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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2560, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963193

RESUMO

The commensal fungus Candida albicans often causes life-threatening infections in patients who are immunocompromised with high mortality. A prominent but poorly understood risk factor for the C. albicans commensal‒pathogen transition is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Here, we report that ß-lactam antibiotics cause bacteria to release significant quantities of peptidoglycan fragments that potently induce the invasive hyphal growth of C. albicans. We identify several active peptidoglycan subunits, including tracheal cytotoxin, a molecule produced by many Gram-negative bacteria, and fragments purified from the cell wall of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Feeding mice with ß-lactam antibiotics causes a peptidoglycan storm that transforms the gut from a niche usually restraining C. albicans in the commensal state to promoting invasive growth, leading to systemic dissemination. Our findings reveal a mechanism underlying a significant risk factor for C. albicans infection, which could inform clinicians regarding future antibiotic selection to minimize this deadly disease incidence.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114112, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905820

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Quyu Shengxin capsule (QSC) is an herbal compound commonly used to treat blood stasis syndrome in China, and blood stasis syndrome is considered to be the root of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the potential molecular mechanism of QSC is still unknown. AIM OF STUDY: To study the therapeutic effect of QSC on the abnormal proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang-II, and to explore its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative analysis and quality control of QSC through UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC. The rat thoracic aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured in vitro, and then stimulated with Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-II) (10-7 mol/L) for 24 h to establish a cardiovascular cell model. The cells were then treated with different concentrations of QSC drug-containing serum or normal goat serum. MTT assay was used to detect the viability of VSMCs and abnormal cell proliferation. In order to analyze the possible signal transduction pathways, the content of various factors in the supernatant of VSMCs was screened and determined by means of the Luminex liquid suspension chip detection platform, and the phosphoprotein profile in VSMCs was screened by Phospho Explorer antibody array. RESULTS: Compared with the model group, serum cell viability and inflammatory factor levels with QSC were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression levels of TGF-ß, VEGF, mTOR and JAK-STAT in the QSC-containing serum treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group. QSC may regulate the pathological process of CVD by reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and protecting VSMCs from the abnormal proliferation induced by Ang-II. CONCLUSION: QSC inhibits Ang-II-induced abnormal proliferation of VSMCs, which is related to the down-regulation of TGF-ß, VEGF, mTOR and JAK-STAT pathways.

3.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105514, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631336

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytosolic DNA and catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP, which upon activation triggers the induction of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to type I interferons production; these events then promote the cross-priming of dendritic cells and the initiation of a tumor-specific CD8+ T cell response. However, cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment cannot trigger intrinsic cGAS-STING signaling, regardless of the expression of cGAS and STING. This dysfunctional cGAS-STING signaling enables cancer cells to evade immune surveillance, thereby promoting tumorigenesis. Here, we review recent advances in the current understanding of the activation of cGAS-STING signaling and immunotherapies based on this pathway and focus on the mechanisms for the inactivation of this pathway in tumor cells to promote the development of cancer immunotherapy. The discovery of inherent resistance and the selection of appropriate combination therapies are of great significance for tumor treatment development.

4.
ChemMedChem ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528076

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation represents a long-term reaction of the body's immune system to noxious stimuli. Such a sustained inflammatory response sometimes results in lasting damage to healthy tissues and organs. In fact, chronic inflammation is implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancers. Targeting nonresolving inflammation thus provides new opportunities for treating relevant diseases. In this review, we will go over several chronic inflammation-associated diseases first with emphasis on the role of inflammation in their pathogenesis. Then, we will summarize a number of natural products that exhibit therapeutic effects against those diseases by acting on different markers in the inflammatory response. We envision that natural products will remain a rich resource for the discovery of new drugs treating diseases associated with chronic inflammation.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(1): 617-627, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331372

