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2.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807040

RESUMO

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) modulates trafficking, ligand binding, and signaling of MC4R. The Northern snakehead (Channa argus) is an economically important freshwater fish native to East Asia. To explore potential interaction between snakehead MC4R and MRAP2, herein we cloned snakehead mc4r and mrap2. The snakehead mc4r consisted of a 984 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 327 amino acids, while snakehead mrap2 contained a 693 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 230 amino acids. Synteny analysis indicated that mc4r was highly conserved with similar gene arrangement, while mrap2 contained two isoforms in teleost with different gene orders. Snakehead mc4r was primarily expressed in the brain, whereas mrap2 was expressed in the brain and intestine. Snakehead mc4r and mrap2 expression was modulated by fasting and refeeding. Further pharmacological experiments showed that the cloned snakehead MC4R was functional, capable of binding to peptide agonists and increasing intracellular cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. Snakehead MC4R exhibited high constitutive activity. MRAP2 significantly decreased basal and agonist-stimulated cAMP signaling. These findings suggest that snakehead MC4R might be involved in energy balance regulation by interacting with MRAP2. Further studies are needed to elucidate MC4R in regulating diverse physiological processes in snakehead.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(11): 2310-2315, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818517

RESUMO

In our previous study, we showed that with increasing time in culture, the growth characteristics of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) change, and that the proliferation, migration and neural differentiation potential of these cells in vitro notably diminish. However, there are no studies on the developmental differences in these characteristics between fetal and early-postnatal stages in vitro or in vivo. In this study, we isolated fetal (embryonic day 14.5) and postnatal (postnatal day 2) ENCCs from the intestines of rats. Fetal ENCCs had greater maximum cross-sectional area of the neurospheres, stronger migration ability, and reduced apoptosis, compared with postnatal ENCCs. However, fetal and postnatal ENCCs had a similar differentiation ability. Fetal and postnatal ENCCs both survived after transplant into a rat model of Hirschsprung's disease. In these rats with Hirschsprung's disease, the number of ganglionic cells in the myenteric plexus was higher and the distal intestinal pressure change was greater in animals treated with fetal ENCCs compared with those treated with postnatal ENCCs. These findings suggest that, compared with postnatal ENCCs, fetal ENCCs exhibit higher survival and proliferation and migration abilities, and are therefore a more appropriate seed cell for the treatment of Hirschsprung's disease. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (approval No. 2016086) on March 3, 2016.

4.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 59, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients display disruption of gut microbiome, and gut dysbiosis exacerbate neurological impairment in SCI models. Cumulative data support an important role of gut microbiome in SCI. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy uninjured mice into SCI mice may exert a neuroprotective effect. RESULTS: FMT facilitated functional recovery, promoted neuronal axonal regeneration, improved animal weight gain and metabolic profiling, and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity and GI motility in SCI mice. High-throughput sequencing revealed that levels of phylum Firmicutes, family Christensenellaceae, and genus Butyricimonas were reduced in fecal samples of SCI mice, and FMT remarkably reshaped gut microbiome. Also, FMT-treated SCI mice showed increased amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which correlated with alteration of intestinal permeability and locomotor recovery. Furthermore, FMT downregulated IL-1ß/NF-κB signaling in spinal cord and NF-κB signaling in gut following SCI. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that reprogramming of gut microbiota by FMT improves locomotor and GI functions in SCI mice, possibly through the anti-inflammatory functions of SCFAs. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Locomoção , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1108-1117, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724940

