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1.
Environ Int ; 137: 105504, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032774

RESUMO

China has made great efforts towards air pollutant concentration control during the past five years, which has led to positive outcomes. However, air pollutant concentration focused efforts were considered separately from human exposure risk. And this might result in a misunderstanding that reducing exposure risk can only rely on the national level measures of air pollutant control. This study integrates the first Chinese survey of human activity patterns and the spatially continuous high-resolution PM2.5 concentration maps to reveal the spatial and temporal variations of China's air pollution exposure risk from 2013 to 2017. More importantly, the effects on risk reduction from multi-scale and multi-object perspectives (reductions of ambient PM2.5 concentrations by national or provincial measures and changes of individual behavior patterns by personal efforts) are deeply investigated. Results show that the reductions of PM2.5 concentration and associated reductions of exposure risk from 2013 to 2017 were 40% and 35.7%, respectively. They also showed that both the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations and change of personal behavior patterns were effective for risk reduction when China's total PM2.5 exposure risk was higher than 1.58. However, only individual behavior changes contributed to risk reduction for scenarios with state-level risk value below 1.58. For regional strategies, threshold values for PM2.5 exposure risk control differentiating national measures or personal efforts were spatially and temporally dependent. The role of personal behavior changes on PM2.5 exposure risk reduction was growing in these five years with concentration rapidly decreasing regions. The findings suggest that people-centered air pollution exposure risk prevention not only depends on government management for air pollution control, but also on individual changes of activity patterns. Efforts from the state and individuals are both essential for reducing air pollution exposure risk in China, especially growing individual efforts are needed in regions with the decreasing air pollutant concentrations in the coming future. Moreover, this study mainly discussed the PM2.5 exposure risk from the macroscopic perspective, the research at the microcosmic perspective is also needed in the further study.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(9): 1337-1340, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913372

RESUMO

We report a novel {001}TiO2/Ti photoelectrode by directly constructing "mirror-like" TiO2 microspheres on a Ti foil substrate (M-{001}TiO2/Ti). It presents highly enhanced PEC oxidation capability of DMP wastewater, which is mainly attributed to the significant synergetic effects of high exposure of {001} facets and equivalent {001}/{101} facet junctions.

3.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(2): 73-77, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999489

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the immune and gastrointestinal functional effects of lienal polypeptide (LP) treatment in tumor-bearing mice and carcinoma patients receiving radiotherapy (RT), and to detect hematological indicators and T lymphocyte subsets. Methods: Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the RT group, the RT+LP-L (1.7 mg/kg, low dosage of LP) group, the RT+LP-M (5.2 mg/kg, middle dosage of LP) group, and the RT+LP-H (10.4 mg/kg, high dosage of LP) group. In addition, carcinoma patients were randomly divided into two groups. The observation group was given LP during RT, and the control group was only treated with RT. We then compared the myelosuppression, gastrointestinal reactions, and clinical efficacy among groups. Results: In the animal experiments, compared with the control group, the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes of the mice in the "RT" group decreased (p < 0.05). Animals receiving LP evidenced a dose-response curve with regard to the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes that was proportional to the LP dose, increased (p < 0.05). Flow cytometric analyses showed that LP treatment of the mice increased the numbers of CD3+, and CD4+ T cells and theCD4+/CD8+ ratio. In our clinical study, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria were used for measuring myelosuppression and gastrointestinal reactions. The RTOG/EORTC grade 3 or 4 inhibition rate of leukocytes, granulocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, and gastrointestinal toxic effects in the observation group were significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: LP can improve the hematopoietic and immune function of RT-treated mice and reduce the hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity of patients treated with RT and improve the quality of life.

