biosorption in Escherichia coli. The results indicated that the expression of LECBP significantly enhanced the cadmium biosorption capacity of transgenic E. coli. The secondary structure and conformation of LECBP were changed after binding with cadmium as evidenced by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that carboxyl oxygen and amino nitrogen atoms were involved in the interaction between LECBP and cadmium. The results further demonstrated that glutamic acid and histidine residues are the potential binding sites. Our results have thus provided new insights into cadmium bioremediation in an aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Metalotioneína/química , Metalotioneína/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547364

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) exposure has been demonstrated as the most critical factor causing extrinsic skin aging and inflammation. This study explored the protective effects and mechanisms of sesamin against skin photodamage. Sesamin reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production after UVB irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts. The sesamin treatment attenuated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) overexpression induced by UVB exposure, and it significantly enhanced the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 protein expression. Sesamin also elevated the total collagen content in human fibroblasts by inhibiting UVB-induced mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7) protein expression. Sesamin reduced UVB-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression and inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation. Moreover, sesamin may regulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase pathways, which inhibit COX-2 expression. Sesamin could reduce UVB-induced inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia, collagen degradation, and wrinkle formation in hairless mice. It also reduced MMP-1, interleukin (IL-1), i-NOS, and NF-κB in the mouse skin. These results demonstrate that sesamin had antiphotodamage and anti-inflammatory activities. Sesamin has potential for use as a skin protection agent in antiphotodamage and skin care products.

16.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1857-1870, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548723

RESUMO

Recent anatomical evidence suggests a functionally significant back-projection pathway from the subiculum to the CA1. Here we show that the afferent circuitry of CA1-projecting subicular neurons is biased by inputs from CA1 inhibitory neurons and the visual cortex, but lacks input from the entorhinal cortex. Efferents of the CA1-projecting subiculum neurons also target the perirhinal cortex, an area strongly implicated in object-place learning. We identify a critical role for CA1-projecting subicular neurons in object-location learning and memory, and show that this projection modulates place-specific activity of CA1 neurons and their responses to displaced objects. Together, these experiments reveal a novel pathway by which cortical inputs, particularly those from the visual cortex, reach the hippocampal output region CA1. Our findings also implicate this circuitry in the formation of complex spatial representations and learning of object-place associations.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Perirrinal/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
17.
Genomics ; 111(5): 1097-1107, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533901

RESUMO

S-type anion channels, which play important roles in plant anion (such as nitrate and chloride) transport, growth and development, abiotic stress responses and hormone signaling. However, there is far less information about this family in Rosaceae species. We performed a genome-wide analysis and identified SLAC/SLAH gene family members in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and four other species of Rosaceae. A total of 21 SLAC/SLAH genes were identified from the five Rosaceae species. Based on the structural characteristics and a phylogenetic analysis of these genes, the SLAC/SLAH gene family could be classified into three main groups. Transcriptome data demonstrated that PbrSLAC/SLAH genes were detected in all parts of the pear. PbrSLAC/SLAH genes were only located on the plasma membrane in transient expression experiments in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells. These results provide valuable information that increases our understanding of the evolution, expression and functions of the SLAC/SLAH gene family in higher plants.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427967

RESUMO

The burden of obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases has been considered as an important risk factor for lupus patients. Therefore, whether obesity is involved in the over-activation of autoimmune response has attracted more and more attention. Hydroxychloroquine is a synthetic antimalarial drug and has been the clinical treatment of rheumatic diseases irreplaceable first-line drugs. Hydroxychloroquine has been suggested to have beneficial effects on lipids and insulin sensitivity, which may contribute in lowering high cardiovascular risk in SLE patients. However, its mechanism on insulin sensitivity and lipid disorders is far from being completely understood. In the present study, the therapeutic effects of hydroxychloroquine were evaluated under pathological conditions in vivo. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fed diet, or in mice fed with high-fat diet and hydroxychloroquine. In addition, healthy mice that received normal chow diet were also monitored. The present results revealed that hydroxychloroquine reduced weight, hepatic steatosis, glucose, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, hydroxychloroquine downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the liver. According to these present results, genes about lipid metabolism went down in high-fat mice liver. Hydroxychloroquine shows potential in ameliorating obesity-induced pathology, which acts though PPARγ to facilitate the healthy function of hepatic tissues. This evidence shows that hydroxychloroquine plays a role in improving obesity-induced lipotoxicity and insulin resistance though the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008377, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465456

RESUMO

Intercellular communication in adjacent cell layers determines cell fate and polarity, thus orchestrating tissue specification and differentiation. Here we use the maize stomatal apparatus as a model to investigate cell fate determination. Mutations in ZmBZU2 (bizui2, bzu2) confer a complete absence of subsidiary cells (SCs) and normal guard cells (GCs), leading to failure of formation of mature stomatal complexes. Nuclear polarization and actin accumulation at the interface between subsidiary mother cells (SMCs) and guard mother cells (GMCs), an essential pre-requisite for asymmetric cell division, did not occur in Zmbzu2 mutants. ZmBZU2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, which is an ortholog of AtMUTE in Arabidopsis (BZU2/ZmMUTE). We found that a number of genes implicated in stomatal development are transcriptionally regulated by BZU2/ZmMUTE. In particular, BZU2/ZmMUTE directly binds to the promoters of PAN1 and PAN2, two early regulators of protodermal cell fate and SMC polarization, consistent with the low levels of transcription of these genes observed in bzu2-1 mutants. BZU2/ZmMUTE has the cell-to-cell mobility characteristic similar to that of BdMUTE in Brachypodium distachyon. Unexpectedly, BZU2/ZmMUTE is expressed in GMC from the asymmetric division stage to the GMC division stage, and especially in the SMC establishment stage. Taken together, these data imply that BZU2/ZmMUTE is required for early events in SMC polarization and differentiation as well as for the last symmetrical division of GMCs to produce the two GCs, and is a master determinant of the cell fate of its neighbors through cell-to-cell communication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Comunicação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Polaridade Celular/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/citologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
20.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368350

RESUMO

Three new compounds, namely massonside C (1), massonianoside F (2), and 3, 8-dimethyl- herbacetin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with five known compounds (4-8), were isolated from the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana. Their structures were established by 1D, 2D NMR, HRMS and comparison with the literature data. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by a combination of X-ray single crystal analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for the protective effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells against oxidative damage.

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