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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012011

RESUMO

To solve the saliency detection problem in RGB-D images, the depth information plays a critical role in distinguishing salient objects or foregrounds from cluttered backgrounds. As the complementary component to color information, the depth quality directly dictates the subsequent saliency detection performance. However, due to artifacts and the limitation of depth acquisition devices, the quality of the obtained depth varies tremendously across different scenarios. Consequently, conventional selective fusion-based RGB-D saliency detection methods may result in a degraded detection performance in cases containing salient objects with low color contrast coupled with a low depth quality. To solve this problem, we make our initial attempt to estimate additional high-quality depth information, which is denoted by Depth+. Serving as a complement to the original depth, Depth+ will be fed into our newly designed selective fusion network to boost the detection performance. To achieve this aim, we first retrieve a small group of images that are similar to the given input, and then the inter-image, nonlocal correspondences are built accordingly. Thus, by using these inter-image correspondences, the overall depth can be coarsely estimated by utilizing our newly designed depth-transferring strategy. Next, we build fine-grained, object-level correspondences coupled with a saliency prior to further improve the depth quality of the previous estimation. Compared to the original depth, our newly estimated Depth+ is potentially more informative for detection improvement. Finally, we feed both the original depth and the newly estimated Depth+ into our selective deep fusion network, whose key novelty is to achieve an optimal complementary balance to make better decisions toward improving saliency boundaries.

2.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients show several pathophysiological alterations that can complicate antibiotic dosing. Hence, there is a strong rationale to individualize anti-infective dosing in these patients by utilizing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The current study aimed to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of total and unbound plasma concentrations of three commonly used antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem/cilastatin, and cefoperazone/sulbactam) in the treatment of infections in critically ill patients in China, which could be suitable for routine TDM in hospital laboratories. METHODS: The unbound drug was separated from the bound drug by ultrafiltration. Simple protein precipitation was used for sample preparation. Meropenem, imipenem/cilastatin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and their corresponding internal standards were then resolved using the Waters CORTECS C18 column. All the compounds were detected using electrospray ionization in the positive/negative ion-switching mode. RESULTS: The calibration curves were linear for all compounds, with correlation coefficients (R) above 0.99 for total concentrations in human plasma and unbound concentrations in the plasma ultrafiltrate. For both total and unbound drugs, the relative errors and intra/inter-assay relative standard deviations were below 15%. The limit of quantification was 0.05 µg/mL for both total plasma concentrations and plasma ultrafiltrate concentrations of all compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The method was simple, rapid, and reliable and is currently being used to provide a TDM service to enhance the efficacious use of the three antibiotics.

3.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971577

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Reconstruction of cancer gene networks from gene expression data is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying human cancer. Due to heterogeneity, the tumor tissue samples for a single cancer type can be divided into multiple distinct subtypes (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and are composed of non-cancerous and cancerous cells (intra-tumor heterogeneity). If tumor heterogeneity is ignored when inferring gene networks, the edges specific to individual cancer subtypes and cell types cannot be characterized. However, most existing network reconstruction methods do not simultaneously take inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity into account. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a new Gaussian graphical model based method for jointly estimating multiple cancer gene networks by simultaneously capturing inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Given gene expression data of heterogeneous samples for different cancer subtypes, a non-cancerous network shared across different cancer subtypes and multiple subtype specific cancerous networks are estimated jointly. Tumor heterogeneity can be revealed by the difference in the estimated networks. The performance of our method is first evaluated using simulated data, and the results indicate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. We also apply our method to The Cancer Genome Atlas breast cancer data to reconstruct non-cancerous and subtype specific cancerous gene networks. Hub nodes in the networks estimated by our method perform important biological functions associated with breast cancer development and subtype classification. AVAILABILITY: The source code is available at https://github.com/Zhangxf-ccnu/NETI2. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 211: 108343, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931123