RESUMO

It is difficult to adjust the pH of oil acidized wastewater rich in Ca2+, thus hindering the polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculation. This study aims at accelerating the flocculation process by introducing CO2 into the water to induce the formation of CaCO3 nuclei. The order in which CO2 and NaOH were added affected the floc structures. Compared with CO2-NaOH-PAM, the flocs of NaOH-CO2-PAM were more compact and more CaCO3 crystals were formed. The aqueous Ca2+ involved in the reaction reached 20%, and CO2 utilization was enhanced. The settling time was shortened by half (from 20 to 3 min), and NaOH consumption was reduced by one-tenth (from 0.03 to 0.003 mol), hence significantly reducing the costs. Due to the higher settling rate and shorter contact time, the NaOH-CO2-PAM flocs adsorbed less so that the residual oil was 124 mg·L-1, while in the case of CO2-NaOH-PAM it was 88 mg·L-1. As a promising coagulation aid, CO2 can also be used to mineralize pollutants in wastewater.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Purificação da Água , Dióxido de Carbono , Custos e Análise de Custo , Floculação , Águas Residuárias
6.
Neurobiol Dis ; 152: 105290, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556540

RESUMO

In response to various types of environmental and cellular stress, microglia rapidly activate and exhibit either pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes to maintain tissue homeostasis. Activation of microglia can result in changes in morphology, phagocytosis capacity, and secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, microglial activation also induces changes to cellular energy demand, which is dependent on the metabolism of various metabolic substrates including glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Accumulating evidence demonstrates metabolic reprogramming acts as a key driver of microglial immune response. For instance, microglia in pro-inflammatory states preferentially use glycolysis for energy production, whereas, cells in anti-inflammatory states are mainly powered by oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding microglial metabolic pathways under physiological and pathological circumtances. We will then discuss how metabolic reprogramming can orchestrate microglial response to a variety of central nervous system pathologies. Finally, we highlight how manipulating metabolic pathways can reprogram microglia towards beneficial functions, and illustrate the therapeutic potential for inflammation-related neurological diseases.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605423

RESUMO

Domestic cats, an important companion animal, can be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has aroused concern regarding the ability of domestic cats to spread the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. We systematically demonstrated the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats. Serial passaging of the virus between cats dramatically attenuated the viral transmissibility, likely owing to variations of the amino acids in the receptor-binding domain sites of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 between humans and cats. These findings provide insight into the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and provide information for protecting the health of humans and cats. Article Summary Line: Domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and have attenuated transmissibility after serial passaging.

8.
Opt Lett ; 46(3): 625-628, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528424

RESUMO

We propose and demonstrate a silicon-photonics-based laser that outputs multiple independently tunable wavelengths using a single InP gain element. We use it to generate a C-band tunable source for a coherent transceiver and simultaneously a 1480-nm source to pump an Er-doped fiber amplifier on the transmitter output.

9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 222-235.e4, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388094

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses an unprecedented public health crisis. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes dysregulation of the immune system. However, the unique signature of early immune responses remains elusive. We characterized the transcriptome of rhesus macaques and mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Alarmin S100A8 was robustly induced in SARS-CoV-2-infected animal models as well as in COVID-19 patients. Paquinimod, a specific inhibitor of S100A8/A9, could rescue the pneumonia with substantial reduction of viral loads in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. Remarkably, Paquinimod treatment resulted in almost 100% survival in a lethal model of mouse coronavirus infection using the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). A group of neutrophils that contributes to the uncontrolled pathological damage and onset of COVID-19 was dramatically induced by coronavirus infection. Paquinimod treatment could reduce these neutrophils and regain anti-viral responses, unveiling key roles of S100A8/A9 and aberrant neutrophils in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, highlighting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Alarminas/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , /virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carga Viral
10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 150: 105255, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421564

RESUMO

In Parkinson's disease, synucleinopathy is hypothesized to spread from the enteric nervous system, via the vagus nerve, to the central nervous system. Recent evidences collected in non-human primates challenge however the hypothesis of a transmission of α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology through the vagus nerve. Would the hypothesis whereby the bloodstream acts as a route for long-distance transmission of pathological α-syn hold true, an inter-individual transmission of synucleinopathy could occur via blood contact. Here, we used a parabiosis approach to join the circulatory systems of wild type and GFP transgenic C57BL/6 J mice, for which one of the partners parabiont received a stereotaxic intranigral injection of patient-derived α-syn aggregates. While the Lewy Body-receiving mice exhibited a loss of dopamine neurons and an increase in nigral S129 phosphorylated α-syn immunoreactivity, their parabiotic bloodstream-sharing partners did not show any trend for a lesion or change in S129 phosphorylated-α-syn levels. Altogether, our study suggests that, in the patient-derived α-synuclein aggregates-injected mouse model and within the selected time frame, the disease is not "transmitted" through the bloodstream.

