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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014624

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the neuropathogenesis remains largely elusive due to a lack of informative animal models. In this study, we developed a congenital murine CMV (cMCMV) infection mouse model with high survival rate and long survival period that allowed long-term follow-up study of neurodevelopmental disorders. This model involves in utero intracranial injection and mimics many reported clinical manifestations of cCMV infection in infants, including growth restriction, hearing loss, and impaired cognitive and learning-memory abilities. We observed that abnormalities in MRI/CT neuroimaging were consistent with brain hemorrhage and loss of brain parenchyma, which was confirmed by pathological analysis. Neuropathological findings included ventriculomegaly and cortical atrophy associated with impaired proliferation and migration of neural progenitor cells in the developing brain at both embryonic and postnatal stages. Robust inflammatory responses during infection were shown by elevated inflammatory cytokine levels, leukocyte infiltration, and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain. Pathological analyses and CT neuroimaging revealed brain calcifications induced by cMCMV infection and cell death via pyroptosis. Furthermore, antiviral treatment with ganciclovir significantly improved neurological functions and mitigated brain damage as shown by CT neuroimaging. These results demonstrate that this model is suitable for investigation of mechanisms of infection-induced brain damage and long-term studies of neurodevelopmental disorders, including the development of interventions to limit CNS damage associated with cCMV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neuroimagem , Animais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez
2.
Mol Neurodegener ; 17(1): 6, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral tracers are important tools for mapping brain connectomes. The feature of predominant anterograde transneuronal transmission offers herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) strain H129 (HSV1-H129) as a promising candidate to be developed as anterograde viral tracers. In our earlier studies, we developed H129-derived anterograde polysynaptic tracers and TK deficient (H129-dTK) monosynaptic tracers. However, their broad application is limited by some intrinsic drawbacks of the H129-dTK tracers, such as low labeling intensity due to TK deficiency and potential retrograde labeling caused by axon terminal invasion. The glycoprotein K (gK) of HSV-1 plays important roles in virus entry, egress, and virus-induced cell fusion. Its deficiency severely disables virus egress and spread, while only slightly limits viral genome replication and expression of viral proteins. Therefore, we created a novel H129-derived anterograde monosynaptic tracer (H129-dgK) by targeting gK, which overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK. METHODS: Using our established platform and pipeline for developing viral tracers, we generated a novel tracer by deleting the gK gene from the H129-G4. The gK-deleted virus (H129-dgK-G4) was reconstituted and propagated in the Vero cell expressing wildtype H129 gK (gKwt) or the mutant gK (gKmut, A40V, C82S, M223I, L224V, V309M), respectively. Then the obtained viral tracers of gKmut pseudotyped and gKwt coated H129-dgK-G4 were tested in vitro and in vivo to characterize their tracing properties. RESULTS: H129-dgK-G4 expresses high levels of fluorescent proteins, eliminating the requirement of immunostaining for imaging detection. Compared to the TK deficient monosynaptic tracer H129-dTK-G4, H129-dgK-G4 labeled neurons with 1.76-fold stronger fluorescence intensity, and visualized 2.00-fold more postsynaptic neurons in the downstream brain regions. gKmut pseudotyping leads to a 77% decrease in retrograde labeling by reducing axon terminal invasion, and thus dramatically improves the anterograde-specific tracing of H129-dgK-G4. In addition, assisted by the AAV helper trans-complementarily expressing gKwt, H129-dgK-G4 allows for mapping monosynaptic connections and quantifying the circuit connectivity difference in the Alzheimer's disease and control mouse brains. CONCLUSIONS: gKmut pseudotyped H129-dgK-G4, a novel anterograde monosynaptic tracer, overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK tracers, and demonstrates desirable features of strong labeling intensity, high tracing efficiency, and improved anterograde specificity.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Animais , Axônios , Encéfalo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Camundongos , Neurônios
3.
Neurosci Bull ; 37(5): 701-719, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367996

RESUMO

Anterograde viral tracers are powerful and essential tools for dissecting the output targets of a brain region of interest. They have been developed from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain H129 (H129), and have been successfully applied to map diverse neural circuits. Initially, the anterograde polysynaptic tracer H129-G4 was used by many groups. We then developed the first monosynaptic tracer, H129-dTK-tdT, which was highly successful, yet improvements are needed. Now, by inserting another tdTomato expression cassette into the H129-dTK-tdT genome, we have created H129-dTK-T2, an updated version of H129-dTK-tdT that has improved labeling intensity. To help scientists produce and apply our H129-derived viral tracers, here we provide the protocol describing our detailed and standardized procedures. Commonly-encountered technical problems and their solutions are also discussed in detail. Broadly, the dissemination of this protocol will greatly support scientists to apply these viral tracers on a large scale.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Encéfalo , Neurônios
4.
J Virol ; 94(8)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969440