4.
Plant Methods ; 15: 145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798671

RESUMO

Background: Potato, the third most important crop worldwide, plays a critical role in human food security. Brown rot, one of the most destructive potato diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, results in huge economic losses every year. A quick, stable, low cost and high throughout method is required to meet the demands of identification of germplasm resistance to bacterial wilt in potato breeding programs. Results: Here we present a novel R. solanacearum hydroponic infection assay on potato plants grown in vitro. Through testing wilt symptom appearance and bacterial colonization in aerial part of plants, we found that the optimum conditions for in vitro potato infection were using an OD600 0.01 bacterial solution suspended with tap water for infection, broken potato roots and an open container. Infection using R. solanacearum strains with differential degree of aggressivity demonstrated that this infection system is equally efficient as soil-drench inoculation for assessment of R. solanacearum virulence on potato. A small-scale assessment of 32 potato germplasms identified three varieties highly resistant to the pathogen, which indicates this infection system is a useful method for high-throughout screening of potato germplasm for resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of a strain carrying luminescence to easily quantify bacterial colonization and the detection of latent infections in hydroponic conditions, which can be efficiently used in potato breeding programs. Conclusions: We have established a quick and efficient in vitro potato infection system, which may facilitate breeding for new potato cultivars with high resistance to R. solanacearum.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4345-4354, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854801

RESUMO

Atmospheric particulate matter was collected during the heating period and the non-heating period of a typical steel industrial process in Northeast China to study the following:① the size-depended distribution and enrichment characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); ② the deposition concentrations of PAHs of different particle sizes in various organs of the human respiratory system; and 3 the risk from human respiratory exposure. The 14 priority PAHs in the samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and respiratory exposure assessment was conducted by combining the atmospheric particle size fractionation sampling technique with an internal deposition model. The results showed that the PAH concentrations during the heating periods (743.9 ng·m-3) were higher than those during the non-heating periods (169.0 ng·m-3). Most PAH contributions (86.3%-89.9%) were related to fine particles with a diameter ≤ 2.06 µm; medium and low molecular weight PAHs showed two concentration peaks in 1.07-2.06 µm and 7.04-9.99 µm range, respectively. In contrast, high molecular weight PAHs showed a unimodal peak in 1.07-2.06 µm range. Four-ring PAHs accounted for 40% of the total PAHs concentrations. With respect to human exposure, 53.3% and 55.3% of the granular PAHs were deposited in the lungs during the heating and non-heating periods, respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (R) of particulate PAHs in the population was calculated using the concentration in the human respiratory system and the total concentration associated with the particulate matter. The R values for adults ranged between 1.3×10-5 and 2.9×10-5 during the heating period, and between 3.1×10-6 and 6.0×10-6 during the non-heating period. The R values for children during the heating period ranged between 1.0×10-5 and 2.3×10-5, and between 2.4×10-6 and 4.8×10-6 during the non-heating period. The results indicated that particle size greatly affected the concentrations of particles deposited in the respiratory system and the level of carcinogenic risk. The combination of the grading sampling technique and the respiratory system settlement model can effectively avoid the over-evaluation of human respiratory exposure.

6.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755597

RESUMO

Stunting adversely affects physical and mental outcomes of children. It has not been examined whether household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is a risk factor for stunting in children. In a total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 across China, height was measured using a unified protocol. Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking/heating with stunting in children. Adjusted for covariates, cooking/heating with solid fuel was significantly associated with a lower z-score for height for age and sex (ß = -0.21 [-0.32 to -0.09] and -0.17 [-0.31 to -0.03], respectively) and an increased risk of stunting with an estimated ORs of 1.34 [1.07~1.68] and 1.37 [1.02~1.83], respectively. The risk of stunting associated with solid fuel use was statistically significant in high-age children. And the effect was greater on girls than on boys, though the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggested that Chinese children living in households using solid fuel had a significantly higher risk of stunting than those living in households using cleaner fuel.

7.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105275, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675563

RESUMO

After reviewing the species- and community-level ecological risk assessments (ERAs) of chemicals in the aquatic environment, the present study attempted to propose a third stage of ERA, i.e., the ecosystem-level ERA. Based on the species sensitivity distribution model (SSD) and thermodynamic theory, the exergy and biomass indicators of communities from various trophic levels (TLs) were introduced to improve ecological connotation of SSDs. The species were classified into three TLs based on algae (TL1), invertebrates (TL2), and vertebrates (TL3), and the weight of each TL was determined based on relative biomass and ß value, which indicated a holistic contribution of each species or community to the ecosystem. Then, a system-level ERA protocol was successfully established, and the community- and system-level ecological risks of 10 typical toxic micro-organic pollutants in the western area of Lake Chaohu and its inflowing rivers were evaluated. System-level ERA curves (ExSSD) were mainly affected by the community-level SSD at TL2 for most chemicals in the present study. The uncertain boundary of ExSSD was mostly related to TLs with a wider uncertain boundary, but had little relation to the weight of each TL. The results of system-level ERAs revealed that dibutyl phthalate had the highest eco-risk, whereas γ-hexachlorocyclohexane presented the lowest eco-risk. Results of the system-level ERA were not fully consistent with the those of community-level ERA owing to the lack of a sufficient dataset, SSD model type, and ecosystem structure, as indicated by the weight of each TL. The successful application of ExSSD in Lake Chaohu signifies the start of the third stage of ERA at the system-level, and it also provides a scientific basis for ecosystem-level ERA, aquatic ecosystem protection, and future water safety management. However, there were some limitations, including sufficient data dependence, neglect of ecological interactions, and neglect of environmental parameters such as natural organic matter. We propose to employ toxicogenomics to enrich the toxicity database, to simulate the interaction using the ecological dynamic model, and to introduce the chemical fate model into the system-level ERA.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538290

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely present in multiple environmental media even long after the phaseout, posing a health risk to the general population. Dietary intake is the major exposure route of PCBs; however, information is limited regarding PCBs in food that people directly consume. This study aims to measure personal exposure to indicator PCBs, evaluate the health risks, and identify their sources in a typical metropolitan city in China. Multi-day food samples were collected from 21 subjects in Lanzhou, Gansu Province, in two seasons using the duplicate plate method. Samples were extracted and analyzed for seven indicator PCBs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Average daily doses (ADDs) of ∑7PCBs were estimated using Monte Carlo analysis with food intake information. Results show that PCB-118 and PCB-180 were the major congeners in food samples with average concentrations of 1.42 and 1.11 ng/g, respectively. The average (± SD) ADD of ∑7PCBs was 26.47 ± 22.10 ng/kg day among adults aged 18-69 years and displayed small variation across age groups. Comparing with the chronic RfD of 7 ng/kg day, 67% of people had their ADDs exceeding this threshold. The median cancer risk was 5.52 × 10-5, and 51% of residents had risks exceeding the action level of 10-4. The principal component analysis identified waste incineration, gasoline engine production, and leakage of #1 PCBs as the major PCBs sources. In conclusion, a large portion of Lanzhou residents has high non-cancer and cancer risks from dietary exposure to PCBs, which warrants control actions targeting these major sources.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 9247-9258, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334639

RESUMO

Phosphorus doping is an effective strategy to simultaneously improve the electronic conductivity and regulate the ionic diffusion kinetics of TiO2 being considered as anode materials for sodium ion batteries. However, efficient phosphorus doping at high concentration in well-crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles is still a big challenge. Herein, we propose a defect-assisted phosphorus doping strategy to selectively engineer the surface structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The reduced TiO2-x shell layer that is rich in oxygen defects and Ti3+ species precisely triggered a high concentration of phosphorus doping (∼7.8 at. %), and consequently a TiO2@TiO2-x-P core@shell architecture was produced. Comprehensive characterizations and first-principle calculations proved that the surface-functionalized TiO2-x-P thin layer endowed the TiO2@TiO2-x-P with substantially enhanced electronic conductivity and accelerated Na ion transportation, resulting in great rate capability (167 mA h g-1 at 10 000 mA g-1) and stable cycling (99% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1). Combining in/ex situ X-ray diffraction with ex situ electron spin resonance clearly demonstrated the high reversibility and robust mechanical behavior of TiO2@TiO2-x-P upon long-term cycling. This work provides an interesting and effective strategy for precise heteroatoms doping to improve the electrochemical performance of nanoparticles.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 742-750, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255812

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate internal biomarkers and external estimation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a high cancer mortality area in southeast China and identify which of these showed a stronger association of PAH with cancer mortality. A retrospective death survey was conducted to determine the mortality rate of cancer. Cumulative and aggregate external exposures to PAHs of local residents were estimated by field sampling. Three regions in southwest China with gradient PAH exposure levels from high to low (H, M, and L) were selected in this study. Research participants were selected from these three regions using a statistical sampling method. To determine the internal exposure, urinary OH-PAHs were measured using the first morning urine samples. From the retrospective death survey, the highest age-standardized lung cancer mortality rate occurred in Region H (78 per 100,000 person-years), followed by that in Regions M (33 per 100,000 person-years) and L (15 per 100,000 person-years), and the rate was nearly four times China's national mortality rate (20 per 100,000 person-years). Residents estimated daily aggregate exposure doses per unit body weight to carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration were 159 ±â€¯14 ng-kg-1-day-1, 7.41 ±â€¯2.76 ng-kg-1-day-1, and 6.13 ±â€¯2.89 ng-kg-1-day-1 in Region H, M, and L, respectively. The participants in Region M had the greatest urinary OH-PAH concentration (9.10 ±â€¯4.92 µg-g-1 crt), followed by Region H (8.01 ±â€¯4.22 µg-g-1 crt) and L (7.12 ±â€¯3.10 µg-g-1 crt). The spatial difference in the total OH-PAHs was not statistically significant. Aggregate and cumulative exposure to 16 PAHs from external routes were found, and external exposure had a stringer relationship with lung cancer mortality than internal exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Biol Reprod ; 101(5): 986-1000, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350846

RESUMO

SALL1 and SALL3 are transcription factors that play an essential role in regulating developmental processes and organogenesis in many species. However, the functional role of SALL1 and SALL3 in chicken prehierarchical follicle development is unknown. This study aimed to explore the potential role and mechanism of csal1 and csal3 in granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and follicle selection within the prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary. Our data demonstrated that the csal1 and csal3 transcriptions were highly expressed in granulosa cells of prehierarchical follicles, and their proteins were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of granulosa cells and oocytes as well as in the ovarian stroma and epithelium. It initially revealed that both csal1 and csal3 may be involved in chicken prehierarchical follicle development via a translocation mechanism. Furthermore, our results showed an abundance of CCND1, Bcat, StAR, CYP11A1, and FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells, and the proliferation levels of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles were significantly increased by siRNA-mediated knockdown of csal1 or/and csal3. Conversely, the overexpression of csal1 or/and csal3 in the granulosa cells led to a remarkably decreased of them. Moreover, csal1 and csal3 together exert a much stronger effect on the regulation than any of csal1 or csal3. These results indicated that csal1 and csal3 play synergistic inhibitory roles on granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and steroidogenesis during prehierarchical follicle development in vitro. The current data provide a basis of molecular mechanisms of csal1 and csal3 in controlling the prehierarchical follicle development and growth of hen ovary in vivo.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(24): 9623-9628, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121094

RESUMO

Radicals are inevitable intermediates during the charging and discharging of organic redox electrodes. The increase of the reactivity of the radical intermediates is desirable to maximize the capacity and enhance the rate capability but is detrimental to cycling stability. Therefore, it is a great challenge to controllably balance the redox reactivity and stability of radical intermediates to optimize the electrochemical properties with a good combination of high specific capacity, excellent rate capability, and long-term cycle life. Herein, we reported the redox and tunable stability of radical intermediates in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) considered as high capacity and stable anode for sodium-ion batteries. The comprehensive characterizations combined with theoretical simulation confirmed that the redox of C-O· and α-C radical intermediates play an important role in the sodiation/desodiation process. Specifically, the stacking behavior could be feasibly tuned by the thickness of 2D COFs, essentially determining the redox reactivity and stability of the α-C radical intermediates and their contributive capacity. The modulation of reversible redox chemistry and stabilization mechanism of radical intermediates in COFs offers a novel entry to design novel high performance organic electrode materials for energy storage and conversion.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1058-1070, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096321

RESUMO

We extended our knowledge of the impact of organic matter (OM) and meteorological factors on the long-term trend, seasonality and gas/particle partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In Lake Chaohu, PBDEs had an increasing trend, with a doubling time of 13.4 years at the urban site, and a decreasing trend, with a halving time of 6.1 years at the rural site. At the urban site, the negative association of OM with most congeners indicated that the graphene-like carbonaceous components might carry or release PBDEs, and the negative association of long-term rain fall and wind speed with most congeners was suggested to dilute or increase the transport speed of PBDEs in the atmosphere. At the rural site, the negative association with PM10 and positive association with OM indicated that the PBDEs-buried OM was mainly from non-local sources. Restricted to the temperature seasonality, the frequency of PBDE congeners decreased with seasonality from 64% and 43% to 50% and 43% at the urban and rural sites, respectively. The slope of the simplified Pankow adsorption model in samples with larger absolute OM content (>10 µgC m-3) was steeper than that with lower absolute OM content (<5 µgC m-3), indicating that OM facilitated the gas-particle partitioning equilibrium. Interestingly, the theoretic partitioning coefficients were much lower than the measured ones for less brominated BDEs, whereas the highly brominated BDEs did the opposite. The theoretic partitioning coefficient should be further modified by considering the molecular weight distribution of the OM and the corresponding activity coefficients of the target compound in a specific type of OM phase.

14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 853: 299-307, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965058

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel activated by free intracellular ADP-ribose and reactive oxygen species. TRPM2 signaling has been linked to the pathophysiology of CNS disorders such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. In this manuscript, we describe the discovery of JNJ-28583113, a potent brain penetrant TRPM2 antagonist. Ca2+ flux assays in cells overexpressing TRPM2 and electrophysiological recordings were used to test the pharmacology of JNJ-28583113. JNJ-28583113 was assayed in vitro on GSK-3 phosphorylation levels, cell death, cytokine release in microglia and unbiased morphological phenotypic analysis. Finally, we dosed animals to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. Our results showed that JNJ-28583113 is a potent (126 ±â€¯0.5 nM) TRPM2 antagonist. Blocking TRPM2 caused phosphorylation of GSK3α and ß subunits. JNJ-28583113 also protected cells from oxidative stress induced cell death as well as morphological changes induced by non-cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2. In addition, inhibiting TRPM2 blunted cytokine release in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli in microglia. Lastly, we showed that JNJ-28583113 was brain penetrant but not suitable for systemic dosing as it was rapidly metabolized in vivo. While the in-vitro pharmacology of JNJ-28583113 is the best in class, its in-vivo properties would need optimization to assist in further probing key roles of TRPM2 in CNS pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(13): 12594-12604, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860354

RESUMO

The Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) cathode has attracted great interest owing to its low cost, high capacity, and energy density. Nevertheless, rapid capacity fading is a critical problem because of direct contact of NCM811 with electrolytes and hence restrains its wide applications. To prevent the direct contact, the surface inert layer coating becomes a feasible strategy to tackle this problem. However, to achieve a homogeneous surface coating is very challenging. Considering the bonding effect between NCM811, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polyaniline (PANI), in this work, we use PVP as an inductive agent to controllably coat a uniform conductive PANI layer on NCM811 (NCM811@PANI-PVP). The coated PANI layer not only serves as a rapid channel for electron conduction, but also prohibits direct contact of the electrode with the electrolyte to effectively hinder side reaction. NCM811@PANI-PVP thus exhibits excellent cyclability (88.7% after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1) and great rate performance (152 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1). In situ X-ray diffraction and in situ Raman are performed to investigate the charge-discharge mechanism and the cyclability of NCM811@PANI-PVP upon electrochemical reaction. This surfactant-modulated surface uniform coating strategy offers a new modification approach to stabilize Ni-rich cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

16.
Small ; 15(8): e1805022, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698915

RESUMO

Layered stacking and highly porous N, P co-doped Mo2 C/C nanosheets are prepared from a stable Mo-enhanced hydrogel. The hydrogel is formed through the ultrafast cross-linking of phosphomolybdic acid and chitosan. During the reduction of the composite hydrogel framework under inert gas protection, highly porous N and P co-doped carbon nanosheets are produced with the in situ formation of ultrafine Mo2 C nanoparticles highly distributed throughout the nanosheets which are entangled via a hierarchical lamellar infrastructure. This unique architecture of the N, P co-doped Mo2 C/C nanosheets tremendously promote the electrochemical activity and operate stability with high specific capacity and extremely stable cycling. In particular, this versatile synthetic strategy can also be extended to other polyoxometalate (such as phosphotungstic acid) to provide greater opportunities for the controlled fabrication of novel hierarchical nanostructures for next-generation high performance energy storage applications.

17.
Anim Biotechnol ; 30(1): 63-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471750

RESUMO

Meat quality traits (MQTs) are very important in the porcine industry, which are mainly determined by skeletal muscle fiber composition, extra-muscular and/or intramuscular fat content. To identify the differentially expressed candidate genes affecting the meat quality traits, first we compared the MQTs and skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of the Northeast Min pig (NM) and the Changbaishan wild boar (CW) with their body weight approaching 90 kg. The significant divergences in the skeletal muscle fiber phenotypes and fatness traits between the two porcine breeds established an ideal model system for further identifying potential key functional genes that dominated MQTs. Further, a transcriptome profile analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing method in early postnatal developing LDM from the two breeds at the ages of 42 days. Comparative analysis between these two cDNA libraries showed that there were 17,653 and 22,049 unambiguous tag-mapped sense transcripts detected from NM and CW, respectively. 4522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were revealed between the two tissue samples, of them, 4176 genes were found as having been upregulated and 346 genes were identified as having been downregulated in the NM library. By pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched pathways were identified for the DEGs, which are potentially involved in myofiber development, differentiation and growth, lipogenesis and lipolysis in porcine skeletal muscle. The expression levels of 30 out of the DEGs were validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and the observed result was consistent noticeably with the Illumina transcriptome profiles. The findings from this study can contribute to future investigations of skeletal muscle growth and development mechanism and to establishing molecular approaches to improve meat quality traits in pig breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Carne Vermelha/normas , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Biblioteca Gênica , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 731-738, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176483

RESUMO

This study was designed to test whether the dietary intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a potential exposure source relating to the high cancer incidence area in southwest China. Duplicate plate method was used to collect food samples in rural and urban sites in the region. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 300 local residents to obtain their dietary habits and 50 subjects were chosen to collect the samples. The 16 priority PAHs (PAH16) in composite food samples for each individual subject were measured, and non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were analyzed based on the results of Monte Carlo method. The average concentration of the PAH16 in food samples was 12.04 ±â€¯8.52 ng g-1. The life time average daily benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) exposure dose was 6.07 × 10-6 mg kg-1 day-1. Although non-carcinogenic risk was found to be within a controllable range, the average incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.7 × 10-5 for rural subjects and 6.1 × 10-5 for urban subjects, which is comparable with other regions in China. The serious risk level of 10-4 was exceeded by 10.7% of urban residents and 2.1% of rural residents. This study implies that dietary exposure to PAHs is a potential exposure source to the high cancer in the region, and further cancer risk control strategies need to be formulated.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Biol Int ; 42(12): 1643-1657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288875

RESUMO

The SLIT/ROBO pathway has been implicated in prehierarchical follicular development of hen ovary by an intrafollicular autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. SLIT3, one of the key components of the SLIT/ROBO family, serves as a ligand that potentially interacts with the four receptors, ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3 and ROBO4. But the exact roles and regulatory mechanism of SLIT3 in chicken ovarian follicle development remain largely unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the potential roles and molecular regulation of SLIT3 in granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, differentiation and follicle selection within the prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary. We found that SLIT3 interacts physically with the four ROBO receptors, but the expression of the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes are more susceptible to the regulation of SLIT3 ligand than that of the ROBO3 and ROBO4 genes. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of SLIT3 in the follicular GCs leads to a significant increase in cell proliferation. Conversely, overexpression of SLIT3 results in a remarkable reduction in GC proliferation. Furthermore, the overexpressed SLIT3 has notably decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHR), growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and cytochrome P450 11A1 (CYP11A1) in the GCs. These results indicated that SLIT3 may play an inhibitory effect on GC proliferation, differentiation and follicle selection, and these suppressive actions of SLIT3 in the GC proliferation can be prohibited by the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROBO1 and ROBO2 receptors. The current data provide a basis for further investigation of molecular mechanisms of SLIT3-ROBO1/2 pathway in controlling the prehierarchical follicle development of the hen ovary.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Galinhas/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/genética , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(86): 12250-12253, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318529

RESUMO

A porous TiO2/BaTiO3 heterostructure composite has been developed as a polysulfide mediator for lithium-sulfur batteries. Superior electrochemical performance has been achieved, mainly attributed to the synergy of TiO2 and BaTiO3 with dual affinity to polysulfides from chemical and ferroelectric-induced polarization effects, and enhanced redox kinetics propelled by the TiO2/BaTiO3 heterojunctions.

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