11.
Opt Lett ; 46(1): 142-145, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362036

RESUMO

A silicon-photonic tunable laser emitting two tunable wavelengths simultaneously is demonstrated. The laser consists of a single semiconductor optical amplifier that provides shared gain and a silicon-photonic chip that provides wavelength selections. A total optical power of 29.3 mW is shown, with 300 mA of gain current at 40°C. Continuous tuning of frequency spacing from 69.5 GHz to 114.1 GHz is demonstrated. The two simultaneous laser channels show highly correlated phase noise, with a phase noise correlation coefficient of 90.7%.

12.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(10)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33286909

RESUMO

Image-to-image steganography is hiding one image in another image. However, hiding two secret images into one carrier image is a challenge today. The application of image steganography based on deep learning in real-life is relatively rare. In this paper, a new Steganography Convolution Neural Network (SteganoCNN) model is proposed, which solves the problem of two images embedded in a carrier image and can effectively reconstruct two secret images. SteganoCNN has two modules, an encoding network, and a decoding network, whereas the decoding network includes two extraction networks. First, the entire network is trained end-to-end, the encoding network automatically embeds the secret image into the carrier image, and the decoding network is used to reconstruct two different secret images. The experimental results show that the proposed steganography scheme has a maximum image payload capacity of 47.92 bits per pixel, and at the same time, it can effectively avoid the detection of steganalysis tools while keeping the stego-image undistorted. Meanwhile, StegaoCNN has good generalization capabilities and can realize the steganography of different data types, such as remote sensing images and aerial images.

13.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120975182, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe central nervous system injury that can generally induce different degrees of sensory and motor dysfunction. PURPOSE: To clarify the changes of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters after spinal cord myelotomy in rats with SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the Sham group (n=6), SCI group (n=6), and Mye group (n=6), respectively. The DTI values at 1, 3, 7, and 21 days after modeling were collected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The spinal specimen at the injury site was collected on the 21st day for Nissl's staining to assess the changes in neurons. RESULTS: The fractional anisotropy (FA) values in both the SCI group and Mye group significantly decreased. In addition, the FA values between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values all decreased and then increased (P < 0.001). Pearson correlation test showed that the ADC, MD, and AD values were positively correlated with the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) score. Nissl's staining showed a higher number of Nissl's bodies, and deep staining of Nissl's bodies in the Mye group, while the morphology of neurons was relatively good. The number of neurons in the Mye group was significantly higher after myelotomy compared to the SCI group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The DTI parameters, especially ADC values, could non-invasively and quantifiably evaluate the efficacy of myelotomy for rats with SCI.

14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000797, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296142

RESUMO

SCOPE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the aging population; however, no effective therapy has been established. We previously demonstrated that daily intake of hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol in olive oil, at a daily dietary level mildly improves cognition in AD mice. In the present study, we tested whether hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-ac), which is a natural derivative of HT in olive oil that exhibits better bioactivity than HT improves cognition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We orally administered HT-ac to APP/PS1 transgenic mice and used Aß-treated neuronal cultures to explore the neuroprotective effects of HT-ac in preventing AD progression. We found that HT-ac remarkably improved the escape latency, escape distance and the number of platform crossings of AD mice in the water maze test by ameliorating neuronal apoptosis and decreasing inflammatory cytokine levels. We further demonstrated that HT-ac stimulated the transcription of ERß and enhanced neuronal viability and electrophysiological activity in primary neurons but that these beneficial effects of HT-ac were abolished upon ERß deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that as the bioactive component of olive oil, HT-ac is a promising neuroprotective nutrient that may be used to alleviate AD-related cognitive dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 585471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281722

