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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770068

RESUMO

An Escherichia. coli-produced HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine has been proved to be well-tolerated and highly efficacious against diseases associated with vaccine HPV types. As a part of the multi-center, randomized, double-blind phase III clinical trial, this lot-to-lot consistency study aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity consistency of this novel HPV vaccine, which is also one of the objectives of the phase III trial. A total of 3689 healthy women aged 18-45 years were enrolled and randomly assigned 1:1:1 to three lots of the HPV vaccine groups. The primary outcomes were the IgG antibody level at 1 month after the last dose (month 7). In the immunogenicity per-protocol set (PPS), almost all of the participants seroconverted at month 7 and remained seropositive at month 42. For each paired comparison of the three lot groups, the two-sides of 90% CIs of GMC ratios for both IgG and neutralizing antibodies for HPV-16 and HPV-18 at month 7 were within the equivalence interval [0.5, 2]. Lot consistency was also demonstrated at month 42. The majority of recorded solicited reactions were mild or moderate. The incidences of solicited reactions of Lot 2 and Lot 3 were slightly higher than Lot 1. However, the incidences of solicited reactions of ≥ grade 3 and solicited reactions by symptoms were all similar among the three lot groups. None of the SAEs was considered related to vaccination by the investigator. In conclusion, this study demonstrates lot-to-lot consistency of the 3 consecutive lots of the E. coli-produced HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745237

RESUMO

The link between depression and anxiety status and cancer outcomes has been well-documented but remains unclear. We comprehensively quantified the association between depression and anxiety defined by symptom scales or clinical diagnosis and the risk of cancer incidence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality in cancer patients. Pooled estimates of the relative risks (RRs) for cancer incidence and mortality were performed in a meta-analysis by random effects or fixed effects models as appropriate. Associations were tested in subgroups stratified by different study and participant characteristics. Fifty-one eligible cohort studies involving 2,611,907 participants with a mean follow-up period of 10.3 years were identified. Overall, depression and anxiety were associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer incidence (adjusted RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.19), cancer-specific mortality (1.21, 1.16-1.26), and all-cause mortality in cancer patients (1.24, 1.13-1.35). The estimated absolute risk increases (ARIs) associated with depression and anxiety were 34.3 events/100,000 person years (15.8-50.2) for cancer incidence and 28.2 events/100,000 person years (21.5-34.9) for cancer-specific mortality. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety were related to higher cancer incidence, poorer cancer survival, and higher cancer-specific mortality. Psychological distress (symptoms of depression and anxiety) was related to higher cancer-specific mortality and poorer cancer survival but not to increased cancer incidence. Site-specific analyses indicated that overall, depression and anxiety were associated with an increased incidence risks for cancers of the lung, oral cavity, prostate and skin, a higher cancer-specific mortality risk for cancers of the lung, bladder, breast, colorectum, hematopoietic system, kidney and prostate, and an increased all-cause mortality risk in lung cancer patients. These analyses suggest that depression and anxiety may have an etiologic role and prognostic impact on cancer, although there is potential reverse causality; Furthermore, there was substantial heterogeneity among the included studies, and the results should be interpreted with caution. Early detection and effective intervention of depression and anxiety in cancer patients and the general population have public health and clinical importance.

