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1.
ACS Omega ; 6(42): 27668-27675, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722966

RESUMO

Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, NiSO4·6H2O, NiCl2·6H2O, and NiC4H6O4·4H2O as nickel sources by the solution combustion method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, H2 temperature-programmed hydrogenation, TG-DTG, TPH, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and the effect of the nickel source on performance of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was investigated via the CO2-CH4 reforming experiment. Results showed that Ni dispersion, Ni size, and the metal-support interaction between active component Ni and the support were influenced significantly by anion in nickel sources, resulting in that the performance of each catalyst was different. Highly dispersed Ni species, small Ni crystallite size, and strong metal-support interaction were presented in the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as nickel sources. Evaluation results showed that the catalyst prepared with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O exhibited higher activity and stability, with CH4 and CO2 conversions of 31.21 and 48.97%. Carbon deposition analysis demonstrated that the catalyst prepared with NiSO4·6H2O contained more graphite carbon.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of percutaneous minimally invasive reduction combined with external fixation and a tarsal sinus approach to treat Sanders type II and III intra-articular calcaneal fractures. METHODS: The clinical data of 64 patients with Sanders type II and III calcaneal fractures admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed; data includedage, sex, body mass index. According to the surgical method, they were divided into the percutaneous minimally invasive reduction with internal and external fixation group (30 cases) and the tarsal sinus approach group (34 cases).The two groups of patients were compared in terms of the time tosurgery, length of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, complications, radiographic features, including the heel bone length, width, height, Bohlerangle, Gissane angle, and calcaneal varus angle, and clinical efficacy indicators, including the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, health survey profile (SF-36) score and Maryland ankle function score. RESULTS: Patients in both groups were followed up for 12 to 50 months, with an average of 24.8 months.Bony union was achieved in all cases. The time to surgery, length of hospitalstay, intraoperative blood loss and incidence of incision-related complications were significantly lower in the percutaneous minimally invasive medial external fixation group than in the tarsal sinus group (P < 0.01). At the last follow-up, the calcaneal length, width, and height, Bohler angle, Gissane angle, and varus angle were significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.01), the calcaneal width was significantly lower after than before surgery (P < 0.01), and there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). As measures of clinical efficacy, the AOFAS, VAS, SF-36 and Maryland scores were 85.28 ± 8.21, 0.84 ± 1.21, 82.95 ± 3.25 and 83.56 ± 3.32, respectively, at the last follow-up in the percutaneous minimally invasive medial external fixation group and 83.32 ± 7.69, 1.85 ± 1.32, 80.71 ± 5.42, and 81.85 ± 2.41 in the tarsal sinus group, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the condition of a good command of surgical indications and surgical skills, the use of plastic calcaneal forceps for percutaneous minimally invasive reduction combined with medial external fixation for the treatment of Sanders type II and III intra-articular calcaneal fractures can achieve similar clinical effects as the tarsal sinus approach. However, the use of plastic calcaneal forceps for percutaneous minimally invasive reduction combined with internal and external fixation has advantages, such as fewer complications, less bloodloss, and a shorter operation, and thus has good safety and is worthy of clinical promotion.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782794

RESUMO

Memory persistence is a fundamental cognitive process for guiding behaviors and is considered to rely mostly on neuronal and synaptic plasticity. Whether and how astrocytes contribute to memory persistence is largely unknown. Here, by using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in head-fixed mice and fiber photometry in freely moving mice, we show that aversive sensory stimulation activates α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in a subpopulation of astrocytes in the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that fear learning causes the de novo induction of sound-evoked Ca2+ transients in these astrocytes. The astrocytic responsiveness persisted over days along with fear memory and disappeared in animals that underwent extinction of learned freezing behavior. Conditional genetic deletion of α7-nAChRs in astrocytes significantly impaired fear memory persistence. We conclude that learning-acquired, α7-nAChR-dependent astrocytic responsiveness is an integral part of the cellular substrate underlying memory persistence.

