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1.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129931, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601204

RESUMO

The increasing number of food waste (FW) had led to an urgent methods to recycle, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) was a potential quick waste manager. To assess the impact of BSFL on conversion FW and sawdust into compost via the parameters of maturity, nutrient transformation and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Meanwhile, the artificial of FW contained noodles, cabbages, rice and pork. FW and sawdust were employed by BSFL (6.5:0.5:1.2 ratio on fresh weight basis) as T1 and without BSFL called control (T2), while moisture content for FW and sawdust was 86.57% and 5.98%. Results illustrated that BSFL declined the composting time and only 9 d. Compared with initial mixture materials, T1 decreased organic matter, total kjeldahl nitrogen and VFAs from 97.41 to 85.96%, 23.01 to 17.77 g kg-1 and 3.25 to 1.69 g kg-1, respectively. However, T1 increased the total phosphorous and total potassium in 3.8 folds and 5 folds. The value of pH and EC reached at 4.27 and 1100 µS cm-1, and the germination index attained to 70.69%. In addition, redundancy analysis was used to analysis the correlation between factors under composting employed with different additive ratio of BSFL. Therefore, BSFL played a vital role in FW and sawdust recycling, especially reduced composting time and made the final separation of larvae and substrate easily, saving labor costs.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124703, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476856

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal diversity and relative abundance (RA) during pig manure composting via high-throughput sequencing approach. Fine coal gasification slag (FCGS) (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were added into composting raw materials as additive and performed 42 days. Adjust C/N and moisture to 30 and 65%. Results showed that dominant phyla were Ascomycota (99.62%) and Basidiomycota (0.38%). The main genera were Epicoccum (1.26%), Alternaria (83.35%), Aspergillus (12.08%) and Gibberella (1.69%). 10% treatment got the higher abundance and operational taxonomic units number from rank abundance curve and petals diagram. Compared with control, FCGS amendment composting could increase the sanitary time (3-7 d) and total nitrogen (0.05-12.03%). The principal component analysis was considered that FCGS treatments and control had significantly difference. The RA of fungi varied among all treatments. Therefore, 10% treatment was a potential candidate to enhance fungal diversity and composting quality.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Mineral , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo , Suínos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 321: 124496, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302013

RESUMO

In this review investigate the apple orchard waste (AOW) is potential organic resources to produce multi-product and there sustainable interventions with biorefineries approaches to assesses the apple farm industrial bioeconomy. The thermochemical and biological processes like anaerobic digestion, composting and , etc., that generate distinctive products like bio-chemicals, biofuels, biofertilizers, animal feed and biomaterial, etc can be employed for AOW valorization. Integrating these processes can enhanced the yield and resource recovery sustainably. Thus, employing biorefinery approaches with allied different methods can link to the progression of circular bioeconomy. This review article mainly focused on the different biological processes and thermochemical that can be occupied for the production of waste to-energy and multi-bio-product in a series of reaction based on sustainability. Therefore, the biorefinery for AOW move towards identification of the serious of the reaction with each individual thermochemical and biological processes for the conversion of one-dimensional providences to circular bioeconomy.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124967, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517026

RESUMO

Micro-and nano-plastics (MNPs) (size < 5 mm/<100 nm) epitomize one of the emergent environmental pollutants with its existence all around the globe. Their high persistence nature and release of chemicals/additives used in synthesis of plastics materials may pose cascading impacts on living organism across the globe. Natural connectivity of all the environmental compartments (terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric) leads to migration/dispersion of MNPs from one compartment to others. Nevertheless, the information on dispersion of MNPs across the environmental compartments and its possible impacts on living organisms are still missing. This review first acquaints with dispersion mechanisms of MNPs in the environment, its polymeric/oligomeric and chemical constituents and then emphasized its impacts on living organism. Based on the existing knowledge about the MNPs' constituent and its potential impacts on the viability, development, lifecycle, movements, and fertility of living organism via several potential mechanisms, such as irritation, oxidative damage, digestion impairment, tissue deposition, change in gut microbial communities' dynamics, impaired fatty acid metabolism, and molecular damage are emphasized. Finally, at the end, the review provided the challenges associated with remediation of plastics pollutions and desirable strategies, policies required along with substantial gaps in MNPs research were recommended for future studies.