4.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 23(4): 241-247, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether lower proportions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ diagnosed by random biopsy are from lower cut points defining an abnormal colposcopic impression or obtaining only one random biopsy when colposcopic impression is normal. METHODS: We compared colposcopy experiences within Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study (SPOCCS) (n = 1,383) and Shenzhen Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (SHENCCAST) (n = 631), which had instructive differences in the cut point defining an abnormal colposcopic impression. RESULTS: The proportion of CIN 2+ diagnosed by random biopsy in SPOCCS (35.0%, 141/403) was higher than SHENCCAST (18.4%, 35/190, p < .001). Quadrant-specific receiver operating characteristic curves for diagnosis of CIN 2+ by colposcopic impression in SPOCCS and SHENCCAST were similar; a lower cut point for an abnormal colposcopic impression in SHENCCAST resulted in lower proportion of CIN 2+ diagnosed by random biopsy. Normal colposcopic impression was found in 85.1% (120/141) of cases of CIN 2+ diagnosed by random biopsy in SPOCCS and in 57.1% (20/35) of such cases in SHENCCAST. Of CIN 2+ diagnosed by random cervical biopsy with normal colposcopic impression, one cervical quadrant was involved with CIN 2+ in 66.7% (80/120) of colposcopies in SPOCCS and 80% (16/20) of colposcopies in SHENCCAST. CONCLUSIONS: Colposcopy series with higher proportions of CIN 2+ diagnosed by random biopsy likely have more stringent cut points defining an abnormal colposcopic impression and have more random biopsies when the colposcopic impression is normal. At colposcopy, we advise multiple biopsies of all acetowhite epithelium or multiple random biopsies to increase the sensitivity of colposcopy.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Information on healthcare costs in low-and-middle-income countries is limited. This study presents a framework to perform healthcare cost estimates for each province in China. METHODS: This study has two aims. Using cervical cancer as an example, the first aim is to use data (including micro-costing data) from one province to derive estimates for other provinces in China. This used provincial and national Chinese-language statistical reports and considered levels of service delivery, hospital-seeking behaviour, and the urban/rural population distribution. The second aim is to characterise the relationship between the reference costs estimated using the method mentioned above and two sets of cost estimates derived using simplified cost-scaling method with per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the Human Development Index (HDI). For simplified methods, regression modelling characterised the relationship between province-specific healthcare costs and macro-economic indicators, then we used the exponential fit to extrapolate costs. RESULTS: Using the reference method, the estimated costs were found to vary substantially by urban/rural regions and between provinces; the ratios of highest to lowest provincial costs were 3.5 for visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), 4.4 for cold knife conisation (CKC) and 4.6 for stage II cancer treatment. The HDI-based scaling method generally resulted in a better fit to reference costs than the GDP method. CONCLUSIONS: These reference costs for cervical cancer can inform cost-effectiveness evaluation of cervical screening and HPV vaccination in China. HDI-based methods for cost-scaling-based on social, as well as purely economic, factors-have potential to provide more accurate estimates.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune gastritis is understudied and possibly associated with gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Western populations when it presents as pernicious anemia. METHODS: A nested case-control study within a Chinese cohort included 100 ESCC, 200 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 200 GNCA cases diagnosed between 1986 and 2001 and 400 controls. Serostatus of antiparietal cell antibodies (APCA), Helicobacter pylori antibodies, and pepsinogens were measured using commercial kits and serum collected at baseline. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for associations between serologic biomarkers and cancer risk adjusted for numerous potential confounders. RESULTS: There was an average interval of 8 years between baseline blood draw and cancer diagnosis. The baseline prevalence of APCA seropositivity was 10.0% and 14.5% in subjects who developed GCA and GNCA, respectively. APCA seropositivity was inversely associated with later development of GCA (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.75), but not significantly associated with later development of GNCA (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50-1.36) or ESCC (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.58-1.88). APCA seropositivity was significantly associated with low pepsinogen I/II ratios (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 1.66-8.21), and individuals with low pepsinogen I/II ratios who were seronegative for APCA had the highest risk of both GCA and GNCA. CONCLUSIONS: APCA seropositivity measured years prior to diagnosis was associated with prevalent atrophic gastritis but inversely associated with incident GCA in this Chinese population. IMPACT: APCA may contribute to a growing list of serologic markers that can improve risk stratification for gastric cancer.

