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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675066

RESUMO

Identification of high-risk population among HBV/HCV-infected individuals with first-degree relatives (FDRs) who have liver cancer is important to implement precise intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted under the framework of a population-based Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC), aimed to develop and validate a simple non-invasive model that could assess and stratify cirrhosis risk, in HBV/HCV-infected individuals with FDRs who have liver cancer. People who participated in liver cancer screening in Henan province were enrolled. Using the dataset consisting of participants admitted from October 1,2013 to December 31, 2016, a 24-point scale risk score model was developed through logistic regression, based on education background, dietary habit, smoking index, cooking oil fume exposure, history of severe trauma, HBV/HCV infection status, history of diabetes, history of hyperlipidaemia, and parent history of liver cancer. The model showed excellent discrimination with AUROC of 0.875 (95%CI: 0.853-0.896) and fair calibration with a Hosmer-Lemeshow test P=0.106. The prevalence rates in the medium- and high-risk groups were 2.87 (95%CI: 1.94-4.25) and 47.57 (95%CI: 31.59-71.63) times of low-risk group, respectively. After internal validation, bias-corrected AUROC was 0.874 (95%CI: 0.873-0.875). In the external validation dataset consisting of participants admitted from January 1,2017 to October 31, 2018, the model had achieved similar discrimination, calibration and risk stratification ability. In conclusion, this risk score model we developed can be a practical tool for the screening and prevention of liver cirrhosis among HBV/HCV-infected individuals with FDRs who have liver cancer.

2.
J Oncol ; 2021: 6621722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567118

RESUMO

Objective: To better understand the status of medical treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and the differences between the Chinese and the international clinical practice. Methods: This was a retrospective, nationwide, multicenter, epidemiological study of advanced breast cancer patients from China. Between January 01, 2012, and December 31, 2014, a total of 3649 patients, covering 7 geographic regions and 21 institutions, participated in this series of studies. HER2-positive breast cancer was selected among the group and adopted into this study. In comparison, we summarized the demographics and clinical characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Results: A total of 918 patients diagnosed as HER2-positive breast cancer patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 46 years (ranging, 23 to 78) with a single-peak incidence. The proportions of stages II-IV at diagnosis and distance metastasis in viscera were more than half of the participants. In comparison, the prevalence of estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive expression and luminalB subtype was relatively lower than that of the United States. The receipt of chemotherapy was fairly higher, while the usage of targeted therapy was seriously insufficient. Tumor size was in significantly positive associations with the duration of targeted therapy (Kendall's correlation coefficient = 0.3, P < 0.0001), while no prohibitive variables among clinical characteristics were detected. Conclusion: Our study suggested that HER2-positive breast cancer patients were characterized as a younger trend, a lower prevalence of hormonal receptor (HR)-positive expression, and less accessible to anti-HER2 targeted therapy with insufficient duration over the past few years in China. Concerted efforts should be exerted for promising survival benefits in the future. The trial registration number is https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03047889.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers in economically developed countries and developing world. While dietary factors are associated with risk of CRC in the West and urban China, little is known about risk or protective factors in rural China. METHODS: The Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort was established over 30 years ago to test whether daily multivitamin/mineral supplements could reduce the incidence and mortality of esophageal/gastric cardia cancer. The cohort included a total of 29,553 healthy participants 40-69 years old who were randomly assigned to supplements or placebos via a 24 fractional factorial study design. We examined risk factors for the development of CRC as well as the effects of four different nutritional factors (Factor A: retinol, zinc; B: riboflavin, niacin; C: ascorbic acid, molybdenum; D: selenium, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene,) on CRC incidence following 5.25 years of supplementation in this randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. RESULTS: CRC risk increased with age and height as well as piped water usage, family history of CRC, and consumption of foods cooked in oil, eggs, and fresh fruits. No effect on CRC was seen for any of these four intervention factors tested in both genders, but CRC was reduced 37% in females who received Factor D (selenium/alpha-tocopherol/beta-carotene) (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.92, P = 0.016) compared to females who did not receive Factor D. CONCLUSIONS: In this undernourished rural Chinese population, CRC risk factors in this Chinese cohort showed both similarities and differences compared to Western and urban Asian Chinese populations. Intervention results suggested a potential benefit for women supplemented with selenium/alpha-tocopherol/beta-carotene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 649-652, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494539

RESUMO

The advent of the digital era brings new challenges and opportunities for cervical cancer prevention and research.With the development of digital techniques in China,the construction of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention based on the current achievements has become an important trend.This paper expounds the importance,existing problems,and challenges of the data integration of population-based cervical cancer screening and the information platform construction,and puts forwards effective measures to promote its construction.The establishment of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention in the digital era has far-reaching significance for the global elimination of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , China , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations. METHODS: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.