5.
Soft Matter ; 15(16): 3291-3300, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821791

RESUMO

Electrostatic dissipative particle dynamics simulations were conducted to model the interactions between emulsion droplets stabilized by pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles. Using a steered molecular dynamics approach, a mechanistic study of forced coalescence was performed to probe the resistance between two particle-covered droplets. The degree of ionization of the grafted polyelectrolytes was adjusted to capture the pH responsiveness. The maximal resistance forces were measured to quantitatively discriminate the efficacy of particles in stabilizing emulsions at different degrees of ionization. Through analyzing droplet dynamics, resistance force variation, and electric field, we discovered that the resistance is attributed to direct electrostatic repulsion, the image charge effect near the water-oil interface, and steric hindrance among extended polymers. When the particle density on the droplet surface is relatively low, the increasing resistance forces at higher degrees of ionization can effectively prevent droplet coalescence. Oppositely, the ionization compromises emulsion stability when the particle surface coverage is high. Substantial desorption of particles from the interface was triggered as the degree of ionization increases. This in turn reduces resistance force and facilitates coalescence. Moreover, the nanoparticles prevent coalescence at high surface coverages by forming dense layers at individual interfaces, while the particle bridges straddling two interfaces were found at low surface coverages, which can also keep the droplets apart.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 543: 34-42, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776668

RESUMO

Emulsion polymerization is a versatile approach to produce different polymeric nanoparticle morphologies, which can be useful in a variety of applications. However, the detailed mechanism of the morphology formation is not entirely clear. We study the kinetics of nanoparticle morphology evolution during a seeded emulsion polymerization using both experimental and computational tools. Lightly crosslinked polystyrene seeds were first synthesized using dispersion polymerization. Then the seed particles were swollen in tert-butyl acrylate and styrene monomers, and subsequently polymerized into nanoparticles of dumbbell and multilobe morphologies. It was discovered that both the seed and final particle morphology were affected by the methanol concentration during the seed synthesis. Systematically adjusting the methanol amount will not only yield spherical seed particles of different size, but also dumbbell particles even without the second monomer polymerization. In addition to methanol concentration, morphology can be controlled by crosslinking density. The kinetics studies revealed an interesting transition from multilobe to dumbbell geometries during the secondary polymerization. Based on the results, a nucleation-growth model has been proposed to describe the morphology evolution and verification was offered by computer simulation. The key discovery is that nanoparticle morphology can be kinetically controlled by diffusion of the protrusions on the seed particles. The condition of seed synthesis and crosslinking density will drastically change the seed and final nanoparticle morphology.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(17): 5557-5561, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779275

RESUMO

The lithium-sulfur battery is an attractive option for next-generation energy storage owing to its much higher theoretical energy density than state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, the massive volume changes of the sulfur cathode and the uncontrollable deposition of Li2 S2 /Li2 S significantly deteriorate cycling life and increase voltage polarization. To address these challenges, we develop an ϵ-caprolactam/acetamide based eutectic-solvent electrolyte, which can dissolve all lithium polysulfides and lithium sulfide (Li2 S8 -Li2 S). With this new electrolyte, high specific capacity (1360 mAh g-1 ) and reasonable cycling stability are achieved. Moreover, in contrast to conventional ether electrolyte with a low flash point (ca. 2 °C), such low-cost eutectic-solvent-based electrolyte is difficult to ignite, and thus can dramatically enhance battery safety. This research provides a new approach to improving lithium-sulfur batteries in aspects of both safety and performance.