7.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(10): 667-674, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350279

RESUMO

Smoking is an established risk factor for gastric cancer development. In this study, we aimed to assess prospectively the association of smoking with gastric cancer risk in 1,446 non-cardia gastric cancer cases and 1,796 controls from China, Japan, and Korea with consideration of Helicobacter pylori infection as a potential effect modifier. Applying logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and sex we found that current, but not former, smoking was significantly associated with gastric cancer risk [OR = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.65]. However, the association was significant only in H. pylori sero-positive individuals determined by 3 different sero-markers: overall sero-positivity, sero-positivity to the onco-protein CagA, and sero-positivity to the gastric cancer associated sero-marker HP0305 and HP1564. Specifically, a significant interaction was found when stratifying by HP0305/HP1564 (P interaction = 0.01) with a 46% increased risk of gastric cancer among HP0305/HP1564 sero-positive current smokers (95% CI, 1.10-1.93) as opposed to no increased gastric cancer risk among HP0305/HP1564 sero-negative current smokers (OR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.33). We confirmed that current smoking is associated with an increased gastric cancer risk, however, only among individuals that are simultaneously sero-positive for the leading causal factor for gastric cancer, H. pylori.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351006

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the oxyntic glands of the stomach. Previous work by our group has suggested that serum ghrelin concentrations are inversely associated with gastric and esophageal cancer risk. We measured ghrelin concentrations in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT), and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). In NIT, we analyzed serum samples from 298 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases, 518 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) cases, 258 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 770 subcohort controls (case-cohort). In SWHS, we measured ghrelin in plasma samples from 249 GNCA cases and 498 matched controls (nested case-control). Ghrelin was measured using radioimmunoassay. In NIT and SWHS, low ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk of developing GNCA and GCA. The hazard ratio (HR Q1:Q4 ) for GNCA in NIT was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.89-2.05; p-trend = 0.02); the odds ratio in SWHS was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.02-2.70; p-trend = 0.06). Low ghrelin was associated with a twofold increase of GCA (HR Q1:Q4 = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.45-2.77; p-trend<0.001). In contrast, a lower risk of ESCC (NIT ESCC HR Q1:Q4 = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p-trend = 0.02) was found in NIT. Low baseline ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk for GNCA and GCA in the NIT and the SWHS. In contrast, low ghrelin concentrations at baseline were associated with a reduced risk of developing ESCC in the NIT. Ghrelin may be an early marker of future cancer risk for developing upper gastrointestinal cancer in regions of high incidence.

9.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 4055-4069, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed after the onset of symptoms. However, whether the symptoms of lung cancer were independently associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer is unknown, especially in the Chinese population. METHODS: We conducted a 10 years (2005-2014) nationwide multicenter retrospective clinical epidemiology study of lung cancer patients diagnosed in China. As such, this study focused on nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for variables associated with the symptoms and physical signs using multivariate unconditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer patients were surveyed; finally, 6398 NSCLC patients with available information about their symptoms and physical signs were included in this analysis. The most common initial symptom and physical sign was chronic cough (4156, 65.0%), followed by sputum with blood (2110, 33.0%), chest pain (1146, 17.9%), shortness of breath (1090, 17.0%), neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (629, 9.8%), weight loss (529, 8.3%), metastases pain (378, 5.9%), fatigue (307, 4.8%), fever (272, 4.3%), and dyspnea (270, 4.2%). Patients with squamous carcinoma and stage III disease were more likely to present with chronic cough (P < 0.0001) and sputum with blood (P < 0.0001) than patients with other pathological types and clinical stages, respectively. Metastases pain (P < 0.0001) and neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (P = 0.0006) were more likely to occur in patients with nonsquamous carcinoma than in patients with other carcinomas. Additionally, patients with stage IV disease had a higher percentage of chest pain, shortness of breath, dyspnea, weight loss, and fatigue than patients with other stages of disease. In multivariable logistic analyses, compared with patients with adenocarcinoma, patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to experience symptoms (OR = 2.885, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.477-3.359) but were less likely to present physical signs (OR = 0.844, 95% CI 0.721-0.989). The odds of having both symptoms and physical signs were higher in patients with late-stage disease than in those with early-stage disease (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms and physical signs of lung cancer were associated with the stage and pathological diagnosis of NSCLC. Patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to develop symptoms, but not signs, than patients with adenocarcinoma. The more advanced the stage at diagnosis, the more likely that symptoms or physical signs are to develop. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to explore these results.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086947