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common solid extracranial malignancy in children with a considerable chance of metastatic progression. Prevalent evidence supports the anti-tumor role of γδT cells and these cells have been testing in clinical trials for constraining tumor growth. A small subpopulation of γδT cells releasing IL-17, however, were demonstrated to exert tumor-promoting effects in many aspects. In this study, we found an augment of IL-17+ γδT cells both in in vitro PAM-stimulated γδT-cell expanding culture and circulating γδT cells in NB patients. These patient-origin cells expanded in vitro by PAM in the presence of IL-17 polarizing condition were shown to promote the proliferation and migration of NB cells. Furthermore, an intrinsic preference for IL-17 polarization in NB γδT cells was revealed by mRNA microarray and Western Blot, which pointed to an up-regulated expression of multiple Th17-development related genes in addition to an increased phosphorylation level of STAT3.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991934

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of sesamol (SEM) on the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in obesity-related hepatic steatosis treatment by using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and a palmitic acid (PA)-treated HepG2 cell line. SEM reduced the body weight gain of obese mice and alleviated related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, lipid accumulation in the liver and HepG2 cells was reduced by SEM. SEM downregulated the gene and protein levels of lipogenic regulator factors, and upregulated the gene and protein levels of the regulator factors responsible for lipolysis and fatty acid ß-oxidation. Meanwhile, SEM activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which might explain the regulatory effect of SEM on fatty acid ß-oxidation and lipogenesis. Additionally, the PKA-C and phospho-PKA substrate levels were higher after SEM treatment. Further research found that after pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor, H89, lipid accumulation was increased even with SEM administration in HepG2 cells, and the effect of SEM on lipid metabolism-related regulator factors was abolished by H89. In conclusion, SEM has a positive therapeutic effect on obesity and obesity-related hepatic steatosis by regulating the hepatic lipid metabolism mediated by the PKA pathway.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(2): 1361-1371, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176598

RESUMO

This paper presents Poisson vector graphics (PVG), an extension of the popular diffusion curves (DC), for generating smooth-shaded images. Armed with two new types of primitives, called Poisson curves and Poisson regions, PVG can easily produce photorealistic effects such as specular highlights, core shadows, translucency and halos. Within the PVG framework, the users specify color as the Dirichlet boundary condition of diffusion curves and control tone by offsetting the Laplacian of colors, where both controls are simply done by mouse click and slider dragging. PVG distinguishes itself from other diffusion based vector graphics for 3 unique features: 1) explicit separation of colors and tones, which follows the basic drawing principle and eases editing; 2) native support of seamless cloning in the sense that PCs and PRs can automatically fit into the target background; and 3) allowed intersecting primitives (except for DC-DC intersection) so that users can create layers. Through extensive experiments and a preliminary user study, we demonstrate that PVG is a simple yet powerful authoring tool that can produce photo-realistic vector graphics from scratch.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121355, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629590

RESUMO

This paper provides a benign process that realized the metals separation and recovery from wPCBs in an efficient and low cost way. The chemical active order and potential-pH diagram of the metals enlightened us to apply stepwise leaching to selective separation of the metals from the wPCBs. The results indicated that the selective separation of Fe, Al, Zn; Sn and Cu can be achieved by the dilute sulfuric acid leaching, displacement leaching using copper sulphate and sulfuric acid leaching with air-oxidization, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiency of Fe, Al, Zn, Sn and Cu were 92.59%, 90.51%, 89.73%, 1.44% and 0.82%, respectively, in the dilute sulfuric acid leaching. In the displacement leaching, the displacement efficiency of Sn was as high as 95.20%, with little Cu leached. The data of sulfuric acid leaching with air-oxidization experiments shows that the leaching efficiency of Cu reached 95.72%. In order to recover the Sn and Cu in the solutions, the hydrolysis precipitation and cyclone electrowinning were introduced. With these techniques, 92.75% Sn was precipitated and the smooth cathode copper (purity 99.98%) was obtained with the current efficiency was 94.96%. Moreover, the analysis of the mass distribution about the process demonstrated that the H+ and Cu2+ were consumed, but also produced in different procedure, that means the process is a simple and eco-friendly technology, not only due to its high recovery efficiency, but also high reagents recyclable.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(1): 45-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520460