8.
ACS Sens ; 4(1): 161-169, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582808

RESUMO

A noninvasive, highly sensitive universal immunosensor platform for protein-based biomarker detection is described in this Article. A neutral charged sensing environment is constructed by an antibody with an oppositely charged amino acid as surface charge neutralizer. By adjusting the pH condition of the testing environment, this neutral charged immunosensor (NCI) directly utilizes the electrostatic charges of the analyte for quantification of circulating protein markers, achieving a wide dynamic range covering through the whole picomole level. Comparing with previous studies on electrostatic charges characterization, this NCI demonstrates its capability to analyze not only the negatively charged biomolecules but also positively charged analytes. We applied this NCI for the detection of HE4 antigen with a detection limit at 2.5 pM and Tau antigen with a detection limit at 0.968 pM, demonstrating the high-sensitivity property of this platform. Furthermore, this NCI possesses a simple fabrication method (less than 2 h) and a short testing turnaround time (less than 30 min), providing an excellent potential for further clinical point-of-care applications.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/análise , Proteínas tau/sangue , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/química , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/imunologia , Proteínas tau/imunologia
9.
Soft Matter ; 14(33): 6793-6798, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972196

RESUMO

Amphiphilic Janus particles demonstrate unique assembly structures when dried on a hydrophilic substrate. Particle orientations are influenced by amphiphilicity and Janus balance. A three-stage model is developed to describe the process. Simulation further indicates the dominant force is capillary attraction due to the interface pinning at rough Janus boundaries.

10.
Langmuir ; 34(19): 5581-5591, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676917

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles at fluid interfaces offer great potential for realizing on-demand and controllable self-assembly that can benefit various applications. Here, we conducted electrostatic dissipative particle dynamics simulations to provide a fundamental understanding of the microstructure and interfacial dynamics of responsive nanoparticle monolayers at a water-oil interface. The model nanoparticle is functionalized with polyelectrolytes to render the pH sensitivity, which permits further manipulation of the monolayer properties. The monolayer structure was analyzed in great detail through the density and electric field distributions, structure factor, and Voronoi tessellation. Even at a low surface coverage, a continuous disorder-to-order phase transition was observed when the particle's degree of ionization increases in response to pH changes. The six-neighbor particle fraction and bond orientation order parameter quantitatively characterize the structural transition induced by long-range electrostatic interactions. Adding salt can screen the electrostatic interactions and offer additional control on the monolayer structure. The detailed dynamics of the monolayer in different states was revealed by analyzing mean-squared displacements, in which different diffusion regimes were identified. The self-diffusion of individual particles and the collective dynamics of the whole monolayer were probed and correlated with the structural transition. Our results provide deeper insight into the dynamic behavior of responsive nanoparticle surfactants and lay the groundwork for bottom-up synthesis of novel nanomaterials, responsive emulsions, and microdroplet reactors.

11.
Soft Matter ; 13(30): 5137-5149, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657632

RESUMO

Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we model the interfacial adsorption of pH-responsive polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles (PNPs) at a planar water-oil interface. The electrostatic interactions in the presence of the dielectric discontinuity across the interface are modeled by exploiting the Groot method, which uses an iterative method to solve the Poisson equation on a uniform grid with distributed charge. We reveal the effects of the pH and salinity of the aqueous solution and the length of the polyelectrolyte on the adsorption behavior of weak polyelectrolytes. The adsorption kinetics is monitored via the trajectory of the center of mass of the polyelectrolyte in the direction normal to the interface. The residence time at the interface and the pair correlation function between the polyelectrolyte and the oil are measured to quantitatively characterize the adsorption. Similar to the weak polyelectrolytes, the influences of pH, salinity and grafted chain length on the adsorption of an individual PNP are explored. Our results show that by grafting polyelectrolytes, the interfacial behavior of the nanoparticles can be tuned by changing the pH and salinity of the solution, which is dictated by the contact angle, the pair correlation function between the particles and the oil, the desorption energy, and the particle morphology at the interface. We also observe that the electrostatic-driven variations in the interfacial activity and morphology of the PNPs are not sensitive to the length of the grafted polyelectrolytes.

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