Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150237

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether and when angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) treatment should be discontinued in individuals with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Objective: To investigate the association of ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation after eGFR decreases to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 with the risk of mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study included 3909 patients from an integrated health care system that served rural areas of central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Patients who initiated ACE-I or ARB therapy from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2018, and had an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 during therapy were enrolled, with follow-up until January 25, 2019. Exposures: Individuals were classified based on whether they discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy within 6 months after an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation and mortality during the subsequent 5 years was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for patient characteristics at the time of the eGFR decrease in a propensity score-matched sample. Secondary outcomes included MACE and ESKD. Results: Of the 3909 individuals receiving ACE-I or ARB treatment who experienced an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (2406 [61.6%] female; mean [SD] age, 73.7 [12.6] years), 1235 discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy within 6 months after the eGFR decrease and 2674 did not discontinue therapy. A total of 434 patients (35.1%) who discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy and 786 (29.4%) who did not discontinue therapy died during a median follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.3-5.0 years). In the propensity score-matched sample of 2410 individuals, ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation was associated with a higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.60]) and MACE (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20-1.56), but no statistically significant difference in the risk of ESKD was found (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.86-1.65). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that continuing ACE-I or ARB therapy in patients with declining kidney function may be associated with cardiovascular benefit without excessive harm of ESKD.

2.
Cancer Med ; 9(1): 215-224, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) patients often have substantial symptom burden. In Ontario, patients routinely complete the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), which screens for nine symptoms (scale: 0-10), in cancer clinics. We explored the association between baseline patient-reported outcomes, via ESAS, and overall survival (OS). METHODS: Advanced pancreatic cancer patients with ESAS records prior to receiving publicly funded drugs from November 2008 to March 2016 were retrospectively identified from Cancer Care Ontario's administrative databases. We examined three composite ESAS scores: total symptom distress score (TSDS: 9 symptoms), physical symptom score (PHS: 6/9 symptoms), and psychological symptom score (PSS: 2/9 symptoms); Composite scores greater than defined thresholds (TSDS ≥36, PHS ≥24, PSS ≥8) were considered as high symptom burden. Crude OS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed using multivariable Cox models. Analysis was repeated in a sub-cohort with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status and metastasis. RESULTS: We identified 2199 APC patients (mean age 64 years, 55% male) with ESAS records prior to receiving chemotherapy. Crude median survival was 4.5 and 7.3 months for high and low TSDS, respectively. High TSDS was associated with lower OS (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.63). In the sub-cohort (n = 393) with ECOG status and metastasis, high TSDS was also associated with lower OS (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.73). Similar trends were observed for PHS and PSS. CONCLUSIONS: Higher burden of patient-reported outcome was associated with reduced OS among APC patients. The effect was prominent after adjusting for ECOG status.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2220-2229, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum potassium, bicarbonate level, thiazide, and loop diuretic use with ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. RESULTS: Among the 53,912 ACE-I/ARB users, the mean age was 59.9 years, and 50.6% were female. More than half of users discontinued ACE-I/ARB within 5 years of therapy initiation. The risk of ACE-I/ARB discontinuation increased with more advanced CKD stage. For example, patients who initiated ACE-I/ARB with CKD stage G4 (eGFR: 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) were 2.09-fold (95% CI, 1.87-2.34) more likely to discontinue therapy than those with eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Potassium level greater than 5.3 mEq/L, systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg, bicarbonate level < 22 mmol/L, and intervening hospitalization-particularly AKI-related-were also strong risk factors for ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. Thiazide diuretic use was associated with lower risk, whereas loop diuretic use was associated with higher risk of discontinuation. CONCLUSION: In a real-world cohort, discontinuation of ACE-I/ARB was common, particularly in patients with lower eGFR. Hyperkalemia, hypotension, low bicarbonate level, and hospitalization (AKI-related, in particular) were associated with a higher risk of ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk-benefit balance of discontinuing ACE-I/ARB in the setting of CKD progression.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Clin Trials ; 16(3): 329-333, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Despite the increasing globalization of clinical trials, little is known regarding how the trial site costs vary around the world. We quantified the geographical distribution and regional cost differences for the clinical trials that established the benefits for new therapeutic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We included all pivotal clinical trials for 59 new molecular entities approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 and 2016 that included at least one site in North America. We derived cost estimates from IQVIA's CostPro, a global clinical trial cost-estimating tool used by pharmaceutical sponsors. We assessed the patient and site allocation of these trials across eight geographic regions. To quantify the region-specific cost differences, we conducted a within-trial comparison by expressing the estimated regional costs associated with the sites in each global region as a percent of the same costs in North America. We also estimated the percentage breakdown of regional cost components (pass-through, site management, regulatory, and study conduct costs) for each trial and for all endpoints reported the median and interquartile range. RESULTS: Overall, 127 pivotal clinical trials enrolled 91,415 patients from 13,264 sites. Most patients (60.3%) and sites (57.3%) were outside North America. A median of 66% of the total estimated trial costs (interquartile range: 60%-72%) were spent on regional tasks, with the largest share (53.3%) going directly to trial sites and the remainder going to other regional trial management tasks. Differences were greatest in four lower cost regions: Africa, with an estimated regional cost per site of 49% of North America (interquartile range: 44%-56%), Central Europe 50% (interquartile range: 41%-63%), Middle East 53% (interquartile range: 42%-64%) and Latin America 59% (interquartile range: 50%-70%). Overall, 90 (71%) of the 127 pivotal trials had a total of 3160 sites in these lower cost regions. In contrast, savings were more limited in Western Europe, Oceania, and Asia, where estimated regional costs were 78% of North America (interquartile range: 67%-89%). One-quarter of the trials with sites in Asia and Oceana did not achieve cost savings in those regions relative to North America. CONCLUSION: Among this sample of pivotal trials for recently approved US Food and Drug Administration products, most patients and sites enrolled were outside of North America, with selection of regional sites having a significant impact on total trial costs.