RESUMO

Background The high cost and insufficient supply of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have slowed the pace of controlling cervical cancer. A phase 3 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a novel Escherichia coli-produced bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind trial started on November 22, 2012, in China. In total, 7372 eligible women aged 18-45 years were age-stratified and randomly assigned to receiving 3 doses of the test or control (hepatitis E) vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. Co-primary endpoints included high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection (over 6 months) associated with HPV-16/18. The primary analysis was performed on a per-protocol susceptible population of individuals who were negative for relevant HPV type-specific neutralizing antibodies (at day 0) and DNA (at day 0 through month 7) and who received 3 doses of the vaccine. This report presents data from a pre-specified interim analysis used for regulatory submission. Results In the per-protocol cohort, the efficacies against high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection were 100.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55.6% to 100.0%, 0/3306 in the vaccine group vs. 10/3296 in the control group) and 97.8% (95% CI = 87.1% to 99.9%, 1/3240 vs. 45/3246), respectively. The side effects were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were noted. Robust antibody responses for both types were induced and persisted for at least 42 months. Conclusions The Escherichia coli-produced HPV-16/18 vaccine is well tolerated and highly efficacious against HPV-16/18 associated high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection in women.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192696, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002328

RESUMO

Importance: Asia is home to the largest diabetic populations in the world. However, limited studies have quantified the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asian populations. Objectives: To evaluate the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia and to investigate potential effect modifications of the diabetes-mortality associations by participants' age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis incorporated individual participant data from 22 prospective cohort studies of the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2006. A total of 1 002 551 Asian individuals (from mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh) were followed up for more than 3 years. Cohort-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox regression models and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted between January 10, 2018, and August 31, 2018. Exposures: Doctor-diagnosed diabetes, age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 1 002 551 participants (518 537 [51.7%] female; median [range] age, 54.0 [30.0-98.0] years), 148 868 deaths were ascertained during a median (range) follow-up of 12.6 (3.0-38.9) years. The overall prevalence of diabetes reported at baseline was 4.8% for men and 3.6% for women. Patients with diabetes had a 1.89-fold risk of all-cause death compared with patients without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.74-2.04), with the highest relative risk of death due to diabetes itself (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 18.5-28.1), followed by renal disease (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.50-3.78), coronary heart disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-3.02), and ischemic stroke (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.85-2.51). The adverse diabetes-mortality associations were more evident among women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.89-2.32) than among men (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.88) (P for interaction < .001) and more evident among adults aged 30 to 49 years (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.84) than among adults aged 70 years and older (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.62) (P for interaction < .001). A similar pattern of association was found between diabetes and cause-specific mortality, with significant variations noted by sex and age. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of death from several diseases among Asian populations. Development and implementation of diabetes management programs are urgently needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Asia.

12.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(4): 966-974, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective study investigated the association between tooth loss and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer mortality in the Linxian Dysplasia Nutrition Intervention Trial Cohort. METHODS: Subjects were categorized into three groups according to age at baseline. No missing teeth and less or greater than median tooth loss in each group was defined as none, moderate, and severe, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Through 30 September 2015, 541 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 284 gastric cardia carcinoma (GCC), and 77 gastric non-cardia carcinoma (GNCC) deaths occurred. In the six-year follow-up, severe tooth loss was associated with an increased risk of GCC mortality (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06-2.18). In the 15-year follow-up, moderate tooth loss increased the ESCC mortality risk by 58% (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06-2.35), while severe loss increased the GCC mortality risk by 30% (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64). In the 30-year follow-up, moderate tooth loss increased the risk of ESCC mortality (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.76). In subjects aged < 55 at baseline and men, moderate tooth loss had 53% and 52% higher risks of ESCC mortality (HR<55 years 1.53, 95% CI 1.06-2.05; HRmen 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.28). No significant association was observed for GNCC in any subjects or subgroups. CONCLUSION: Moderate tooth loss increased the risk of ESCC mortality, particularly in younger subjects and men. Severe tooth loss increased the risk of GCC mortality. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191474, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924901