RESUMO

The entire reaction mechanism of the dry reforming of methane (DRM) as well as the competition processes over perfect and boron-vacancy-containing h-BN sheet-supported Ni-catalysts (labeled Ni2/h-BN and Ni2/h-BN-B-D) was studied by density functional theory calculations in the present work. Our calculation results show that B-defected h-BN strongly binds to the Ni2 active sites (i.e., shows a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) character) due to the better electron transfer between Ni2 sites and the support. It was found that CH4 is easier to activate than molecular CO2. The activation of CO2 occurs on the surface of Ni2/h-BN through a direct route, whereas it is prone to follow a hydrogen-assisted path for Ni2/h-BN-B-D via the COOH* intermediate, and the results show that the oxidant O* is easily formed on the surface of Ni2/h-BN-B-D. It was also found that O* is the main oxidant agent for CHx* intermediates through the CH3-O oxidation mechanism. The reaction kinetic analysis indicated that the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS) is much more favorable than DRM (1.30 vs. 1.72 eV) over the Ni2/h-BN system, whereas the RWGS and DRM are comparable on Ni2/h-BN-B-D (1.77 vs. 1.66 eV), suggesting a high DRM activity on Ni2/h-BN-B-D. Moreover, neither methane cracking nor a Boudouard reaction to form C* species is thermodynamically and kinetically unfavorable over Ni2/h-BN-B-D; hence, Ni2/h-BN-B-D has strong resistance to carbon deposition. Compared to Ni(111), both Ni2/h-BN-B-D and Ni2/h-BN show strong resistance to carbon deposition. Our results provide a further mechanistic understanding of the DRM over an Ni-based catalyst through the SMSI characteristic and the SMSI favors strong resistance to carbon deposition.

6.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297828

RESUMO

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes micturition dysfunction. We recently discovered a low level of spinally-derived dopamine (DA) that regulates recovered bladder and sphincter reflexes in SCI female rats. Considering substantial sexual dimorphic features in the lower urinary tract, it is unknown if the DA-ergic mechanisms act in the male. Histological analysis showed a similar distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ neurons in the lower cord of male rats and the number increased following thoracic SCI. Subsequently, focal electrical stimulation in slices obtained from L6/S1 spinal segments of SCI rats elicited detectable DA release with fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Using bladder cystometrogram and external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography in SCI male rats, intravenous (i.v.) administration of SCH 23390, a D1-like receptor (DR1) antagonist, induced significantly increased tonic EUS activity and a trend of increased residual volume, whereas activation of these receptors with SKF 38393 did not influence the reflex. Meanwhile, blocking spinal D2-like receptors (DR2) with remoxipride had no effect but stimulating these receptors with quinpirole elicited EUS bursting to increase voiding volume. Furthermore, intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of SCH 23390 and quinpirole resulted in similar responses to those with i.v. delivery, respectively, which indicates the central action regardless of delivery route. In addition, metabolic cage assays showed that quinpirole increased the voiding frequency and total voiding volume in spontaneous micturition. Collectively, spinal DA-ergic machinery regulates recovered micturition reflex following SCI in male rats; spinal DR1 tonically suppress tonic EUS activity to enable voiding and activation of DR2 facilitates voiding.

7.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109277, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This work aimed to develop and validate a deep learning radiomics model for evaluating serosa invasion in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 572 gastric cancer patients were included in this study. Firstly, we retrospectively enrolled 428 consecutive patients (252 in the training set and 176 in the test set I) with pathological confirmed T3 or T4a. Subsequently, 144 patients who were clinically diagnosed cT3 or cT4a were prospectively allocated to the test set II. Histological verification was based on the surgical specimens. CT findings were determined by a panel of three radiologists. Conventional hand-crafted features and deep learning features were extracted from three phases CT images and were utilized to build radiomics signatures via machine learning methods. Incorporating the radiomics signatures and CT findings, a radiomics nomogram was developed via multivariable logistic regression. Its diagnostic ability was measured using receiver operating characteristiccurve analysis. RESULTS: The radiomics signatures, built with support vector machine or artificial neural network, showed good performance for discriminating T4a in the test I and II sets with area under curves (AUCs) of 0.76-0.78 and 0.79-0.84. The nomogram had powerful diagnostic ability in all training, test I and II sets with AUCs of 0.90 (95 % CI, 0.86-0.94), 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.82-0.92) and 0.90 (95 % CI, 0.85-0.96) respectively. The net reclassification index revealed that the radiomics nomogram had significantly better performance than the clinical model (p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning radiomics model based on CT images is effective at discriminating serosa invasion in gastric cancer.

