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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 389, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759261

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are genetically related coronavirus and share the same cellular receptor ACE2. By replacing the VSV glycoprotein with the spikes (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, we generated two replication-competent recombinant viruses, rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 and rVSV-SARS-CoV. Using wild-type and human ACE2 (hACE2) knock-in mouse models, we found a single dose of rVSV-SARS-CoV could elicit strong humoral immune response via both intranasal (i.n.) and intramuscular (i.m.) routes. Despite the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, no obvious cross-neutralizing activity was observed in the immunized mice sera. In macaques, neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers induced by one i.n. dose of rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 were eight-fold higher than those by a single i.m. dose. Thus, our data indicates that rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 might be suitable for i.n. administration instead of the traditional i.m. immunization in human. Because rVSV-SARS-CoV elicited significantly stronger NAb responses than rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 in a route-independent manner, we generated a chimeric antigen by replacing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV S with that from the SARS-CoV-2. rVSV expressing the chimera (rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD) induced significantly increased NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in mice and macaques than rVSV-SARS-CoV-2, with a safe Th1-biased response. Serum immunized with rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD showed no cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. hACE2 mice receiving a single i.m. dose of either rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 or rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD were fully protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge without obvious lesions in the lungs. Our results suggest that transplantation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD into the S protein of SARS-CoV might be a promising antigen design for COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Neutralização , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
2.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676096

RESUMO

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

3.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(8): nwab053, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676098

RESUMO

Mutations and transient conformational movements of the receptor binding domain (RBD) that make neutralizing epitopes momentarily unavailable present immune escape routes for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To mitigate viral escape, we developed a cocktail of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting epitopes located on different domains of spike (S) protein. Screening of a library of monoclonal antibodies generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 convalescent patients yielded potent NAbs, targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) and RBD domain of S, effective at nM concentrations. Remarkably, a combination of RBD-targeting NAbs and NTD-binding NAbs, FC05, enhanced the neutralization potency in cell-based assays and an animal model. Results of competitive surface plasmon resonance assays and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of antigen-binding fragments bound to S unveil determinants of immunogenicity. Combinations of immunogens, identified in the NTD and RBD of S, when immunized in rabbits and macaques, elicited potent protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, two immunizations of this combination of NTD and RBD immunogens provided complete protection in macaques against a SARS-CoV-2 challenge, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These results provide a proof of concept for neutralization-based immunogen design targeting SARS-CoV-2 NTD and RBD.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5654, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580297

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MASCp36, during in vivo passaging. All three RBD mutations significantly enhance binding affinity to its endogenous receptor, ACE2. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of human ACE2 (hACE2), or mouse ACE2 (mACE2), in complex with the RBD of MASCp36, at 3.1 to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals the molecular basis for the receptor-binding switch. N501Y and Q493H enhance the binding affinity to hACE2, whereas triple mutations at N501Y/Q493H/K417N decrease affinity and reduce infectivity of MASCp36. Our study provides a platform for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and unveils the molecular mechanism for its rapid adaptation and evolution.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
6.
Small Methods ; 5(7): 2100058, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514088

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the associated COVID-19 diseases are an emerging threat to global public health. Although considerable scientific research on the immune, especially antibody, responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been conducted, additional dominant epitopes and protective antibodies are needed for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. Here, two different phage libraries are used to identify immunogenic epitopes across the spike protein and monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 patients. Three peptides are further characterized in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) and measured their antibody levels in COVID-19 patients, from which one identifies one most immunodominant epitope with the highest antibody response in COVID-19 patients and in immunized mice. More importantly, monoclonal antibodies specifically binding to this peptide isolated from COVID-19 patients have therapeutic potential to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the approaches to systemically identify immunogenic peptides and directly identify human monoclonal antibodies from patients will provide useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases.

7.
Biosaf Health ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466800

RESUMO

Since the outbreak at the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading around the world for more than one year. Scientists have been intensely conducting research on this newly emerged coronavirus and the disease caused by it. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as a receptor mediating the cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2, has become a hot spot for researchers. Here, we summarized the recent progresses on the function, expression and distribution characteristics of ACE2 in human body and among populations. We further discussed the interaction mechanism of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 S protein, focusing on key residues that effect interaction and binding ability of SARS-CoV-2 variants. This will facilitate researchers better understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission route, adaptation mechanism and designing treatment strategies.