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding birth cohort-specific tobacco smoking patterns and their association with total and cause-specific mortality is important for projecting future deaths due to tobacco smoking across Asian populations. Objectives: To assess secular trends of tobacco smoking by countries or regions and birth cohorts and evaluate the consequent mortality in Asian populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled meta-analysis was based on individual participant data from 20 prospective cohort studies participating in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Between September 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, a total of 1 002 258 Asian individuals 35 years or older were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. The pooled results were presented for mainland China; Japan; Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; and India. Exposures: Tobacco use status, age at starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Country or region and birth cohort-specific mortality and the population attributable risk for deaths from all causes and from lung cancer. Results: Of 1 002 258 participants (51.1% women and 48.9% men; mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.6 [10.4] years), 144 366 deaths (9158 deaths from lung cancer) were ascertained during a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.7 (5.3) years. Smoking prevalence for men steadily increased in China and India, whereas it plateaued in Japan and Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. Among Asian male smokers, the mean age at starting smoking decreased in successive birth cohorts, while the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. These changes were associated with an increasing relative risk of death in association with current smoking in successive birth cohorts of pre-1920, 1920s, and 1930 or later, with hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.17-1.37) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.57-1.84) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 3.38 (95% CI, 2.25-5.07) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 4.74 (95% CI, 3.56-6.32) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 4.80 (95% CI, 3.71-6.19) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking accounted for 12.5% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.3%) of all-cause mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 21.1% (95% CI, 17.3%-24.9%) of all-cause mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.3%) of all-cause mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking among men accounted for 56.6% (95% CI, 44.7%-66.3%) of lung cancer mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 66.6% (95% CI, 58.3%-73.5%) of lung cancer mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 68.4% (95% CI, 61.3%-74.4%) of lung cancer mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. For women, tobacco smoking patterns and lung cancer mortality varied substantially by countries and regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mortality associated with tobacco smoking continued to increase among Asian men in recent birth cohorts, indicating that tobacco smoking will remain a major public health problem in most Asian countries in the coming decades. Implementing comprehensive tobacco-control programs is warranted to end the tobacco epidemic.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/mortalidade
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(5): 1036-1042, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925028

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for 90% of esophageal cancer cases, over half of which occur in China. Linxian, a county located in the North Central Taihang Mountain range, has the highest ESCC mortality rate, which may be the leading cause of death in this area. In a decades-long research program in Linxian, Chinese and international scientists have exerted great efforts to describe the epidemiological characteristics and elucidate the etiology of ESCC. A systematic review and summary of the current knowledge gained from previous research is informative for future ESCC prevention and control in similar populations, and may be translated to other high-incidence countries, such as Brazil, Iran, Malawi, and South Africa. As ESCC is a major cause of cancer death, more research is required in China and in other high-incidence countries to deepen our understanding of the etiology of ESCC and develop preventative strategies.