5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(6): 1399-1408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516081

RESUMO

The association between obesity and survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unclear. Using the Ontario Cancer Registry we conducted a retrospective analysis of incident cases of aggressive-histology B-cell lymphoma treated with a rituximab-containing regimen with curative intent between 2008-2016. 6246 patients were included. On multivariable analysis the rate of all-cause mortality was lower for the overweight body mass index (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) (HR 0.85; 95%CI 0.77-0.95) and obese BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (HR 0.75; 95%CI 0.67-0.85) groups compared to the normal weight group (18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Binomial logistic regression analysis revealed a lower odds ratio (OR) of admission to hospital during treatment in the overweight (OR 0.84; 95%CI 0.75-0.95) compared to normal weight BMI group. In the largest cohort to date of aggressive-histology B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, increased BMI is associated with a survival advantage, and the magnitude of this effect increases from overweight to obese BMI.

6.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185198, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016627

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presentation is heterogeneous necessitating a variety of therapeutic interventions with varying efficacies and associated prognoses. Poor prognostic patients often undergo non-curative palliative interventions including transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), sorafenib, chemotherapy, or purely supportive care. The decision to pursue one of many palliative interventions for HCC is complex and an economic evaluation comparing these interventions has not been done. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of non-curative palliative treatment strategies such as TACE alone or TACE+sorafenib, sorafenib alone, and non-sorafenib chemotherapy compared with no treatment or best supportive care (BSC) among patients diagnosed with HCC between 2007 and 2010 in a Canadian setting. Using person-level data, we estimated effectiveness in life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) along with total health care costs (2013 US dollars) from the health care payer's perspective (3% annual discount). A net benefit regression approach accounting for baseline covariates with propensity score adjustment was used to calculate incremental net benefit to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and uncertainty measures. Among 1,172 identified patients diagnosed with HCC, 4.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, received TACE alone or TACE+sorafenib, sorafenib, and non-sorafenib chemotherapy clone, respectively. Compared with no treatment or BSC (81.9%), ICER estimates for TACE alone or TACE+sorafenib was $6,665/QALY (additional QALY: 0.47, additional cost: $3,120; 95% CI: -$18,800-$34,500/QALY). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve demonstrated that if the relevant threshold was $50,000/QALY, TACE alone or TACE+sorafenib, non-sorafenib chemotherapy, and sorafenib alone, would have a cost-effectiveness probability of 99.7%, 46.6%, and 5.5%, respectively. Covariates associated with the incremental net benefit of treatments are age, sex, comorbidity, and cancer stage. Findings suggest that TACE with or without sorafenib is currently the most cost-effective active non-curative palliative treatment approach to HCC. Further research into new combination treatment strategies that afford the best tumor response is needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/economia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/economia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/economia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Compostos de Fenilureia/economia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Cancer Med ; 6(9): 2017-2033, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791798