6.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 4509-4527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113176

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a method of increasing the number of proteins that the genome is capable of coding for, by altering the pre-mRNA during its maturation. This process provides the ability of a broad range of proteins to arise from a single gene. AS events are known to occur in up to 94% of human genes. Cumulative data have shown that aberrant AS functionality is a major factor in human diseases. This review focuses on the contribution made by aberrant AS functionality in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. The changes in the pattern of expression of alternately spliced isoforms in esophageal cancer can be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Additionally, these can be used as targets for the development of new treatments for esophageal cancer.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 605106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123779

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia carcinoma (GCC), and gastric non-cardia carcinoma (GNCC) in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort. Methods: This prospective analysis was conducted using the Linxian NIT cohort data. Subjects with FH of UGI cancer was treated as an exposed group while the remainders were considered as a comparison group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between FH of UGI cancer and risk of UGI cancer incidence and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were 5,680 newly diagnosed UGI cancer cases during the follow-up period, with a total of 4,573 UGI cancer deaths occurred, including 2,603 ESCC, 1,410 GCC, and 560 GNCC deaths. A positive FH of UGI cancer was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC and GCC (Incidence: HRESCC = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.35-1.56; HRGCC = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15-1.40; Mortality: HRESCC = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.30-1.52; HRGCC = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.14-1.42) after adjusting for age at baseline, gender, smoking status, alcohol drinking, education level, and frequency of fresh fruit and vegetable consumption. Subjects with FH in both parents had the highest risk of ESCC and GCC incidence (HRESCC = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.40-1.95; HRGCC = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.12-1.81) and deaths (HRESCC = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.38-1.97; HRGCC = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.09-1.85). Spouse diagnosed with UGI cancer did not increase the risk of any UGI cancers of the subjects. In subgroup analysis, FH of UGI cancer was shown to significantly increase the risk of GCC in non-drinkers (Incidence: HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.17-1.47; Mortality: HR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.17-1.50). No associations were observed for risk of GNCC. Sensitivity analysis by excluding subjects who were followed up less than three years did not materially alter our results. Conclusion: Our data point to the role of the FH of UGI cancer to the risk of ESCC and GCC incidence and mortality. The influence of family history on the risk of UGI cancer varies from different types of family members.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 589, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood type has been associated with the risk of gastric cancer, but few studies have examined the association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using genotyping data of Chinese individuals, including cases of 2022 ESCC, 1189 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, 1161 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, and 2696 controls. Genetic blood type was imputed using three single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used logistic regression to examine the association between blood type and the risk of each cancer. RESULTS: Compared to blood type O, the risk of ESCC was significantly elevated for blood type B and AB, with the highest risk for type AB (OR, 95%CI: 1.34, 1.07-1.67). Analysis of genotype suggested that the association of ESCC was from carrying the B allele. Similarly, blood type was significantly associated with gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001) with risk significantly elevated in type A (1.37, 1.14-1.65) and AB (1.44, 1.10-1.89) compared to type O. Blood type was not associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into the association between blood type and the risk of ESCC and restricted previously observed association to only gastric noncardia cancer, providing important evidence to clarify the pattern of association and suggesting mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue
9.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(9): 679-692, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening with cytology suffers from low sensitivity, whereas the efficiency of human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening is limited by low specificity. The authors evaluated a novel p16INK4a immunocytology approach in cervical cancer screening compared with HPV-based and cytology-based screening. METHODS: In total, 2112 women aged 49 to 69 years from Shanxi, China were screened from March to July 2019. HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC), and p16INK4a immunocytology were performed on samples from all women. Any positive result triggered a referral to colposcopy with biopsy, if indicated. Screening performance for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) was evaluated using multiple algorithms. RESULTS: p16INK4a had a lower positive rate (10.0%) than LBC abnormality (vs 12.1%; P = .004) and a high-risk HPV positivity (21.4%; P < .001). For the detection of CIN3+, the relative sensitivity of p16INK4a compared with HPV and LBC was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.07) and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.95-1.32), respectively. The specificity of p16INK4a was significantly higher than that for HPV and LBC, with a relative specificity of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11-1.16) and 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04), respectively. In addition, p16INK4a alone yielded a clinical performance very similar to that of the current mainstream strategy of using HPV16/18 with reflex cytology (ASC-US+, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse). The immediate risk of CIN3+ was 14.6% if p16INK4a results were positive and 0.2% if p16INK4a results were negative. CONCLUSIONS: With minimal colposcopy referrals, p16INK4a screening demonstrated promising utility for risk stratification and yielded a better balance between sensitivity and specificity compared with HPV and LBC primary screening. Moreover, with accuracy and efficiency similar to what is achieved using mainstream cotest algorithms, p16 may simplify the screening practice. More evidence will be required before clinical recommendation.