RESUMO

High-dose steroids, the first-line therapy for acute attacks in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), were ineffective in a proportion of NMOSD attacks. This study aimed to explore possible predictors of high-dose steroid resistance. Demographics and disease characteristics of acute attacks were compared between those who responded to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) and those resistant to IVMP. In total, 197 attacks in 160 patients were identified in our NMOSD registry. Compared with responders, attacks resistant to high-dose steroids tended to have a higher proportion of previous history of immunosuppressive use (25.5 vs. 15.5%, p = 0.080). Significantly higher levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found in non-responders than in responders [485.5 (388-656) vs. 387 (291.5-532) mg/L, p = 0.006]. More active lesions were found in the brain stem of non-responders (8 attacks in 55, 14.5%), especially in the pons (7.3%) and medulla (14.5%), as opposed to responders (7 patients in 142, 4.9%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that resistance to high-dose steroid treatment was associated with previous immunosuppressant use [odds ratio (OR), 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.002-5.34, p = 0.049], CSF protein level above 450 mg/L (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.72-6.82, p < 0.001), and active lesions in the brainstem (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.17-12.32, p = 0.026). In conclusion, NMOSD patients with previous use of immunosuppressants, higher levels of CSF protein, and active lesions in the brainstem are more likely to respond poorly to high-dose IVMP alone during an acute attack.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348833

RESUMO

The traditional cover modification steganography method only has low steganography ability. We propose a steganography method based on the convolutional neural network architecture (Xception) of deep separable convolutional layers in order to solve this problem. The Xception architecture is used for image steganography for the first time, which not only increases the width of the network, but also improves the adaptability of network expansion, and adds different receiving fields to carry out multi-scale information in it. By introducing jump connections, we solved the problems of gradient dissipation and gradient descent in the Xception architecture. After cascading the secret image and the mask image, high-quality images can be reconstructed through the network, which greatly improves the speed of steganography. When hiding, only the secret image and the cover image are cascaded, and then the secret image can be embedded in the cover image through the hidden network in order to obtain the secret image. After extraction, the secret image can be reconstructed by bypassing the secret image through the extraction network. The results show that the results that are obtained by our model have high peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM), and the average high load capacity is 23.96 bpp (bit per pixel), thus realizing large-capacity image steganography surgery.

17.
Front Genet ; 11: 565479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250918

RESUMO

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by irreversible progressive cognitive deficits. Identification of candidate biomarkers, before amyloid-ß-plaque deposition occurs, is therefore of great importance for early intervention of AD. Objective: To investigate the potential non-invasive early biomarkers of AD in 5XFAD mouse model, we investigate the proteome of urinary exosomes present in 1-month-old (before amyloid-ß accumulation) 5XFAD mouse models and their littermate controls. Another two groups of 2 and 6 months-old urinary samples were collected for monitoring the dynamic change of target proteins during AD progression. Methods: Proteomic, bioinformatics analysis, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), western blotting (WB) or ELISA were performed for analyzing these urinary exosomes. Results: A total of 316 proteins including 44 brain cell markers were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Importantly, 18 proteins were unique to the 5XFAD group. Eighty-eight proteins including 11 brain cell markers were differentially expressed. Twenty-two proteins were selected to be verified by WB. Furthermore, based on an independent set of 12 urinary exosomes samples, five in these proteins were further confirmed significant difference. Notably, Annexin 2 and Clusterin displayed significant decreased in AD model during the course detected by ELISA. AOAH, Clusterin, and Ly86 are also brain cell markers that were first reported differential expression in urinary exosomes of AD model. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that some urinary exosome proteins, especially Annexin 2 and Clusterin, as nanometer-sized particles, enable detection of differences before amyloid-ß-plaque deposition in 5XFAD mouse model, which may present an ideal non-invasive source of biomarkers for prevention of AD.