RESUMO

Patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are potential candidates for curative treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgical resection (SR), or liver transplantation (LT), which have demonstrated a significant survival benefit. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of curative and combination treatment strategies among patients diagnosed with HCC during 2002-2010. This study used Ontario Cancer Registry-linked administrative data to estimate effectiveness and costs (2013 USD) of the treatment strategies from the healthcare payer's perspective. Multiple imputation by logistic regression was used to handle missing data. A net benefit regression approach of baseline important covariates and propensity score adjustment were used to calculate incremental net benefit to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and uncertainty measures. Among 2,222 patients diagnosed with HCC, 10.5%, 14.1%, and 10.3% received RFA, SR, and LT monotherapy, respectively; 0.5-3.1% dual treatments; and 0.5% triple treatments. Compared with no treatment (53.2%), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) + RFA (average $2,465, 95% CI: -$20,000-$36,600/quality-adjusted life years [QALY]) or RFA monotherapy ($15,553, 95% CI: $3,500-$28,500/QALY) appears to be the most cost-effective modality with lowest ICER value. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed that if the relevant threshold was $50,000/QALY, RFA monotherapy and TACE+ RFA would have a cost-effectiveness probability of 100%. Strategies using LT delivered the most additional QALYs and became cost-effective at a threshold of $77,000/QALY. Our findings found that TACE+ RFA dual treatment or RFA monotherapy appears to be the most cost-effective curative treatment for patients with potential early stage of HCC in Ontario. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and measuring differential benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of alternative HCC curative treatments in order to evaluate whether they are providing good value for money in the real world.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/economia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/economia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/economia , Canadá , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/economia , Terapia Combinada/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/economia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Opt Express ; 24(21): 24297-24312, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828161

RESUMO

Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is used as an optimization algorithm to reconstruct the optical parameters based on the time-domain radiative transfer equation (TD-RTE). Numerous time-resolved measurement signals are obtained using the TD-RTE as forward model. For a high computational efficiency, the gradient of objective function is calculated using an adjoint equation technique. SQP algorithm is employed to solve the inverse problem and the regularization term based on the generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model is used to overcome the ill-posed problem. Simulated results show that the proposed reconstruction scheme performs efficiently and accurately.