8.
Int J Hypertens ; 2020: 6214581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953170

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate factors predicting blood pressure (BP) variability during diagnostic cerebral angiography and associations between BP variability and clinical outcomes in patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis. 114 patients with ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis (stenosis rate >50%) were recruited. Patients who underwent cerebral angiography within 3 days and 3-14 days of disease onset are referred to be Group A and Group S, respectively. BP variability in Group A was defined as the coefficient of variance (CV) of BP. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors of CV of BP and associations between CV of BP and clinical outcomes at discharge. In Group A patients, advanced age was associated with increased CV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and antihypertensive use was associated with lower CV of SBP. Male was associated with lower CV of DBP. In Group S, higher CV of SBP was associated with hypertension and antihypertensive use. Males had lower CV of SBP than females. The calcium channel blocker was associated with lower CV of DBP. Higher scores of the Stroke Scale at admission were significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes for both groups, while BP variability was not. Factors associated with BP variability are significantly different between stroke patients undergoing angiography within 3 days vs. 3-14 days after disease onset. BP variability is not significantly associated with clinical outcomes at discharge.

9.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(9): 918-924, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889895

RESUMO

The hypoxic microenvironment is commonly found in various solid tumors including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Saururus chinensis is a medicinal Chinese herb widely used because of documented anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Sauchinone is special active lignin extracted from S. chinensis and its biological functions have been extensively explored. Recent studies have found that sauchinone could affect tumor initiation, metastasis and progression of some cancers. However, the specific role of sauchinone in PDAC remains to be elucidated. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of sauchinone in the progression of PDAC under the hypoxic condition. The human PDAC cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were exposed to hypoxia and various concentrations of sauchinone. The CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cytotoxic effects of sauchinone on PDAC cells. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Wnt3a and ß-catenin were examined by the western blot analysis. Wound healing and transwell assays were used to assess cell migration and invasion. The results showed that the migratory and invasive abilities of PDAC cells were enhanced after exposure to hypoxia and the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers was also significantly regulated by hypoxia. All these effects induced under the hypoxic condition were terminated by sauchinone treatment. In addition, sauchinone suppressed hypoxia-induced activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Our study provided important insight into understanding the mechanisms of the anti-cancer effect of sauchinone. Taken together, we suggested that sauchinone may be considered a new therapeutic agent for PDAC treatment.

10.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720925055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693638

RESUMO

This paper aimed to evaluate whether human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) could shift the balance between regulatory T (Treg) and T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells in vitro. In this study, primary EVT isolated from first trimester placental tissues were infected with HCMV, and conditional media were harvested after cultivation for 72 h. T lymphocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of HCMV-infected conditional media. The frequencies of Th17 or Treg cells from HCMV group were significantly lower or higher than those from the control group, with the expression of corresponding key cytokines at both messenger ribonucleic acid and secretion levels, respectively. The ratio of Treg to Th17 cells was significantly lower in HCMV group than that in control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, tiled Th17/Treg balance at maternal-fetal interface exists after HCMV infection.