RESUMO

A simple, pangenotypic and effective treatment regimen for patients with a broad range of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remains an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase 2, randomized, open study involving untreated patients with chronic HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections. Patients without cirrhosis were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive capsules of the NS5A inhibitor coblopasvir at a dose of 30 or 60 mg plus tablets of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (400 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients with cirrhosis received 60 mg coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). Of the 110 patients who were enrolled in the study, 59 were male, 62.7% had HCV genotype 1, 24.5% had genotype 2, 6.4% had genotype 3, and 6.4% had genotype 6. The average age was 45.5 years. A total of 10.9% of patients had compensated cirrhosis. The rate of SVR12 was 98.2% in the intention-to-treat (ITT). One genotype 6 patient with cirrhosis experienced virologic relapse. One genotype 2 patient without cirrhosis failed to complete the follow-up and quit the study. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 2 patients and were not related to coblopasvir and sofosbuvir. Most adverse events (AEs) did not require treatment. Coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir taken once daily for 12 weeks provided high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and had a good safety profile among patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections, including those with compensated cirrhosis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841243

RESUMO

After realizing mirror-image genetic replication, transcription, and reverse transcription, the biggest challenge in establishing a mirror-image version of the central dogma is to build a mirror-image ribosome-based translation machine. Here, we chemically synthesized the natural and mirror-image versions of three ribosomal proteins (L5, L18, and L25) in the large subunit of the Escherichia coli ribosome with post-translational modifications. We show that the synthetic mirror-image proteins can fold in vitro despite limited efficiency and assemble with enzymatically transcribed mirror-image 5S ribosomal RNA into ribonucleoprotein complexes. In addition, the RNA-protein interactions are chiral-specific in that the mirror-image ribosomal proteins do not bind with natural 5S ribosomal RNA and vice versa. The synthesis and assembly of mirror-image 5S ribonucleoprotein complexes are important steps towards building a functional mirror-image ribosome.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3304-3312, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854732

RESUMO

Phosphorus is an essential life element, which can affect the activities and functions of denitrifiers. Both nirK and nirS genes can code nitrite reductase; however, it remains unclear whether nirK- and nirS-containing denitrifers respond differentially to changes in the availability of phosphorus in paddy soil. In this study, P-deficient paddy soil was used to grow rice plants. Three phosphorus levels established by applying P fertilizer at a rate of 0 mg·kg-1 (CK), 15 mg·kg-1 (P1), and 30 mg·kg-1(P2), respectively. The abundance and community structure of nirK- and nirS- containing denitrifers were determined using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing techniques. Results indicated that nirK- and nirS-containing communities responded differentially to changes in the P levels. The nirS-containing communities are more sensitive to the changes in P in both rhizosphere and bulk soil samples. In addition, the abundance of nirS genes was 2-3 times higher in the P2 treatment than in the CK treatment. Furthermore, the nirS community structure is also clearly differed from the CK treatment. However, P addition only induced partial modification of the community structure and abundance of nirK-containing denitrifiers. Moreover, compared to the bulk soil with each phosphorus level, the nirS community structure in the rhizosphere soil changed significantly; however, only the P2 treatment induced significant increases in the abundance of the nirS gene. In contrast, no significant differences in the abundance and composition of nirK-containing denitrifers were detected between rhizosphere and bulk soils under different phosphorus levels. Collectively, application of phosphate fertilizer in P-deficient paddy soil could significantly increase the abundance of nirK- and nirS-containing denitrifiers, changing their community structures, with nirS-type showing a greater sensitivity than nirK-type denitrifiers. In comparison, the denitrifying communities in the rhizosphere were more sensitive to variable P levels than that in the bulk soil. Compared to bulk soils, rice growth shifted the community structure of nirS- and nirK-containing denitrifiers in rhizosphere soils at each level of P, but failed to induce significant changes in their abundance (except for P2) that could cause a significant increase in nirS abundance. These results could provide a theoretical basis for exploring the effects of fertilization on soil denitrification.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Desnitrificação , Fósforo/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Genes Bacterianos , Nitrito Redutases/genética
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 599, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular aging is best studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As an example of a pleiotropic trait, yeast lifespan is influenced by hundreds of interconnected genes. However, no quantitative methods are currently available to infer system-level changes in gene networks during cellular aging. RESULTS: We propose a parsimonious mathematical model of cellular aging based on stochastic gene interaction networks. This network model is made of only non-aging components: the strength of gene interactions declines with a constant mortality rate. Death of a cell occurs in the model when an essential node loses all of its interactions with other nodes, and is equivalent to the deletion of an essential gene. Stochasticity of gene interactions is modeled using a binomial distribution. We show that the exponential increase of mortality rate over time can emerge from this gene network model during the early stages of aging.We developed a maximal likelihood approach to estimate three lifespan-influencing network parameters from experimental lifespans: t0, the initial virtual age of the network system; n, the average lifespan-influencing interactions per essential node; and R, the initial mortality rate. We applied this model to yeast mutants with known effects on replicative lifespans. We found that deletion of SIR2, FOB1, and HXK2 considerably altered the initial virtual age but not the average lifespan-influencing interactions per essential node, suggesting that these mutations mainly influence the reliability of gene interactions but not the overall configurations of gene networks.We applied this model to investigate replicative lifespans of yeast natural isolates. We estimated that the average number of lifespan-influencing interactions per essential node is 7.0 (6.1-8) and the average estimated initial virtual age is 45.4 (30.6-74) cell divisions in these isolates. We also found that t0 could potentially mediate the observed Strehler-Mildvan correlation in yeast natural isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Our theoretical model provides a parsimonious interpretation of experimental lifespan data from the perspective of gene networks. We hope that our work will stimulate more interest in developing network models to study aging as a pleiotropic trait.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Genéticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Processos Estocásticos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751241