8.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403037

RESUMO

The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has caused global panic in 2003, and the risk of SARS-CoV outbreak still exists. However, no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available; thus, the development of therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV is needed. In this study, a nanobody phage-displayed library was constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of alpacas immunized with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV. Four positive clones were selected after four rounds of bio-panning and subjected to recombinant expression in E. coli. Further biological identification demonstrated that one of the nanobodies, S14, showed high affinity to SARS-CoV RBD and potent neutralization activity at the picomole level against SARS-CoV pseudovirus. A competitive inhibition assay showed that S14 blocked the binding of SARS-CoV RBD to either soluble or cell-expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In summary, we developed a novel nanobody targeting SARS-CoV RBD, which might be useful for the development of therapeutics against SARS.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1739-1750, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379047

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations and high mortality, with no specific antiviral therapies available. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF17D) has been widely used for over eighty years. However, the emergence of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YFL-AVD) and yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YFL-AND) raised non-negligible concerns. Additionally, the attenuation mechanism of YF17D is still unclear. Thus, the development of convenient models is crucial to understand the mechanisms behind YF17D attenuation and its adverse effects. In this work, we generated a reporter YF17D expressing nano-luciferase (NLuc). In vitro and in vivo characterization demonstrated that the NLuc-YF17D shared similar biological properties with its parental strain and the NLuc activity can reflect viral infectivity reliably. Combined with in vivo bioluminescence imaging, a series of mice models of YF17D infection was established, which will be useful for the evaluation of antiviral medicines and novel vaccine candidates. Especially, we demonstrated that intraperitoneally (i.p.) infection of NLuc-YF17D in type I interferon receptor-deficient mice A129 resulted in outcomes resembling YEL-AVD and YEL-AND, evidenced by viral replication in multiple organs and invasion of the central neuronal system. Finally, in vitro and in vivo assays based on this reporter virus were established to evaluate the antiviral activities of validated antiviral agents. In conclusion, the bioluminescent reporter virus described herein provides a powerful platform to study YF17D attenuation and vaccine-associated diseases as well as to develop novel countermeasures against YFV.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 687338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249779

RESUMO

Sexual transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) elevates the risk of its dissemination in the female reproductive tract and causes a serious threat to the fetus. However, the available animal models are not appropriate to investigate sexual transmission, dynamics of ZIKV infection, replication, and shedding. The use of tree shrew as a small animal model of ZIKV vaginal infection was assessed in this study. A total of 23 sexually mature female tree shrews were infected with ZIKV GZ01 via the intravaginal route. There was no significant difference in change of body weight, and the temperature between ZIKV infected and control animals. Viral RNA loads were detected in blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal douching. ZIKV RNA was readily detected in vaginal lavage of 22 animals (95.65%, 22/23) at 1 dpi, and viral load ranged from 104.46 to 107.35 copies/ml, and the peak of viral load appeared at 1 dpi. The expression of key inflammatory genes, such as IL6, 8, CCL5, TNF-a, and CXCL9, was increased in the spleen of ZIKV infected animals. In the current study, female tree shrews have been successfully infected with ZIKV through the vaginal route for the first time. Interestingly, at first, ZIKV replicates at the local site of infection and then spreads throughout the host body to develop a robust systemic infection and mounted a protective immune response. This small animal model is not only valuable for exploring ZIKV sexual transmission and may also help to explain the cause of debilitating manifestations of the fetus in vivo.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Tupaia , Tupaiidae , Vagina
11.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 49, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230457

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans, and olfactory dysfunction is one of the most predictive and common symptoms in COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to olfactory disorders remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 induces robust viral replication in the olfactory epithelium (OE), not the olfactory bulb (OB), resulting in transient olfactory dysfunction in humanized ACE2 (hACE2) mice. The sustentacular cells and Bowman's gland cells in the OE were identified as the major target cells of SARS-CoV-2 before invasion into olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Remarkably, SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers massive cell death and immune cell infiltration and directly impairs the uniformity of the OE structure. Combined transcriptomic and quantitative proteomic analyses revealed the induction of antiviral and inflammatory responses, as well as the downregulation of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the OE from the infected animals. Overall, our mouse model recapitulates olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and provides critical clues for understanding the physiological basis for extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 641059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025602