11.
Chem Asian J ; 15(14): 2117-2128, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558250

RESUMO

The human microbiota deploys a diverse range of molecules and metabolites to engage in chemical communications with the host, mediating fundamental aspects of host health. Studies of the structures and activities of bioactive molecules produced by the microbiota are imperative to address their implications in microbiota associated diseases in human. By drawing experiences from different research fields, chemists and chemical biologists, who are experts in dealing with chemical molecules, are uniquely positioned to contribute to the emerging knowledge of human microbiota. In this minireview, we discuss the current chemical tools and methods that are pertinent to the discovery of microbiota molecules and metabolites, characterizations of their protein targets, as well as evaluations of their biodistributions in hosts. These are key aspects in understanding the chemical underpinnings of the microbiota-host interactions that would enable future development of diagnostics and therapeutics targeting the human microbiota.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391356

RESUMO

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with aggressive clinical cases and poor prognosis despite recent advances in disease treatment. In activated B-cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL, the most severe damaged signaling pathways converge to aberrantly activate the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9/MyD88 pathways, leading to the avoidance of cell death and resistance to chemotherapy. A gain of function mutation in MyD88 (MyD88 L265P) enhanced the NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways and was associated with dysregulation of TLR signaling in the pathogenesis of ABC-DLBCL. Therefore, inhibition of the TLR signaling network may improve clinical outcomes. In this study, we designed a de novo synthesized oligodeoxynucleotide-based antagonist of TLR7 and TLR9, referred to as HJ901, which competitively binds to TLR7/9. We profiled HJ901 inhibition in various DLBCL cell lines and verified tumor suppression in a xenograft mouse model. We found that HJ901 treatment significantly reduced TLR7- and TLR9-mediated cell proliferation and cytokine production in a time- and dose-dependent manner in various DLBCL cell lines expressing the MyD88 L265P mutation. Moreover, HJ901 prevented tumor growth and downregulated the NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways in a DLBCL xenograft mouse model with the MyD88 L265P mutation. These results reveal that the anti-tumor effects of the synthesized oligodeoxynucleotide-based antagonist, HJ901, which competitively binds to TLR7/9, may be associated with the downregulation of the NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and provide rationale for treating ABC-DLBCL patients with the MyD88 L265P mutation.

13.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 47, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a severe and disabling brain disorder, and the exact neurological mechanisms remain unclear. Migraineurs have altered pain perception, and headache attacks disrupt their sensory information processing and sensorimotor integration. The altered functional connectivity of sub-regions of sensorimotor brain areas with other brain cortex associated with migraine needs further investigation. METHODS: Forty-eight migraineurs without aura during the interictal phase and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. We utilized seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate whether patients exhibited abnormal functional connectivity between sub-regions of sensorimotor brain areas and cortex regions. RESULTS: We found that patients with migraineurs without aura exhibited disrupted functional connectivities between the sensorimotor areas and the visual cortex, temporal cortex, posterior parietal lobule, prefrontal areas, precuneus, cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas proper and cerebellum areas compared with healthy controls. In addition, the clinical data of the patients, such as disease duration, pain intensity and HIT-6 score, were negatively correlated with these impaired functional connectivities. CONCLUSION: In patients with migraineurs without aura, the functional connectivities between the sensorimotor brain areas and other brain regions was reduced. These disrupted functional connectivities might contribute to abnormalities in visual processing, multisensory integration, nociception processing, spatial attention and intention and dysfunction in cognitive evaluation and modulation of pain. Recurrent headache attacks might lead to the disrupted network between primary motor cortex and temporal regions and between primary somatosensory cortex and temporal regions. Pain sensitivity and patient quality of life are closely tied to the abnormal functional connectivity between sensorimotor regions and other brain areas.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Enxaqueca sem Aura/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enxaqueca sem Aura/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(5): 233, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309380