RESUMO

Despite growing progresses in recent years, cross-scenario person re-identification remains challenging, mainly due to the pedestrians commonly surrounded by highly-complex environment contexts. In reality, the human perception mechanism could adaptively find proper contextualized spatial-temporal clues towards pedestrian recognition. However, conventional methods fall short in adaptively leveraging the long-term spatial-temporal information due to ever-increasing computational cost. Moreover, CNN-based deep learning methods are hard to conduct optimization due to the non-differentiable property of the built-in context search operation. To ameliorate, this paper proposes a novel Context-Interactive CNN (CI-CNN) to dynamically find both spatial and temporal contexts by embedding multi-task Reinforcement Learning (MTRL). The CI-CNN streamlines the multi-task reinforcement learning by using an actor-critic agent to capture the temporal-spatial context simultaneously, which comprises a context-policy network and a context-critic network. The former network learns policies to determine the optimal spatial context region and temporal sequence range. Based on the inferred temporal-spatial cues, the latter one focuses on the identification task and provides feedback for the policy network. Thus, CI-CNN can simultaneously zoom in/out the perception field in spatial and temporal domain for the context interaction with the environment. By fostering the collaborative interaction between the person and context, our method could achieve outstanding performance on various public benchmarks, which confirms the rationality of our hypothesis, and verifies the effectiveness of our CI-CNN framework.

13.
Life Sci ; 239: 116886, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678286

RESUMO

Enterochromaffin (EC) cell is the main cell type that responsible for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis, storage and release of the gut. Intestinal 5-HT play a key role in visceral sensation, intestinal motility and permeability, EC cell hyperplasia and increased 5-HT bioavailability in the gut have been found to be involved in the symptoms generation of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. EC cells originate from intestinal stem cells, the interaction between proliferation and differentiation signals on intestinal stem cells enable EC cell number to be regulated in a normal level. This review focuses on the impact factors, pathogenesis mechanisms, and therapeutic clues for intestinal EC cells hyperplasia, and showed that EC cell hyperplasia was observed under the condition of physiological stress, intestinal infection or intestinal inflammation, the disordered proliferation and/or differentiation of intestinal stem cells as well as their progenitor cells all contribute to the pathogenesis of intestinal EC cell hyperplasia. The altered intestinal niche, i.e. increased corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) signal, elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) signal, and Th2-dominant cytokines production, has been found to have close correlation with intestinal EC cell hyperplasia. Currently, CRF receptor antagonist, nuclear factor-κB inhibitor, and NGF receptor neutralizing antibody have been proved useful to attenuate intestinal EC cell hyperplasia, which may provide a promising clue for the therapeutic strategy in EC cell hyperplasia related diseases.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13948-13959, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698901