RESUMO

The features of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain 129 (H129), including natural neurotropism and anterograde transneuronal trafficking, make it a potential tool for anterograde neural circuitry tracing. Recently anterograde polysynaptic and monosynaptic tracers were developed from H129 and have been applied for the identification of novel connections and functions of different neural circuitries. However, how H129 viral particles are transported in neurons, especially those of the central nervous system, remains unclear. In this study, we constructed recombinant H129 variants with mCherry-labeled capsids and/or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled envelopes and infected the cortical neurons to study axonal transport of H129 viral particles. We found that different types of viral particles were unevenly distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm of the cell body, and axon. Most H129 progeny particles were unenveloped capsids and were transported as capsids rather than virions in the axon. Notably, capsids acquired envelopes at axonal varicosities and terminals where the sites forming synapses are connected with other neurons. Moreover, viral capsids moved more frequently in the anterograde direction in axons, with an average velocity of 0.62 ± 0.18 µm/s and maximal velocity of 1.80 ± 0.15 µm/s. We also provided evidence that axonal transport of capsids requires the kinesin-1 molecular motor. These findings support that H129-derived tracers map the neural circuit anterogradely and possibly transsynaptically. These data will guide future modifications and improvements of H129-based anterograde viral tracers.IMPORTANCE Anterograde transneuronal tracers derived from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain 129 (H129) are important tools for mapping neural circuit anatomic and functional connections. It is, therefore, critical to elucidate the transport pattern of H129 within neurons and between neurons. We constructed recombinant H129 variants with genetically encoded fluorescence-labeled capsid protein and/or glycoprotein to visualize viral particle movement in neurons. Both electron microscopy and light microscopy data show that H129 capsids and envelopes move separately, and notably, capsids are enveloped at axonal varicosity and terminals, which are the sites forming synapses to connect with other neurons. Superresolution microscopy-based colocalization analysis and inhibition of H129 particle movement by inhibitors of molecular motors support that kinesin-1 contributes to the anterograde transport of capsids. These results shed light into the mechanisms for anterograde transport of H129-derived tracer in axons and transmission between neurons via synapses, explaining the anterograde labeling of neural circuits by H129-derived tracers.


Assuntos
Capsídeo/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Neurônios/virologia , Animais , Transporte Axonal , Axônios/patologia , Axônios/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/embriologia , Neurônios/patologia , Células Vero , Vírion/metabolismo
5.
3 Biotech ; 7(5): 314, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28955611

RESUMO

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important compound and precursor for a series of chemicals and polymeric materials. In this study, the 3-HP producing bacteria were constructed and studied for efficient synthesis of 3-HP. The results indicated that the instability of glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) affected the 3-HP production significantly, which was successfully solved by the expression of glycerol dehydratase reactivase (GdrB), with fivefold increase in 3-HP yield. Meanwhile, NAD+-regenerating enzymes GPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was expressed; however, the results showed 3-HP was significantly decreased from 56.73-4 mM, and malic acid was obviously increased. Analysis of the C flux distribution showed that the main reason for the results was the lack of NAD+. The addition of NAD+ further increased the 3-HP production to 23.87 mM, demonstrating that the "regeneration of NAD+" was the major factor for enhancing 3-HP production.

6.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 64(4): 572-578, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189262

RESUMO

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform synthesis block for sets of chemicals, but the relatively low production of 3-HP from biological sources presented major barriers for its industrial applications. In this study, a dual-substrate fermentative strategy by glycerol and glucose was proposed, and the aim was to evaluate the effect of different substrate addition strategies on the fermentation process. The results indicated that the optimal cosubstrate was glucose (20 g/L), and the enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) could be improved 3.5-fold as compared with no glucose addition. Continuous fed-batch fermentation at a constant speed displayed better 3-HP production of 17.20 g/L and highest specific 3-HP productivity of 1.79 mmol/(g cell·H) than the other fed-batch mode. The addition of glucose could greatly reduce the imbalance of the activity between glycerol dehydratase and AldH and provide a feasible method for improving 3-HP production. These results would be helpful in developing the 3-HP fermentation process.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/análogos & derivados , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose/química , Glicerol/química , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Ácido Láctico/química
7.
Yi Chuan ; 32(1): 17-24, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20085881

RESUMO

The olfactory sense plays a key role in animals'life time. The main gene related with olfaction was olfactory receptor (OR) gene. This review introduced the structure, expression regulation, distribution, molecular evolution and polymorphism of OR gene. The relationship between OR gene and olfactory function and olfactory deficits was also discussed.


Assuntos
Receptores Odorantes/genética , Olfato , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Receptores Odorantes/química , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo
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