RESUMO

Background: Clinical studies have showed that dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy could cause fetal growth retardation, but the mechanism by which prenatal dexamethasone exposure influences placental nutrient transport is still unclear. This study investigated the impacts of prenatal dexamethasone on the placental oxygen and nutrient transport. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered with dexamethasone from day 9 to day 20 of gestation at 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg·d. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on gestational day 20. The placental tissue was collected for analysis. Results: Prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) declined the fetal weight and increased the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in a dose-dependent manner. The total placental volume and the length, density and surface area of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the thickness of syncytial membrane dose-dependently increased, resulting in a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen diffusion capacity. Furthermore, after PDE, the nutrient transport area and oxygen diffusion capacity of male placenta were lower than that of female placenta. The mRNA and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters including glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3), L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) increased in female placenta. However, in male placenta, the expression of LAT1, LPL and SRB1 was significantly decreased and GLUT1 and GLUT3 have a decrease trend. We further investigated the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) related to placental and fetal growth and development. Our study showed that the expression of IGF1 was significantly decreased both in male and female placentas after PDE. But the expression of IGF2 was significantly increased in female placentas while significantly decreased in male placentas. Conclusions: Our study shows prenatal dexamethasone exposure exerts sex-specific influence on the placental oxygen and nutrient transport. This might be ascribed to the differential expression of IGF2 after PDE. These findings provide evidence on the dexamethasone-induced toxicity to the placenta and fetal development.

15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 111.e1-111.e14, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a global public health emergency. Data on the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy are limited to small case series. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20, 2020, and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples. RESULTS: The median gestational age on admission was 38+0 (interquartile range, 36+0-39+1) weeks. The most common symptoms were fever (50.9%, 59/116) and cough (28.4%, 33/116); 23.3% (27/116) patients presented without symptoms. Abnormal radiologic findings were found in 96.3% (104/108) of cases. Of the 116 cases, there were 8 cases (6.9%) of severe pneumonia but no maternal deaths. One of 8 patients who presented in the first trimester and early second trimester had a missed spontaneous abortion. Of 99 patients, 21 (21.2%) who delivered had preterm birth, including 6 with preterm premature rupture of membranes. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was 6.1% (6/99). One case of severe neonatal asphyxia resulted in neonatal death. Furthermore, 86 of the 100 neonates tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results; of these, paired amniotic fluid and cord blood samples from 10 neonates used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth. There is no evidence of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection when the infection manifests during the third trimester of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Aborto Espontâneo/virologia , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico/virologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 75(1): 211-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language dysfunction is a frequently reported symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, computer-assisted analysis of spontaneous speech in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is rarely used to date. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the language impairment in AD and amnestic MCI (aMCI) with computer-based automatic analysis via the "Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software for cognitive impairment V1.3". METHODS: A total of 64 subjects, including 20 AD patients, 20 aMCI patients, and 24 healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological tests, and spontaneous speech samples were recorded through the description of the "Cookie-Theft Picture" and then analyzed by the computerized software. Subsequently, we compared the speech parameters between the subjects and the controls. RESULTS: We identified seven spontaneous speech parameters (percentage of silence duration, average duration of phrasal segments, average duration of silence segments, number of speech segments, number of long pauses, ratio of hesitation/speech counts and ratio of short pause/speech counts) demonstrating significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.05). All seven speech parameters significantly correlated with cognitive performance, with average duration of silence segments demonstrating the best correlation to cognitive performance on stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Computer-assisted automated analysis of speech/silence segments demonstrated the potential to reflect the intrinsic linguistic impairment associated with MCI and AD. It has a promising prospect in the early detection of AD and assessment of disease severity.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116691

RESUMO

Background: C type CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-C ODNs), possessing the features of both A type and B type CpG ODNs, exert a variety of immunostimulatory activities and have been demonstrated as an effective antitumor immunotherapy. Based on the structural characteristics, we designed 20 potential ODNs with the aim of synthesizing an optimal, novel CpG-C ODN specific to human and murine Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We also sought to investigate the in vitro immunostimulatory and in vivo antitumor effects of the novel CpG-C ODN. Methods: Twenty potential CpG-C ODNs were screened for their ability to secrete interferon (IFN)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production for the three most promising sequences were assayed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or cytometric bead array assay. The functions of human and mouse B cells, and cytokine production in mice induced by the most promising sequence, HP06T07, were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. Growth and morphology of tumor tissues in in vivo murine models inoculated with CT26 cells were analyzed by a growth inhibition assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among the 20 designed ODNs, HP06T07 significantly induced IFN-α, IL-6, and TNF-α secretion, and promoted B-cell activation and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in human PBMCs and mouse splenocytes in vitro. Intratumoral injection of HP06T07 notably suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in the CT26 subcutaneous mouse model in a dose-dependent manner. HP06T07 administered nine times at 2-day intervals (I2) eradicated tumor growth at both primary and distant sites of CT26 tumors. HP06T07 restrained tumor growth by increasing the infiltration of T cells, NK cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Conclusions: HP06T07, a novel CpG-C ODN, shows potent immunostimulatory activity in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in the CT26 subcutaneous mouse model.