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of punicalagin (PU), which is a main component of pomegranate polyphenols, against liver injury induced by Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the molecular mechanism based on autophagy in vivo and in vitro. In T2DM mice, we found that PU significantly improved liver histology, reversed serum biochemical abnormalities, and increased the autophagosome number in the liver. In HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose environment, PU upregulated the glucose uptake level. Both in vivo and in vitro, PU upregulated the expression of autophagy-related proteins, such as LC3b and p62, and reduced the phosphorylated Akt/total Akt and phosphorylated FoxO3a/total FoxO3a protein ratios, and these effects were enhanced by LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt inhibitor). In summary, our current findings suggest that PU protects against liver injury induced by T2DM by restoring autophagy through the Akt/FoxO3a signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Fígado/lesões , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Food Nutr Res ; 632019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692782

RESUMO

Background: Obesity has currently become a serious social problem to be solved. Sesamol, a natural bioactive substance extracted from sesame oil, has shown multiple physiological functions, and it might have an effect on the treatment of obesity. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of sesamol on the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity, followed by supplementation with sesamol (100 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]/day [d] by gavage) for another 4 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe lipid accumulation in adipose tissues and liver. Chemistry reagent kits were used to measure serum lipids, hepatic lipids, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. ELISA kits were used to determine the serum insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels involved in lipid metabolism in the liver. Results: Sesamol significantly reduced the body weight gain of obese mice and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and liver. Sesamol also improved serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and increased insulin sensitivity. In the sesamol-treated group, the levels of serum ALT and AST decreased significantly. Furthermore, after sesamol treatment, the hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c) decreased, while the phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (p-HSL), the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α) increased, which were responsible for the fatty acid synthesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid ß-oxidation, respectively. Conclusions: Sesamol had a positive effect on anti-obesity and ameliorated the metabolic disorders of obese mice. The possible mechanism of sesamol might be the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver.

16.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597001

RESUMO

The experience of using pediatric donors in split liver transplant is exceedingly rare. We aim to investigate the outcomes of recipients receiving split pediatric grafts. Sixteen pediatric recipients receiving split liver grafts from 8 pediatric donors < 7 years were enrolled. The donor and recipient characteristics, perioperative course, postoperative complications, and graft and recipient survival rates were evaluated. The mean follow-up time was 8.0 ± 2.3 months. The graft and recipient survival rates were 100%. The liver function remained in the normal range at the end of the follow-up time in all recipients. No life-threatening complications were seen in these recipients, and the only surgery-related complication was portal vein stenosis in 1 recipient. Cytomegalovirus infection was the most common complication (62.5%). The transaminase level was significant higher in extended right lobe recipients in the early postoperative days, but the difference vanished at the end of first week; postoperative complications and graft and recipient survival rates did not differ between left and right graft recipients. Notably, the youngest split donor graft (2.7 years old) was associated with ideal recipient outcomes. Split liver transplant using well-selected pediatric donors is a promising strategy to expand pediatric donor source in well-matched recipients.