15.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(4): 708-714, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to examine changes in diagnostic and staging imaging methods for lung cancer in China over a 10-year period and to determine the relationships between such changes and socioeconomic development. METHODS: This was a hospital-based, nationwide, multicenter retrospective study of primary lung cancer cases. The data were extracted from the 10-year primary lung cancer databases at eight tertiary hospitals from various geographic areas in China. The chi-squared test was used to assess the differences and the Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to estimate the trends of changes. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer cases were analyzed. Over the 10-year period, the utilization ratio of diagnostic imaging methods, such as chest computed tomography (CT) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), increased from 65.79% to 81.42% and from 0.73% to 1.96%, respectively, while the utilization ratio of chest X-ray declined from 50.15% to 30.93%. Staging imaging methods, such as positron emission tomography-CT, neck ultrasound, brain MRI, bone scintigraphy, and bone MRI increased from 0.73% to 9.29%, 22.95% to 47.92%, 8.77% to 40.71%, 42.40% to 62.22%, and 0.88% to 4.65%, respectively; abdominal ultrasound declined from 83.33% to 59.9%. These trends were more notable in less developed areas than in areas with substantial economic development. CONCLUSION: Overall, chest CT was the most common radiological diagnostic method for lung cancer in China. Imaging methods for lung cancer tend to be used in a diverse, rational, and regionally balanced manner.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 128: 91-100, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the clinical profile and its trajectory of lung cancer on clinicopathological characteristics and medical service utilization in China. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer in tertiary hospitals during 2005-14 were selected from seven geographic regions of China. Data on clinical characteristics and medical service utilization was extracted from medical record, and the ten-year trends were explored. RESULTS: A total of 7184 patients were included, the mean age was 58.3 years and the male-to-female-ratio was 2.7. From 2005 to 2014, the proportion of ≥60 year-old patients increased from 41.2% to 56.2% (p < 0.001). The smoking rate decreased from 62.9% to 51.1% (p < 0.001) and the proportion of females increased from 23.5% to 31.9% (p < 0.001). The proportion of advanced stage increased from 41.9% to 47.4% (p < 0.001). Adenocarcinoma's proportion increased from 36.4% to 53.5% (p < 0.001) while that of squamous carcinoma decreased from 45.4% to 34.4% (p < 0.001). The application of chest X-ray dropped from 50.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but that of chest CT increased from 65.8% to 81.4% (p < 0.001). As two main treatment options, chemotherapy (p = 0.290) and surgery (p = 0.497) remained stable. The medical expenditure per patient increased from 40,508 to 66,020 Chinese Yuan (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The sustaining high smoking exposure, increasing proportion of female patients, advancing clinical stage, shifting of predominant pathology and increasing medical expenditure demonstrate potential challenges and directions on lung cancer prevention and control in China. Despite substantial changes of clinical characteristics, main treatment options remained unchanged, which needs further investigation.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 34-42, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943809