10.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(6): 659-666, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766833

RESUMO

Gastric cancer shows a strong male predominance, and sex steroid hormones have been hypothesized to explain this sex disparity. Previous studies examining the associations between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and risk of gastric cancer come primarily from western populations and additional studies in diverse populations will help us better understand the association. We performed a nested case-control study in Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohorts to evaluate the associations among Chinese men, where we had sufficient cases to perform a well-powered study. Using radioimmunoassays and immunoassays, we quantitated androgens, estrogens, and SHBG in baseline serum from 328 men that developed noncardia gastric cancer and matched controls. We used multivariable unconditional logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and explored interactions with body mass index (BMI), age, alcohol drinking, smoking, and follow-up time. Subjects with SHBG in the highest quartile, as compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01-3.44). We found some evidence for associations of sex steroid hormones in men with lower BMI. Our study found a novel association suggesting that higher serum concentrations of SHBG may be associated with risk of gastric cancer in men. We found no overall associations with sex hormones themselves, but future studies should expand the scope of these studies to include women and further explore whether BMI modifies a potential association. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: It was the first study to investigate the association of gastric cancer with prediagnostic sex steroid hormones and SHBG in an Asian male population. Although there were no overall associations for sex steroid hormone concentrations, higher concentrations of SHBG was associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer.