18.
J Neuroimmunol ; 350: 577449, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange (PE) has usually to be considered as a rescue therapy when intravenous corticosteroids is insufficient in acute attacks of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The efficacy of PE has not been quantified. This system review and meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PE therapy in acute attacks of NMOSD. METHODS: Studies evaluating the efficacy of PE in patients with NMOSD were identified from PubMed and Embase. Changes of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between before and after PE therapy, and the rate of response to PE, were defined as the main efficacy outcomes. Meta-regression was performed to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Subgroup meta-analysis were performed based on the interval of initiation PE after attack onset and AQP4-IgG serostatus of patients. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies containing 528 patients with NMOSD were included in this meta-analysis. As a rescue therapy when patients failed to respond to intravenous corticosteroids (PE rescue), PE treatment resulted in a reduction in the mean EDSS score by 1.69 (95% CI: 0.88-2.50), with a response rate of 75%(95%CI: 66%-83%). As a first-line therapy being used alone or simultaneously with intravenous corticosteroids (PE first-line), PE resulted in a reduction in the mean EDSS score by 2.34 (95% CI: 1.69-2.98), with a response rate of 71%(95%CI: 44%-93%). Overall, PE resulted in a reduction in the mean EDSS score by 1.83 (95% CI: 1.19-2.47), with a response rate of 74% (95%CI: 66%-82%). Subgroup analysis suggested that earlier PE initiation and AQP4-IgG seronegative patients seemed to be associated with a superior response to PE therapy. CONCLUSION: Plasma exchange, whether used as rescue or as first-line therapy, is an effective therapeutic method in patients during acute attacks of NMOSD.

19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1170-1177, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is an essential means for prevention of tuberculosis infection, but the effects of various vaccines on the intestinal flora of mice and their response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: In this study, two different vaccinations - ESAT6 and ESAT6 + TLR8 agonists - were administered to mice transgenic for human TLR8 to investigate gut microbiota characteristics following vaccination. Gut microbiota was investigated by next generation sequencing in the MiSeq Sequencing System. Adonis analysis was used to evaluate the effect of variables on gut bacterial community stucture. Chao1, Shannon index, and phylogenetic diversity index were used to explore the gut bacterial diversity. RESULTS: The results showed that different vaccines have significant influence on mice intestinal bacteria (adonis analysis, p < 0.01), with gut bacterial diversity within the ESAT6 + TLR8 agonists group being significantly decreased compared to the ESAT6 treatment group (p < 0.01). Following infection with Mtb via tail vein injection, the bacterial community structure within the control versus vaccinated groups altered significantly (adonis analysis, p < 0.01), and the altered changed genera were markedly different between the groups. Following infection, Bifidobacteria differed between the groups, indicated that they play a vital role in the response to infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that different vaccines might have distinct influences on intestinal flora, and their role should not be ignored.

20.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 333, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinated disease of the central nervous system. Activation of microglia is involved in the pathogenesis of myelin loss. OBJECTIVE: This study is focused on the role of Hv1 in regulating demyelination and microglial activation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-mediated demyelination. We also explored autophagy in this process. METHODS: A model of demyelination using two-point LPC injection into the corpus callosum was established. LFB staining, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and electron microscopy were used to study the severity of demyelination. Microglial phenotype and autophagy were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory ability. RESULTS: We have identified that LPC-mediated myelin damage was reduced by Hv1 deficiency. Furthermore, we found that ROS and autophagy of microglia increased in the demyelination region, which was also inhibited by Hv1 knockout. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that microglial Hv1 deficiency ameliorates demyelination through inhibition of ROS-mediated autophagy and microglial phenotypic transformation.

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