RESUMO

The management of HPV-positive women becomes particularly crucial in cervical cancer screening. Here we assessed whether detection of E6 or E7 oncoproteins targeting eight most prevalent HPV types could serve as a promising triage option. Women (N = 1,416) aged 50-60 from Shanxi, China underwent screening with HPV testing and liquid-based cytology (LBC), with any positive results referring to colposcopy and biopsy if necessary. Women with HPV-positive results received further tests using DNA-based genotyping, E6 or E7 oncoprotein detection targeting HPV16/18 (for short: E6 (16/18) Test) or HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58 (for short: E6/E7 (8 types) Test), respectively. Among HPV-positive women, E6/E7 (8 types) oncoproteins had lower positivity (17.37%) compared to DNA-based genotyping for same eight types (58.30%) and LBC with ASC-US threshold (50.97%); HPV16 was the genotype showing the highest frequency (8.49%) for oncoprotein detection followed by HPV52 (3.47%), 58 (2.32%), 33 (1.54%), 18 (1.16%), 45 (0.77%), 35 (0.39%) and 31 (0%). For detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 3 or higher (CIN3+), E6/E7 (8 types) Test had similar sensitivity (100.00%) and superior specificity (85.94%) as well as positive predictive value (PPV, 22.22%) compared to both LBC and DNA-based genotyping (8 types); For detection of CIN2+, E6/E7 (8 types) Test was less sensitive (67.74%) but still more specific (89.47%) and risk predictive with PPV of 46.67%. Notably, E6/E7 (8 types) Test remarkably decreased the number of colposcopies needed to detect one CIN2+ and CIN3+ (2.14 and 4.50). E6/E7 oncoprotein detection showed a good "trade-off" between sensitivity and specificity with more efficient colposcopy referrals, which is of great importance to maximize the benefits of HPV-based screening program, especially applicable for the areas with high HPV prevalence and low-resources.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Colposcopia/métodos , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/metabolismo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/fisiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/metabolismo , Papillomavirus Humano 18/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 151(2): 221-228, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-collected HPV testing could substantially reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening, with slightly lower sensitivity compared to physician-collected specimens cross-sectionally. We aimed to evaluate the comprehensive long-term performance of self-collected HPV testing prospectively. METHODS: In 1999, 1997 women were screened by HPV testing on self-collected and physician-collected samples, cytology and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and followed up in 2005, 2010 and 2014, respectively. HPV testing was performed with Hybrid Capture II. Prospective performance, baseline clinical efficiency, and 15-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) were analyzed. RESULTS: Self-collected HPV testing prospectively detected 83.3% (95% CI:74.9%,89.3%), 70.3% (95% CI:62.5%,77.2%) and 63.3% (95% CI:55.7%, 70.2%) of cumulative CIN2+ at 6-year, 11-year and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Relative cumulative sensitivity of physician-collected HPV testing versus self-collected HPV testing was stable over 15 years at about 1.16. Cumulative sensitivity of self-collected HPV testing was comparable to cytology and significantly higher than VIA. Among women positive by self-collected HPV testing at baseline, 26.2% (95% CI:21.5%, 30.9%) developed CIN2+ during 6-year follow-up and no difference was observed with physician-collected HPV testing even 15 years after baseline. Negative self-collected HPV results provided greater protection against CIN2+ than VIA and ascertained CIN2+ cumulative incident rates as low as 1.1% at the 6-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Self-collected HPV testing demonstrates lower sensitivity than physician-collected HPV testing but performs comparably to cytology prospectively and provides satisfactory assurance against CIN2+, indicating an alternative role in cervical cancer primary screening with five-year interval as an option especially in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
19.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203926, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tooth loss has been reported to be associated with the risk of liver cancer in several prior studies in economically advantaged countries. Whether this relationship is also evident in economically disadvantaged populations is not known. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Nutrition Intervention Trials, two randomized placebo-controlled trials of vitamin/mineral supplementation in Linxian, China. Participants who reported having lost permanent teeth were examined to determine the number of teeth remaining. In the 30-year follow-up period, 329 liver cancers were diagnosed and 368 chronic liver disease deaths occurred. Tooth loss was categorized based on loess smoothed age-specific predicted quartiles. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the two outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, persons in the highest quartile of age-specific tooth loss had an increased risk of liver cancer (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.67) which was not statistically significant. Results varied by sex and body mass index (BMI), however. Women in the highest quartile of age-specific tooth loss had a significantly increased risk (HR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.04, 2.59), while men did not (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.75, 1.57), and persons with a BMI > 23.0 kg/m2 (HR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.00, 2.92) had a significantly increased risk, while persons with a BMI <23.0 kg/m2 did not (HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.82, 1.5). No relationships with chronic liver disease mortality were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural, economically disadvantaged population, persons with the highest levels of age-specific tooth loss had an increased risk of liver cancer. The results, which were stronger among women and persons with greater BMI, suggest that periodontal disease may increase risk of liver cancer.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(12): 1472-1479, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the leading cause of gastric cancer, yet the majority of infected individuals will not develop neoplasia. Previously, we developed and replicated serologic H. pylori biomarkers for gastric cancer risk among prospective cohorts in East Asia and now seek to validate the performance of these biomarkers in identifying individuals with premalignant lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,402 individuals from Linqu County screened by upper endoscopy. H. pylori protein-specific antibody levels were assessed using multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent intestinal metaplasia, indefinite dysplasia, or dysplasia, compared with superficial or mild atrophic gastritis. RESULTS: Compared with individuals seronegative to Omp and HP0305, individuals seropositive to both were seven times more likely to have precancerous lesions (OR, 7.43; 95% CI, 5.59-9.88). A classification model for precancerous lesions that includes age, smoking, and seropositivity to H. pylori, Omp, and HP0305 resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.751 (95% CI, 0.725-0.777), which is significantly better than the same model, including the established gastric cancer risk factor CagA (AUC, 0.718; 95% CI, 0.691-0.746, P difference = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: The present study of prevalent precancerous gastric lesions provides support for two new serum biomarkers of gastric cancer risk, Omp and HP 0305. IMPACT: Our results support further research into the serological biomarkers Omp and HP0305 as possible improvements over the established virulence marker CagA for identifying individuals with precancerous lesions in East Asia.

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