11.
Med Image Anal ; 70: 102006, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690025

RESUMO

Cervical cancer causes the fourth most cancer-related deaths of women worldwide. Early detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can significantly increase the survival rate of patients. World Health Organization (WHO) divided the CIN into three grades (CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3). In clinical practice, different CIN grades require different treatments. Although existing studies proposed computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for cervical cancer diagnosis, most of them are fail to perform accurate separation between CIN1 and CIN2/3, due to the similar appearances under colposcopy. To boost the accuracy of CAD systems, we construct a colposcopic image dataset for GRAding cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia with fine-grained lesion Description (GRAND). The dataset consists of colposcopic images collected from 8,604 patients along with the pathological reports. Additionally, we invite the experienced colposcopist to annotate two main clues, which are usually adopted for clinical diagnosis of CIN grade, i.e., texture of acetowhite epithelium (TAE) and appearance of blood vessel (ABV). A multi-rater model using the annotated clues is benchmarked for our dataset. The proposed framework contains several sub-networks (raters) to exploit the fine-grained lesion features TAE and ABV, respectively, by contrastive learning and a backbone network to extract the global information from colposcopic images. A comprehensive experiment is conducted on our GRAND dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using additional lesion descriptions (TAE and ABV), which increases the CIN grading accuracy by over 10%. Furthermore, we conduct a human-machine confrontation to evaluate the potential of the proposed benchmark framework for clinical applications. Particularly, three colposcopists on different professional levels (intern, in-service and professional) are invited to compete with our benchmark framework by investigating a same extra test set-our framework achieves a comparable CIN grading accuracy to that of a professional colposcopist.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Benchmarking , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico por imagem , Colposcopia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1880-1893, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China, however, publicly available, descriptive information on the clinical epidemiology of CRC is limited. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary CRC during 2005 through 2014 were sampled from 13 tertiary hospitals in 9 provinces across China. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, the use of diagnostic technology, treatment adoption, and expenditure were extracted from individual medical records. RESULTS: In the full cohort of 8465 patients, the mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 59.3 ± 12.8 years, 57.2% were men, and 58.7% had rectal cancer. On average, 14.4% of patients were diagnosed with stage IV disease, and this proportion increased from 13.5% in 2005 to 20.5% in 2014 (P value for trend < .05). For diagnostic techniques, along with less use of x-rays (average, 81.6%; decreased from 90.0% to 65.7%), there were increases in the use of computed tomography (average, 70.4%; increased from 4.5% to 90.5%) and magnetic resonance imaging (average, 8.8%; increased from 0.1% to 20.4%) over the study period from 2005 to 2014. With regard to treatment, surgery alone was the most common (average, 50.1%), but its use decreased from 51.3% to 39.8% during 2005 through 2014; and the use of other treatments increased simultaneously, such as chemotherapy alone (average, 4.1%; increased from 4.1% to 11.9%). The average medical expenditure per patient was 66,291 Chinese Yuan (2014 value) and increased from 47,259 to 86,709 Chinese Yuan. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing proportion of late-stage diagnoses presents a challenge for CRC control in China. Changes in diagnostic and treatment options and increased expenditures are clearly illustrated in this study. Coupled with the recent introduction of screening initiatives, these data provide an understanding of changes over time and may form a benchmark for future related evaluations of CRC interventions in China.

13.
Cancer Control ; 28: 1073274820985792, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uptake of cervical cancer screening services in Chinese migrant workers is unknown and may be lower than non-migrant workers in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among migrant and non-migrant women aged 21-65 at 7 provinces across China and administered a questionnaire investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccine. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate odds of previous cervical cancer screening in migrant workers. RESULTS: 737 women participated in the study. Mean age was 41.9 ± 7.2 years. 50.2% of the participants were migrant workers. 27.6% of the migrant workers reported previous cervical cancer screening compared to 33.2% of local participants. 36.6% migrant workers reported awareness of HPV compared to 40.2% of local participants. In adjusted analysis migrant status was not associated with increased odds of previous cervical cancer screening (aOR = 1.11 95%CI: 0.76-1.60). High school or higher education compared to less than high school education and employer-sponsored insurance compared to uninsured were associated with increased odds of previous cervical cancer screening (aOR = 2.15 95%CI: 1.41-3.27 and aOR = 1.67 95% CI: 1.14-2.45, respectively). Having heard of HPV compared to no awareness of HPV was associated with increased odds of cervical cancer screening (aOR = 2.02 95%CI: 1.41-2.91). Awareness of HPV among migrant workers was associated with increased odds of cervical cancer screening compared to migrant and local participants without awareness (aOR = 2.82 95% CI: 1.70-4.69 and 2.97 95%CI: 1.51-5.83, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase education opportunities, provide insurance, and promote HPV awareness could increase cervical cancer screening uptake in migrant women in China.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583360

RESUMO

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/prevenção & controle , Hepatite E/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/genética , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Gland Surg ; 10(1): 175-185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633974

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is currently the most common female malignancy in China. However, the clinical features and overall prognosis of young women diagnosed with this malignancy remain unclear. This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of young patients (≤34 years of age) with breast cancer and explore the current treatment approaches used in China. Methods: This was a hospital-based, multicenter, retrospective study of women with breast cancer across seven Chinese hospitals from 1999 to 2008. A total of 295 young (≤34 years of age) patients (research group) and 2,119 women aged 35 to 49 years (control group) were included in the study. Patient epidemiology, pre-operative examinations, clinical pathology, and treatment were analyzed. Results: The percentage of young patients with breast cancer in the study group was 7.01%. These young women had a lower body mass index (BMI), a higher level of education, a lower number of previous births, and a lower history of breastfeeding than the control group (P<0.05). Increasingly, pre-operative use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to diagnose breast cancer in young women in China. In young women with breast cancer, breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) was the primary pathology. The carcinoma in young women was more prone to lymph node metastasis, showed less progesterone receptor (PR) expression, and was more advanced than observed in the control group (P<0.05). We found that the number of young breast cancer patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery in China is increasing. Conclusions: Young breast cancer patients display unique clinicopathological features, including tumors of a higher grade than those aged 35 years or older. As breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women, prevention and early diagnosis are critical, and new policies should be developed in line with these findings.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 148(6): 1419-1427, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895912

RESUMO

Thermal ablation is a point-of-care ablative treatment technique for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, limited information is available about its efficacy in low- and middle-income countries. We evaluated the efficacy of thermal ablation in treatment of CIN detected through high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) screening in China. Women positive on high-risk HPV and having colposcopically suspected lesions eligible for ablation underwent colposcopy, biopsy and thermal ablation in one visit. Women ineligible were recalled for large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) when histopathology results were high-grade CIN. Posttreatment follow-up at 6 months or more was with HPV test and cytology followed by colposcopy and biopsy for HPV and/or cytology-positive women. Cure was defined as either negative cytology and HPV test or absence of histopathology proved CIN in any positive women. Of total 218 HPV-positive women treated with thermal ablation (n = 170) or LLETZ (n = 48), 196 reported for follow-up evaluation. For women with histologically confirmed CIN at baseline (thermal ablation-104; LLETZ-38), cure rates were 84.6% for thermal ablation and 86.8% for LLETZ. Cure rates after thermal ablation were 90.3% for CIN grade one (CIN1) and 76.2% for CIN grade two or worse (CIN2+). HPV clearance rate was 80.4% in women undergoing thermal ablation, which was lower for HPV16/18 compared to other oncogenic types (67.6% vs 85.7%). HPV test had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.7% to detect CIN2+ at follow-up and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 40.4%. Thermal ablation is effective to treat CIN as well as to clear the high-risk HPV infection. HPV test has high PPV and NPV in following up patients posttreatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação Endometrial/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações
17.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 692-701, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700765

RESUMO

Although receptor status including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) of the primary breast tumors was related to the prognosis of breast cancer patients, little information is yet available on whether patient management and survival are impacted by receptor conversion in breast cancer metastases. Using data from the nation-wide multicenter clinical epidemiology study of advanced breast cancer in China (NCT03047889), we report the situation of retesting ER, PR and HER2 status for breast cancer metastases and evaluate the patient management and prognostic value of receptor conversion. In total, 3295 patients were analyzed and 1583 (48.0%) patients retesting receptor status for metastasis. Discordance in one or more receptors between the primary and the metastatic biopsy was found in 37.7% of women. Patients who remained hormone receptor (HR) positive in their metastases had similar progression-free survival of first-line and second-line treatment compared to patients with HR conversion (P > .05). In multivariate analysis, patients who showed ER conversion from negative to positive had longer disease-free survival (DFS) than patients who remained negative in their metastases (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.90; P < .001). Patients with PR remained positive and had longer DFS than patients with PR conversion from negative to positive (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83; P = .004). Patients with PR conversion have shorter overall survival than patients with PR remained positive or negative (P = .016 and P = .041, respectively). Our findings showed that the receptors' conversions were common in metastatic breast cancer, and the conversion impacted the survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(3): 363-372, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303694