17.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(40): 9065-9069, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584058

RESUMO

The efficient ruthenium-catalyzed meta-selective CAr-H nitration of azole ring substituted arenes has been developed. In this work, Ru3(CO)12 was used as the catalyst, AgNO2 as the nitro source, HPcy3+·BF4- as the ligand, pivalic acid as the additive, and DCE as the solvent, and a wide spectrum of arenes bearing thiazole, pyrazolyl or removable oxazoline directing groups were tolerated in this meta-selective CAr-H nitration, affording the nitrated products in moderate to good yields. Moreover, this study reveals a gentler and environmentally friendly way to access meta-nitration arenes compared to the traditional process.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aim to investigate the risk factors of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pediatric liver transplantation recipients receiving hepatitis B core antibody positive grafts and to evaluate the efficacy of our prophylactic strategies. METHODS: One hundred thirty-nine pediatric recipients receiving hepatitis B core antibody positive grafts operated from September 2016 to September 2018 were retrospectively enrolled, and all the patients received prophylactic treatment to prevent de novo HBV infection. Donor and recipient features, operative information along with graft, and recipient outcomes were compared between recipients with or without de novo HBV infection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify the risk factors of de novo HBV infection. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 23.5 ± 15.7 months, and the overall incidence of de novo HBV infection was 3.6%. Recipients with de novo HBV infection showed equal graft and recipient outcome compared with the recipients without de novo HBV infection during the follow-up time. Recipient preoperative hepatitis B surface antibody titer of < 1000 IU/L (odds ratio [OR] = 9.652, P = 0.024), graft HBV DNA of > 1000 copies (OR = 9.050, P = 0.032), and intraoperative fresh-frozen plasma transfusion of > 400 mL (OR = 10.462, P = 0.023) were identified as independent risk factors for de novo HBV infection. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B core antibody positive grafts can safely be used in pediatric liver transplantation under rational prophylactic therapy.

19.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and complications of pancreatectomies for pediatric pancreatic tumors. METHODS: The medical records of pancreatectomy patients from January 2007 to January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed for perioperative factors and complications. Patients were divided into pancreatic head (n = 43), body (n = 18) and tail (n = 43) groups. RESULTS: Seventy-two girls and 32 boys (median age 10 years at diagnosis, range: 0-15 years) were enrolled and had solid pseudopapillary tumors (n = 73), pancreatoblastoma (n = 19), neuroendocrine tumors (n = 9), and others. Primary surgical procedures included pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 10) and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (n = 4), and organ-sparing resection procedures included duodenum-preserving pancreas head resection (n = 25), middle segmental pancreatic resection (n = 15), spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (n = 37) and local enucleation (n = 13), with a median blood loss of 20 cm3 (range: 10-300 cm3). Short-term complications included pancreatic fistula (35.6%), bile leakage (2.9%), intraabdominal infection (21.2%), delayed gastric emptying (23.1%), and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (5.8%). After a median follow-up of 38 months (range: 3-143 months), 94 patients (90.4%) were alive without tumor recurrence, 2 were alive after tumor recurrence, 1 pancreatoblastoma patient died from tumor recurrence, and 7 were lost to follow-up. Only 14 patients (14/96, 14.6%) had long-term complications at the outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection was the main treatment for pancreatic tumors. Organ-sparing resection procedures led to good long-term results for pediatric pancreatic tumors, even if these procedures could cause a relatively high incidence of short-term complications (especially pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

20.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(511)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554741

RESUMO

CAR T cells targeting CD19 provide promising options for treatment of B cell malignancies. However, tumor relapse from antigen loss can limit efficacy. We developed humanized, second-generation CAR T cells against another B cell-specific marker, B cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R), which demonstrated cytotoxicity against human lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines. Adoptively transferred BAFF-R-CAR T cells eradicated 10-day preestablished tumor xenografts after a single treatment and retained efficacy against xenografts deficient in CD19 expression, including CD19-negative variants within a background of CD19-positive lymphoma cells. Four relapsed, primary ALLs with CD19 antigen loss obtained after CD19-directed therapy retained BAFF-R expression and activated BAFF-R-CAR, but not CD19-CAR, T cells. BAFF-R-CAR, but not CD19-CAR, T cells also demonstrated antitumor effects against an additional CD19 antigen loss primary patient-derived xenograft (PDX) in vivo. BAFF-R is amenable to CAR T cell therapy, and its targeting may prevent emergence of CD19 antigen loss variants.

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