18.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 2044-2052, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155298

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is a diabetic complication. Ampelopsin (AMP) is a natural flavonoid that has been found to possess antidiabetic and antioxidative activities. However, the effect of AMP on DN remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of AMP on glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) exposed to high glucose (HG). We found that AMP improved HG-caused cell viability reduction in MCs. AMP significantly suppressed the intracellular ROS production and expression levels of ROS producing enzymes NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and NOX4. Increased of NOX activity in HG-stimulated MCs was suppressed by AMP. Pretreatment with AMP inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in HG-stimulated MCs with decreased expression levels of fibronectin (FN) and collagen type IV (Col IV). Furthermore, AMP elevated the expression levels of nuclear Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as increased the mRNA levels of Nrf2-driven genes NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1) and HO-1 in HG-treated MCs. Knockdown of Nrf2 reversed the protective effects of AMP against HG-induced oxidative stress and EMC accumulation in MCs. In conclusion, these findings indicated that AMP protected MCs from HG-induced oxidative damage and ECM accumulation, which might be mediated by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
19.
Reprod Sci ; 27(2): 704-712, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046440

RESUMO

Results of previous epidemiology studies on BPA exposure and endometriosis (EMs) risk were inconsistent, and were limited by inappropriate control selection, incorrect BPA detection method, and the generalization of different subtypes of EMs. Upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 are involved in the development of EMs. We conducted a case-control study among 120 EMs patients and 100 healthy women to evaluate the relationships between BPA exposure and MMP2, MMP9 expressions, and the risk of EMs subtypes. Besides, we used human endometrial stromal cell lines (HESCs) to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations were positively correlated with serum MMP2, MMP9 levels, and the risk of peritoneal EMs (third vs lowest quartile: OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.47, 16.50; fourth versus lowest quartile: OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.07, 12.74, Ptrend = 0.030). The risk of peritoneal EMs increased approximately tenfold when creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentration was 2 µg/g. In vitro study found that BPA exposure increased MMP2, MMP9 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of BPA on HESCs could be blocked by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibitor or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) inhibitor. This study provides evidence that BPA exposure promotes peritoneal EMs, and raises a concern about the potential toxicity of BPA on the female reproductive system.

20.
J Nurs Manag ; 28(2): 199-208, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811782

RESUMO

AIMS: To review the studies on nursing research capacity and the managerial approaches that have been taken to promote nursing research capacity building in China. BACKGROUND: In the nursing profession, research has become increasingly important worldwide. Over the last two decades, continuous efforts have been devoted to improving nursing research capacity in China. However, the results of these efforts were rarely evaluated in a national scale. EVALUATION: A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA checklist and guidelines. The literature was sourced from PubMed, CINAHL and two Chinese databases. In total, 19 articles were selected and their results were integrated, compared and analysed. KEY ISSUES: The development of nursing research has become a recent phenomenon in China. Chinese nurses' perceptions regarding research were mostly positive. However, their participation in research activity has traditionally been minimal. The factors associated with nursing research capacity in China were nurses' personal characteristics and organisational contexts. Several effective strategies (e.g. on-the-job research education) have been used to promote nursing research capacity. CONCLUSION: Currently, nursing research capacity in China is low despite hospital-promoting efforts. Systematic approaches need to be implemented to increase nursing research capacity in China in the near future. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nursing administrators need to seek innovative strategies to resolve issues (e.g. lack of research time and limited nursing research resources). They also need to strengthen their leadership skills in order to achieve the above objectives.

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