9.
Liver Int ; 36(6): 902-10, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26455359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing worldwide and cirrhosis is the most important risk factor predominantly caused by chronic viral hepatitis infection. We studied the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on HCC incidence and stage at diagnosis among viral hepatitis cases. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted through the Ontario Cancer Registry linked data. Incidence rates were calculated using person-time methodology. Association between SES (income quintile) and HCC incidence was assessed using proportional-hazards regression. The impact of SES on HCC stage was investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 11 350 individuals diagnosed with viral hepatitis between 1991 and 2010, a crude HCC incidence rate of 21.4 cases per 1000 person-years was observed. Adjusting for age, gender, urban/rural residence and year of viral hepatitis diagnosis, a significant association was found between SES and HCC incidence, with an increased risk among individuals in the lowest three income quintiles (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.235; 95% CI: 1.074-1.420; IRR = 1.183; 95% CI: 1.026-1.364; IRR = 1.158; 95% CI: 1.000-1.340 respectively). No significant association between SES and HCC incidence was found after additionally adjusting for risk factors associated with HCC. However, HCC risk factors such as cirrhosis and HIV are associated with SES. Furthermore, no association was found between SES and HCC stage. CONCLUSIONS: The association between SES and HCC incidence is likely because of differences in risk factors across income quintiles. Investigating how SES affects HCC incidence facilitates an understanding of which populations are at elevated risk for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 6: e131, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26658838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) has been widely implemented for early detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), its justification has been debated. This systematic review aimed to evaluate benefits, safety, and cost effectiveness of surveillance for patients with BE. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched for published human studies that examined screening practices, benefits, safety, and cost effectiveness of surveillance among patients with BE. Reviewers independently reviewed eligible full-text study articles and conducted data extraction and quality assessment, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to assess the incidence of EAC, EAC/high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and annual stage-specific transition probabilities detected among BE patients under surveillance, and relative risk of mortality among EAC patients detected during surveillance compared with those not under surveillance. RESULTS: A total of 51 studies with 11,028 subjects were eligible; the majority were of high quality based on the Newcastle-Ottawa quality scale. Among BE patients undergoing endoscopic surveillance, pooled EAC incidence per 1,000 person-years of surveillance follow-up was 5.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2-6.8) and pooled EAC/HGD incidence was 7.7 (95% CI: 5.7-9.7). Pooled relative mortality risk among surveillance-detected EAC patients compared with nonsurveillance-detected EAC patients was 0.386 (95% CI: 0.242-0.617). Pooled annual stage-specific transition probabilities from nondysplastic BE to low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and EAC were 0.019, 0.003, and 0.004, respectively. There was, however, insufficient scientific evidence on safety and cost effectiveness of surveillance for BE patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed a low incidence rate of EAC among BE patients undergoing surveillance and a reduction in mortality by 61% among those who received regular surveillance and developed EAC. Because of knowledge gaps, it is important to assess safety of surveillance and health-care resource use and costs to supplement existing evidence and inform a future policy decision for surveillance programs.

11.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 29(2): 123-30, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25683170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many births in industrialised countries are to immigrant parents, or to one immigrant and one domestically born parent. Their newborn outcomes have not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a study of 1,690,423 singleton infants born in Sweden between 1987 and 2008, including those of immigrants from East Asia, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and East Africa. Preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) were assessed among infants of (i) immigrant parents from the same world region, (ii) an immigrant mother and a Swedish-born father, and (iii) a Swedish-born mother and an immigrant father; each compared to (iv) two Swedish-born parents. Log binomial regression analysis generated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preterm delivery and SGA. RESULTS: Compared with infants of two Swedish-born parents, infants born to immigrant mothers from East Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan African were at higher risk of preterm delivery (ARR ranging from 1.2 to 1.9), irrespective of whether the father was from the same world region or Swedish-born, with the only exception of East African women, who had lower risk. Infants born to two foreign-born parents had the highest risks of SGA, particularly South Asians (ARR 4.69; 95% CI 4.29, 5.12). Mixed couples exhibited intermediate risks of SGA. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse birth outcomes differ according to a couple's ethnic composition. Having a Swedish-born partner is associated with lower risk of SGA among immigrant mothers and fathers, and with lower risk of preterm delivery among immigrant fathers but not mothers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Pai , Mães , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Opt Express ; 21(7): 8474-82, 2013 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23571937

RESUMO

Different from traditional panorama stereo acquisition technique shooting with numerous cameras, this study equips a double-symmetric prism in front of a single-lens camera to acquire images from four different angles of view, and the images acquired from the cameras every 20 degrees complete a pair of panorama stereo images with vertical angle of view ( ± 16 degrees) by image-based rendering. The panorama stereo acquisition technique reduces the number of cameras by three-fourth, and the acquired images contain vertical angles of view. Moreover, the image resolution is enhanced several times of the resolution of integral photography without moiré effect.


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Lentes , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA