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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum albumin level and its dynamic change with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in a large Chinese cohort study. METHODS: This cohort study included 30,442 adults without T2DM at first entry, who completed at least one follow-up of annual examinations between 2009 and 2016. Serum albumin level was measured at baseline and at every annual check-up. The dynamic change in serum albumin level (∆ALB) was calculated by subtracting serum albumin level at baseline from that at the last follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox regression models. RESULTS: During 7 years of follow-up, we identified 1,634 T2DM events. From the lowest to highest quartile of serum albumin level, adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.94, 1.01), 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) and 0.88 (0.85, 0.98), respectively. As compared with stable change in serum albumin (-0.2 ≤ ∆ALB < 1.0 g/L), the risk of T2DM increased for ∆ALB < -2.0 g/L (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.24-1.68) and decreased for ∆ALB ≥ 3.0 g/L (0.81, 0.68-0.97) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response association between baseline serum albumin level and T2DM risk (Pnon-linearity 0.715) and a non-linear dose-response association between ∆ALB and T2DM risk (Pnon-linearity 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline serum albumin level appears to be inversely associated with T2DM risk. Adults with reduced serum albumin level could be early identified for diabetes risk in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
AIDS Care ; 32(1): 12-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142146

RESUMO

This study was to compare global and domain-specific neurocognitive performance between older people living with HIV (PLWH) taking/not taking efavirenz (EFV) and HIV-negative controls. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yongzhou city, China. All PLWH older than 50 years listed on the registry of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention were invited to join the study. Frequency matching was used to sample HIV-negative controls according to the distribution of age, sex, and years of formal education of older PLWH. A total of 308 older PLWH and 350 HIV-negative controls completed the face-to-face interview and neurocognitive assessment using the comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. After adjusting for significant confounders, older PLWH taking EFV showed poorer performance in memory (p = 0.020), verbal fluency (p = 0.002), and poorer global neurocognitive performance (p = 0.032) than those without EFV use. Compared to HIV-negative controls, older PLWH taking EFV had poorer performance in all neurocognitive domains (p values: <0.001-0.003) and poorer global neurocognitive performance (p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed when comparing older PLWH without using EFV versus HIV-negative controls, with the exception of verbal fluency (p = 0.560). Health care workers should monitor the neuropsychological performance of older PLWH, epically those who were taking EFV. Longitudinal studies are warranted.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(1): 79-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468597

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the quantitative dose-response association of total sedentary behaviour and television viewing with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension in a meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched three databases to identify English-language reports that assessed the association of total sedentary behaviour or television viewing with the aforementioned health outcomes. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate possible linear or non-linear associations of total sedentary behaviour and television viewing with these health outcomes. RESULTS: We included 48 articles (58 studies) with a total of 1 071 967 participants in the meta-analysis; 21 (six cohort and 15 cross-sectional) studies examined the association of total sedentary behaviour with overweight/obesity, 23 (13 cohort and 10 cross-sectional) studies examined the association with type 2 diabetes and 14 (one cohort and 13 cross-sectional) studies examined the association with hypertension. We found linear associations between total sedentary behaviour and type 2 diabetes (Pnon-linearity = 0.190) and hypertension (Pnon-linearity = 0.225) and a non-linear association between total sedentary behaviour and overweight/obesity (Pnon-linearity = 0.003). For each 1-h/d increase in total sedentary behaviour, the risk increased by 5% for type 2 diabetes and 4% for hypertension. We also found linear associations between television viewing and type 2 diabetes (Pnon-linearity = 0.948) and hypertension (Pnon-linearity = 0.679) and a non-linear association for overweight/obesity (Pnon-linearity = 0.007). For each 1-h/d increase in television viewing, the risk increased by 8% for type 2 diabetes and 6% for hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of total sedentary behaviour and television viewing were associated with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783564

RESUMO

Rediscovery of known antibiotics from actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces, has become a bottleneck issue. Nowadays, more specific identification and dereplication could be acquired by a combination of modern analytic techniques with various databases. In this study, 261 actinobacterial strains were isolated from 8 mangrove soil samples by culture-dependent method. A total of 83 strains were selected to evaluate antibacterial activities and mechanisms by disc diffusion method and a unique double fluorescent protein reporter system (pDualrep2), respectively. Thirty-two strains exhibited antagonistic activity against at least one of the "ESKAPE" pathogens. Four Streptomyces strains (B475, B486, B353, and B98) showed strong inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and induced DNA damage SOS response. One Micromonospora strain (B704) exhibited inhibitory activity against several pathogens and induced attenuation-based translational inhibitors reporter. Seven members of quinoxaline-type antibiotics including quinomycin A, quinomycin monosulfoxide, and other five putative new analogues were found from the culture broth of strain B475 by a combination of anti-MRSA guide, HPTLC, HPLC-UV, and UPLC-UV-HRESIMS/MS analysis, Chemspider searching, and MS/MS-based molecular networking analysis. In conclusion, this study not only demonstrated that mangrove is a rich source of actinobacteria with the potentially new antibiotics but showed rapid dereplication of known antibiotics in the early stage can improve efficiency for the discovery of new antibiotics.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791429

RESUMO

Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007-2008) and followed up during 2013-2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by body mass index (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02-3.00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12-2.04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programs should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.

6.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the dose-response association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched up to 12 December 2018 for articles that assessed the OSA-T2DM association. Random effects models were used to analyze the quantitative association between OSA and risk of T2DM. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), used to assess the severity of OSA according to events/h, and risk of T2DM. RESULTS: We included 16 cohort studies in our meta-analysis. During a median follow-up of 10.5 years (range: 3.0-22.0), 19 355 T2DM cases were reported among 338 912 study participants. The pooled relative risk of T2DM was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.32-1.48) for OSA in the binary meta-analysis and 1.08 (1.01-1.14) for each 5-event/h increase in AHI value. We found a positive linear association between OSA and T2DM risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our dose-response meta-analysis revealed a linear association between OSA and T2DM. HIGHLIGHTS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable chronic sleep disorder characterized by episodes of sleep apneas and hypopneas during sleep, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and sleep fragmentation and is associated with significant comorbidities. Our systematic review and meta-analysis shows that people with OSA are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which suggests that we should detect and treat OSA early to prevent T2DM.

7.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2354-2360, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio (HWHtR) and its dynamic status was associated with hypertension (HTN). METHODS: We examined data for 10 312 nonhypertensive participants aged at least 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study at the baseline examination who were followed until 2014 with a median follow-up of 6 years. HWHtR was defined by combined triglyceride level and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the probability of incident HTN according to HWHtR and its transformation, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 127 men and 225 women with high triglyceride level and high WHtR (HTHWH) had incident HTN during follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of HTN was increased with HTHWH for men [OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.01-2.20)] but this association was not significant for women [1.21 (0.88-1.66)]. The results of the sensitivity analyses were robust for men and women. The ORs were generally consistent on subgroup analysis by age,BMI, SBP and DBP for men. As compared with persistent normal triglyceride level and normal WHtR (NTNWH), the transformation from baseline NTNWH to follow-up HTHWH was associated with increased probability of HTN for men [OR 4.16 (95% CI 2.21-7.84)]. However, for women, the association of changed HWHtR from baseline to follow-up with probability of HTN was not significant for almost all transformation groups. CONCLUSION: HWHtR and its dynamic status was associated with incident HTN for rural Chinese men. From this cohort study, HWHtR may be an indicator for interventions aiming to reduce HTN among these men.

8.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548617

RESUMO

The sex- and age-specific relation in the association of resting heart rate (RHR) and its change and risk of hypertension remains unclear. We prospectively estimated the incidence of hypertension among 9969 nonhypertensive adults participating in The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Self-reported questionnaires and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected at baseline (2007-2008) and follow-up (2013-2014). The modified Poisson regression model was used to calculate relative risk (RR) values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident hypertension associated with RHR and its dynamic change. During follow-up (median, 6.01 years), 797 (20.28%) men, and 1178 (19.51%) women developed hypertension. Risk of hypertension was increased for women with the highest versus lowest RHR tertile after adjusting for confounding factors (RR: 1.19 [95%CI: 1.04-1.36]) and was associated with increased RHR for women with young age (RR per 10-beat/min RHR increase, 1.25 [95%CI: 1.09-1.43]), middle age (1.06 [0.99-1.14]), and older age (1.11 [1.01-1.23]). Risk of developing hypertension was significantly higher (RR: 1.22 [95%CI: 1.04-1.42]) in women with high RHR (≥80-beat/min) throughout the study period than those with normal RHR (<80-beat/min). No significant association of RHR and hypertension was found in men. RHR is an independent predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese women. Persistently high RHR is associated with increased hypertension risk in women. The dose-response association between RHR and hypertension could be affected by sex and age status.

9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(11): 2985-2996, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321475

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Using microarray analysis combined with map-based cloning, a major locus positively regulating SL and SW was mapped to a 98.47 kb interval on A09 in rapeseed. In rapeseed, seed yield is closely associated with silique-related traits such as silique length (SL) and seed weight (SW). Previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed that SL and SW are complex traits and many QTLs overlap. However, the genetic characterization of the association between SL and SW is poorly understood. In the present study, a BC3F3 near isogenic line developed from a short silique plant and the long silique cultivar 'ZS11' was analyzed to identify the locus related to SL. Map-based cloning indicated that a major locus acting as a single Mendelian factor was mapped to a 98.47 kb region on chromosome A09. BLAST analysis and DNA sequencing showed SNP variations and a fragment replacement in the upstream region of the candidate gene BnaA09g55530D may alter gene expression and influence SL. The results showed that this SL locus may also positively affect SW as well as in the 186 rapeseed accessions identified by the associated markers. Therefore, selecting plants with appropriate SL and developing functional markers for the associated gene could play important roles in the molecular breeding of high-yield rapeseed varieties.

10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 130, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid ratios, for example total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the predictive values of lipid ratios in prediabetes remain unclear. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the association between lipid ratios and abnormal glucose tolerance; 2) to compare the predictive significance of lipid ratios with commonly used indicators of lipid variables in clinical practice in a Chinese population. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 2680 participants from the Health Promotion Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. All participants received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose regulation (IGR), and T2DM. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the cutoff points of lipid and lipid ratios. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to estimate their diagnostic values. RESULTS: TC, TG, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and non-HDL-C were significantly correlated with both prediabetes and T2DM after adjustment for other risk factors such as blood glucose, whereas LDL-C was only positively correlated with prediabetes. TG and TG/HDL-C showed higher diagnostic values for prediabetes and T2DM than TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C, with the AUC values over 0.70. For predicting prediabetes, the optimal cutoff point was 1.36 mmol/l for TG and 1.13 for TG/HDL-C. For predicting T2DM, the optimal cutoff point was 1.46 mmol/l for TG and 1.22 for TG/HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Both TG and TG/HDL-C are promising biomarkers for distinguishing individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance, and can be used to predict prediabetes and T2DM in Chinese population.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(8): 815-821, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is rapidly gaining attention as a potential risk of developing atherosclerosis due to its crucial role in the regulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. The present study investigated the relationship between serum PCSK9 levels and early atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 100 newly diagnosed T2DM were enrolled and further divided into the thickened CIMT group (n = 41) and the non-thickened CIMT group (n = 59) according to the results of color Doppler ultrasonography. Serum PCSK9 levels, CIMT, ba-PWV, and metabolic parameters were measured. Patients in the thickened CIMT group had higher serum PCSK9 levels than patients in the non-thickened CIMT group (all P < 0.05). CIMT and ba-PWV were both positively correlated to serum PCSK9 levels, while serum PCSK9 levels were positively correlated to white blood cell count, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression indicated that serum PCSK9 level was an independent predictor of CIMT (ß = 0.637, P < 0.001) and ba-PWV (ß = 0.600, P < 0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that serum PCSK9 levels were independent risk factors of thickened CIMT [OR = 1.120, 95%CI (1.041-1.204), P = 0.002]. CONCLUSION: Serum PCSK9 levels are significantly correlated with CIMT and ba-PWV, independent of CAD risk factors. Therefore, serum PCSK9 level may have the potential to serve as a prescriptive biomarker for early arteriosclerosis in newly diagnosed T2DM.

12.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 35(3): 139-145, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887716

RESUMO

Accumulating evidences indicates that chronic neuropathic pain is a kind of neuro-immune disorder with enhanced activation of the immune system. Although the prevalence is very high, neuropathic pain remains extremely difficult to cure. miRNAs are a group of short nonprotein coding RNAs, regulating target genes expression via targeting 3'-untranslated region. More and more research indicates that altered miRNAs expression profile relates to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In this study, we firstly detected the expression of six candidate miRNAs in the plasma samples from 23 patients with neuropathic pain and 10 healthy controls. Subsequently, the level of miR-132 and miR-101 was detected in the sural nerve biopsies. We found miR-101 level was significantly repressed in both the plasma samples and sural nerve biopsies from neuropathic pain patients. Predicted by bioinformatics tools and confirmed by dual luciferase assay and immunoblotting, we identified that KPNB1 is a direct target of miR-101. The negative correlation between miR-101 and KPNB1 was also confirmed in the sural nerve biopsies, and miR-101 reduction relates to the activation of NF-κB signaling in vivo and in vitro which contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuralgia/genética , Transdução de Sinais , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/sangue , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia/sangue , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta Carioferinas/genética
13.
J Integr Med ; 17(1): 24-29, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of sport-related concussion (SRC) is high and results in a number of serious health consequences. One area that has received minimal research is the relationship between SRC and sleep. The literature shows that sleep deficiency is a frequent negative consequence of SRC. At the same time, sleep deficiency delays recovery from SRC and contributes added risk of symptom recurrence. A 2014 study of chronic pain patients who learned to apply the complementary and alternative medicine intervention hand self-shiatsu (HSS) had promising, sleep-promoting results that warrant further investigation with other populations. This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility of HSS as an intervention to promote sleep onset and continuity for young adults with SRC. METHODS: This study employed a prospective case-series design, where participants act as their own controls. Baseline and follow-up data included standardized self-reported assessment tools and sleep actigraphy. RESULTS: Seven athletes, aged between 18 and 25 years, participated in the study. Although statistically significant improvement in actigraphy sleep scores between baseline and follow-up was not achieved, metrics for sleep quality and daytime fatigue showed significant improvement. CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that HSS has the potential to improve sleep and reduce daytime fatigue in young postconcussion athletes. This pilot study provides guidance to refine research protocols and lays a foundation for further, large-sample, controlled studies.

14.
Med Chem ; 15(7): 801-812, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical drugs for herpesvirus exhibit high toxicity and suffer from significant drug resistance. The development of new, effective, and safe anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action is greatly required. OBJECTIVE: Novel inhibitors against herpesvirus with different mechanisms of action from that of clinical drugs. METHODS: A series of novel 5-(benzylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamides were efficiently synthesized and EC50 values against Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) were evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: Some compounds present antiviral activity. Compounds 5s and 5t are potent against both HCMV and VZV. Compounds 5m, 5n, 5s, and 5t show similar EC50 values against both TK+ and TK- VZV strains. CONCLUSION: 5-(Benzylamino)-1H-1, 2,3-triazole-4-carboxamides are active against herpesviruses and their activity is remarkably affected by the nature and the position of substituents in the benzene ring. The results indicate that these derivatives are independent of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) for activation, which is indispensable for current drugs. Their mechanisms of action may differ from those of the clinic anti-herpesvirus drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química
15.
Front Oncol ; 8: 582, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581771

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has been tremendously developed in the past decade owing to overcoming challenges associated with isolation of massive quantities of single cells. Previously, cell heterogeneity and low quantities of available biological material posed significant difficulties to scRNA-seq. Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of normal and malignant hematopoietic cells; this heterogeneity has often been ignored in omics studies. The application of scRNA-seq has profoundly changed our comprehension of many biological phenomena, including organ development and carcinogenesis. Hematopoiesis, is actually a maturation process for more than ten distinct blood and immune cells, and is thought to be critically involved in hematological homeostasis and in sustaining the physiological functions. However, aberrant hematopoiesis directly leads to hematological malignancy, and a deeper understanding of malignant hematopoiesis will provide deeper insights into diagnosis and prognosis for patients with hematological malignancies. Here, we aim to review the recent technical progress and future prospects for scRNA-seq, as applied in physiological and malignant hematopoiesis, in efforts to further understand the hematopoietic hierarchy and to illuminate personalized therapy and precision medicine approaches used in the clinical treatment of hematological malignancies.

16.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 206, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The steroid hormone estrogen (17-ß-estradiol, E2) provides neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury by activating estrogen receptors. The novel estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is highly expressed in the brain and provides acute neuroprotection against stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, ovariectomized female mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and E2, G1, and ICI182780 were administered immediately upon reperfusion. The infarction volume, neurological scores, and neuronal injuries were examined. Primary microglial cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and the drugs were administered immediately upon reintroduction. The pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in penumbra and microglia were assessed by ELISA. The cell viability and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release of neurons co-cultured with microglia were analyzed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and LDH release assays. Microglial activation as well as GPR30, Iba1, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression and TLR4 mRNA expression were detected. Additionally, NF-κB activity was detected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia after the activation of GPR30. RESULTS: GPR30 was highly expressed in microglia and significantly increased after ischemic injury. The activation of GPR30 significantly reduced the infarction volume, improved the neurological deficit, and alleviated neuronal injuries. Moreover, GPR30 activation significantly reduced the release of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 from ischemic penumbra and microglia subjected to OGD and alleviated neuronal injury as assessed using the CCK8 and LDH assays. Finally, the activation of GPR30 relieved microglial activation, reduced Iba1 and TLR4 protein expression and TLR4 mRNA levels, and inhibited NF-κB activity. CONCLUSIONS: Microglial GPR30 exerts acute neuroprotective effects by inhibiting TLR4-mediated microglial inflammation, which indicates that GPR30 may be a potential target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/farmacologia , Feminino , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Glucose/deficiência , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia
17.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 30(3): 252-265, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633881

RESUMO

The next generation of public health professionals requires rigorous training in behavioral health, in order to design effective behavioral interventions to respond effectively to the epidemiological transition in China. This study aimed to investigate issues in training in social and behavioral sciences in public health in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1285 and 835 last-year undergraduate and graduate public health students in 2013. The results showed that (1) majority of undergraduate students but a minority of graduate students had enrolled in psychology, social medicine, and health promotion courses; (2) very few had enrolled in other social and behavioral sciences courses; (3) high percentages of students perceived significance, needs, and interests related to social sciences courses; (4) very few were familiar with commonly used behavioral health theories and constructs, or had applied such theories/constructs to their thesis. The situation deviates from international accreditation requirement. A timely review and benchmarking are warranted.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento/educação , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública/organização & administração , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública/normas , Ciências Sociais/educação , Acreditação/normas , China , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Saúde Pública/normas , Estudantes de Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4761, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555963

RESUMO

A wide bandwidth, ultra-thin, metasurface is reported that facilitates wide angle beam scanning. Each unit cell of the metasurface contains a multi-resonant, strongly-coupled unequal arm Jerusalem cross element. This element consists of two bent-arm, orthogonal, capacitively loaded strips. The wide bandwidth of the metasurface is achieved by taking advantage of the strong coupling within and between its multi-resonant elements. A prototype of the proposed metasurface has been fabricated and measured. The design concept has been validated by the measured results. The proposed metasurface is able to alleviate the well-known problem of impedance mismatch caused by mutual coupling when the main beam of an array is scanned. In order to validate the wideband and wide scanning ability of the proposed metasurface, it is integrated with a wideband antenna array as a wide angle impedance matching element. The metasurface-array combination facilitates wide angle scanning over a 6:1 impedance bandwidth without the need for bulky dielectrics or multi-layered structures.

19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 40(6): 690-696, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27868438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balance is one of the risk factors for falls in older adults. The use of smartphone applications (apps) related to health (mHealth) is increasing and, while there is potential for apps to be used as a self-managed balance intervention, many healthcare providers are concerned about the content and credibility of mHealth apps overall. PURPOSE: This study evaluates the quality of balance promoting apps and identifies strengths and areas of concern to assist healthcare providers in recommending these resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balance apps for the general public, offered on the iPhone Operating System (iOS) and Android platforms, were evaluated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). RESULTS: Five iOS apps met the inclusion criteria. The mean scores for each of the domains in MARS were: Engagement (3.32), Information (3.7), Functionality (3.8), and Esthetics (3.8). Overall, one app (UStabilize) received a rating of 4.43 in MARS five-point scale, which was considered "good". Other apps in the review demonstrated acceptable quality. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed balance apps targeted to improve or maintain physical balance were of acceptable quality. Apps address many current issues older adults have to accessing rehabilitation services and, as such, may be particularly useful for this group. Future research should focus on assessing and comparing app efficacy. Development of balance apps for the Android platform is also necessary. Implications for Rehabilitation Given the availability and accessibility of various mHealth apps and the increasing mobile device usage among older adults, mobile apps are a promising avenue for delivering rehabilitation interventions, such as balance training, to older adults. Smartphone apps exist for balance training but overall confidence in health apps within the healthcare community is low and rigorous evaluation is required. A range of apps exist that demonstrate acceptable to good quality and stakeholders should work towards having these apps listed in credible mHealth clearinghouses.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Equilíbrio Postural , Smartphone , Telerreabilitação , Idoso , Canadá , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Telerreabilitação/normas
20.
Anesthesiology ; 128(3): 574-586, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29252510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key element in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the role of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 in nuclear transcription factor κB-mediated inflammation in ischemia models. METHODS: Mice (n = 6 to 12) with or without nuclear transcription factor κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment were subjected to global cerebral ischemia for 20 min. Pure astrocyte cultures or astrocyte-neuron cocultures (n = 6) with or without pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 4 h or 2 h. Astrocytic nuclear transcription factor κB and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, neuronal apoptosis and survival, and memory function were analyzed at different time points after reperfusion or reoxygenation. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion was also studied in lentivirus-transfected astrocyte lines after reoxygenation. RESULTS: Astrocytic nuclear transcription factor κB and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and proinflammatory cytokine secretion increased after reperfusion or reoxygenation. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate pretreatment significantly reduced N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo and in vitro, reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (from 65 ± 4% to 47 ± 4%, P = 0.0375) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (from 45.6 ± 0.2% to 22.0 ± 4.0%, P < 0.001), and improved memory function in comparison to vehicle-treated control animals subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 lentiviral knockdown reduced the oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Astrocytic N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia and is involved in nuclear transcription factor κB-mediated inflammation. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate alleviates ischemia-induced neuronal injury and hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment by inhibiting increases in N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 expression and N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
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