RESUMO

Flavivirus replication occurs in membranous replication compartments, also known as replication organelles (ROs) derived from the host ER membrane. Our previous study showed that the non-structural (NS) protein 1 (NS1) is the essential factor for RO creation by hydrophobic insertion into the ER membrane. Here, we found that the association of NS1 with the membrane can be facilitated by the electrostatic interaction between NS1 and negatively charged lipids. NS1 binds to a series of negatively charged lipids, including PI4P, and a positively charged residue, R31, located on the membrane-binding face of NS1, plays important roles in this interaction. The NS1 R31E mutation significantly impairs NS1 association with negatively charged membrane and its ER remodeling ability in the cells. To interfere with the electrostatic interaction between NS1 and negatively charged lipids, intracellular phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) level was downregulated by the overexpression of Sac1 or treatment with PI3K and PI4K inhibitors to attenuate flavivirus replication. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrostatic interaction between NS1 and negatively charged lipids in flavivirus RO formation.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 603563, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603759

RESUMO

The high infection rate and rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) make it a world-wide pandemic. Individuals infected by the virus exhibited different degrees of symptoms, and most convalescent individuals have been shown to develop both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, virus-specific adaptive immune responses in severe patients during acute phase have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we found that in a group of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during hospitalization, most of them mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses, including neutralizing antibodies. However, compared to healthy controls, the percentages and absolute numbers of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced, with decreased IFNγ expression in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood from severe patients. Most notably, their peripheral blood lymphocytes failed in producing IFNγ against viral proteins. Thus, severe COVID-19 patients at acute infection stage developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses but were impaired in cellular immunity, which emphasizes on the role of cellular immunity in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Contagem de Células , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 404-414, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510385

RESUMO

The newly identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global health emergency because of its rapid spread and high mortality. The molecular mechanism of interaction between host and viral genomic RNA is yet unclear. We demonstrate herein that SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA, as well as the negative-sense RNA, is dynamically N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-modified in human and monkey cells. Combined RIP-seq and miCLIP analyses identified a total of 8 m6A sites at single-base resolution in the genome. Especially, epidemic strains with mutations at these identified m6A sites have emerged worldwide, and formed a unique cluster in the US as indicated by phylogenetic analysis. Further functional experiments showed that m6A methylation negatively regulates SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection also triggered a global increase in host m6A methylome, exhibiting altered localization and motifs of m6A methylation in mRNAs. Altogether, our results identify m6A as a dynamic epitranscriptomic mark mediating the virus-host interaction.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
18.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 20, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514743

RESUMO

The mosquito-borne Zika virus is an emerging pathogen from the Flavivirus genus for which there are no approved antivirals or vaccines. Using the clinically validated PDK-53 dengue virus vaccine strain as a backbone, we created a chimeric dengue/Zika virus, VacDZ, as a live attenuated vaccine candidate against Zika virus. VacDZ demonstrates key markers of attenuation: small plaque phenotype, temperature sensitivity, attenuation of neurovirulence in suckling mice, and attenuation of pathogenicity in interferon deficient adult AG129 mice. VacDZ may be administered as a traditional live virus vaccine, or as a DNA-launched vaccine that produces live VacDZ in vivo after delivery. Both vaccine formulations induce a protective immune response against Zika virus in AG129 mice, which includes neutralising antibodies and a strong Th1 response. This study demonstrates that VacDZ is a safe and effective vaccine candidate against Zika virus.

20.
Virol Sin ; 36(1): 113-121, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632819

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important neurotropic flavivirus that is widely distributed globally. WNV strain XJ11129 was first isolated in Xinjiang, China, and its genetic and biological characteristics remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that XJ11129 belongs to lineage 1a and shares high genetic identity with the highly pathogenic strain NY99. Then, the full-length genomic cDNA of XJ11129 was amplified and assembled using a modified Gibson assembly (GA) method. The virus (named rXJ11129) was successfully rescued in days following this method. Compared with other wild-type WNV isolates, rXJ11129 exhibited virulence indistinguishable from that of the NY99 strain in vivo. In summary, the genomic and virulence phenotypes of rXJ11129 were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and these data will improve the understanding of the spread and pathogenesis of this reemerging virus.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , China , Flavivirus , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
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