RESUMO

Women are anticipated to go through more than two rounds of cervical screening in their lifetime. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is increasingly used as the primary cervical cancer screening test. However, triage strategies for HPV-positive women were usually evaluated at baseline screening. We assessed the effect of sequential rounds of cervical screening on several algorithms for HPV triage. A total of 1,997 women ages 35-45 years were enrolled in 1999 in Shanxi, P.R. China and followed up three times at approximately 5-year intervals. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) prevalence by prior HPV results and performance of 12 triage algorithms with cytology, genotyping, and prior HPV were examined among 229 HPV-positive women at the fourth round. CIN2+ prevalence varied from 56.5% (95% confidence interval, 36.8%-74.4%) following 15 years HPV persistence to 3.5% (1.2%-9.9%) with an incident HPV within 15 years. Triage with cytology (with threshold of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) yielded positive predictive value (PPV) of 21.4% (13.8%-29.0%), entailing immediate colposcopic referral, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.4% (94.6%-100%), permitting retesting at short intervals. Triage with genotyping (16/18/31/33/45/52/58) or prior HPV results showed comparable performance with cytology. Among 11 triage algorithms with similar NPV to cytology, triage with prior HPV results and reflex genotyping (16/18) achieved highest PPV of 28.9% (18.8%-39.1%) and lowest colposcopy referral of 33.2% (27.4%-39.5%). HPV persistence across rounds is an effective risk stratifier in HPV-positive women. Mainstream cytology and genotyping, with or without consideration of prior HPV results, remain effective for HPV triage at fourth round. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: The study highlights the sustained effectiveness of mainstream HPV triage methods, such as cytology and genotyping, after sequential rounds of cervical screening. It also suggests that use of HPV persistence across rounds can improve management of HPV-positive women in cervical cancer screening.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 70: 101861, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On Nov 17, 2020, WHO launched a global initiative to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer through the implementation of HPV vaccination, cervical cancer screening and treatment for precancer and cancer. China has the largest burden of cervical cancer in the world, but only has a national cervical cancer screening program in rural areas since 2009. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in urban China, using Shenzhen City as an example. METHODS: We use an extensively validated platform ('Policy1-Cervix'), calibrated to data from Shenzhen city and Guandong Province. We evaluated a range of strategies that have previously been implemented as pilot studies in China, or recommended as guidelines within China and globally, spanning primary HPV, cytology and co-testing strategies. We additionally considered alternate triaging methods, age ranges and screening intervals, resulting in 19 algorithms in total. RESULTS: Of the 19 strategies considered, the most effective approach involved primary HPV testing. At 3- to 10-yearly intervals, primary HPV testing reduced the age-standardized cancer mortality rate by 37-71 %. The most cost-effective strategy was 5-yearly primary HPV testing with partial genotyping triage for ages 25-65, discharging to 10-yearly screening for low-risk women (ICER = US$7191/QALYS using 2018 costs; willingness-to-pay threshold<1xGDP [US$9771]). This strategy gave an incidence and mortality reduction of 56 % and 63 %, respectively. This remained the most cost-effective strategy under most conditions in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Primary HPV testing would be cost-effective in Shenzhen and could more than halve cervical cancer incidence rates to 6 per 100,000 over the long term. In order to achieve rates below 4 per 100,000, the elimination threshold set by the World Health Organization, vaccination will likely also be necessary.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2019039, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141158

RESUMO

Importance: Lung cancer screening has been widely implemented in Europe and the US. However, there is little evidence on participation and diagnostic yields in population-based lung cancer screening in China. Objective: To assess the participation rate and detection rate of lung cancer in a population-based screening program and the factors associated with participation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from October 2013 to October 2019, with follow-up until March 10, 2020. The program is conducted at centers in 8 cities in Henan Province, China. Eligible participants were aged 40 to 74 and were evaluated for a high risk for lung cancer using an established risk score system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and group-specific participation rates by common factors, such as age, sex, and educational level, were calculated. Differences in participation rates between those groups were compared. The diagnostic yield of both screening and nonscreening groups was calculated. Results: The study recruited 282 377 eligible participants and included 55 428 with high risk for lung cancer; the mean (SD) age was 55.3 (8.1) years, and 34 966 participants (63.1%) were men. A total of 22 260 participants underwent LDCT (participation rate, 40.16%; 95% CI, 39.82%-40.50%). The multivariable logistic regression model showed that female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% CI, 1.52-1.78), former smoking (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13-1.41), lack of physical activity (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24), family history of lung cancer (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.66-1.79), and 7 other factors were associated with increased participation of LDCT screening. Overall, at 6-year follow-up, 78 participants in the screening group (0.35%; 95% CI, 0.29%-0.42%) and 125 in the nonscreening group (0.38%; 95% CI, 0.33%-0.44%) had lung cancer detected, which resulted in an odds ratio of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.70-1.23; P = .61). Conclusions and Relevance: The low participations rate in the program studied suggests that an improved strategy is needed. These findings may provide useful information for designing effective population-based lung cancer screening strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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