4.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(9): 10428-10438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression differences of Foxp3 and VISTA in chronic cervical inflammation, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical cancer, and to explore the role of Foxp3 and VISTA in the development of cervical cancer and the effect of Foxp3 and VISTA on the prognosis of cervical cancer, to provide a theoretical basis for clinical immunotherapy of cervical cancer. METHODS: We collected 130 paraffin specimens of cervical tissue, which included 70 cases of cervical cancer tissue, 40 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissues and 20 cases of chronic cervicitis. The expression of Foxp3 and VISTA in each group was detected, and the study was conducted based on the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. The patients were followed up and the prognosis was statistically analyzed. RESULT: 1. The expression of Foxp3 and VISTA was statistically different between the cervical cancer group and other groups. 2. Expressions of Foxp3 and VISTA were significantly correlated. 3. In 70 cases of cervical cancer, the expression of Foxp3 and VISTA was related to the clinical stage. 4. The 3-year survival rate of 70 patients with cervical cancer was 72.9%, and there were no factors affecting 3-year OS found. The expression of Foxp3 and VISTA was significantly correlated with the prognosis of cervical cancer. Foxp3 and VISTA double positive expression group had the worst prognosis. CONCLUSION: 1. In cervical cancer, the expression of Foxp3 and VISTA was significantly higher than that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and chronic cervicitis, which suggested that they were closely related to the occurrence and growth of cervical cancer. 2. The expression of Foxp3 and VISTA was significantly related. 3. The positive expression of Foxp3 and VISTA could be used as independent prognostic factors for cervical cancer prognosis providing a strong basis for cervical cancer immunotherapy.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1862(12): 148494, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534546

RESUMO

Quenching of excess excitation energy is necessary for the photoprotection of light-harvesting complexes. In cyanobacteria, quenching of phycobilisome (PBS) excitation energy is induced by the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), which becomes photoactivated under high light conditions. A decrease in energy transfer efficiency from the PBSs to the reaction centers decreases photosystem II (PS II) activity. However, quantitative analysis of OCP-induced photoprotection in vivo is complicated by similar effects of both photochemical and non-photochemical quenching on the quantum yield of the PBS fluorescence overlapping with the emission of chlorophyll. In the present study, we have analyzed chlorophyll a fluorescence induction to estimate the effective cross-section of PS II and compared the effects of reversible OCP-dependent quenching of PBS fluorescence with reduction of PBS content upon nitrogen starvation or mutations of key PBS components. This approach allowed us to estimate the dependency of the rate constant of PS II primary electron acceptor reduction on the amount of PBSs in the cell. We found that OCP-dependent quenching triggered by blue light affects approximately half of PBSs coupled to PS II, indicating that under normal conditions, the concentration of OCP is not sufficient for quenching of all PBSs coupled to PS II.

6.
Obes Rev ; 22(12): e13341, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490704

RESUMO

Gut microorganisms not only participate in the metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids, protein, and polypeptides in the intestine but also directly affect the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Although many studies have described the apparent effects of gut microbiota on human health, the development of metagenomics and culturomics in the past decade has generated a large amount of evidence suggesting a causal relationship between gut microbiota and obesity. The interaction between the gut microbiota and host is realized by microbial metabolites with multiple biological functions. We concentrated here on several representative beneficial species connected with obesity as well as the mechanisms, with particular emphasis on microbiota-dependent metabolites. Finally, we consider the potential clinical significance of these relationships to fuel the conception and realization of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

7.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(5): 117-124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and leads to patient's death. Objective: To investigate the effect of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2C) on acute lung injury (ALI) with sepsis and its possible mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis rat model was established. The lung injury was determined by lung wet-dry weight ratio, the concentration of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interlukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and IL-10, were measured by the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay kit. The cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining assay. RESULTS: Interestingly, MEF2C was down-regulated in this model. Moreover, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-MEF2C treatment markedly suppressed TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 concentrations but promoted IL-10 concentration in serum in CLP-challenged rats. Besides, overexpression of MEF2C alleviates CLP-induced lung injury. Interestingly, AAV-MEF2C treatment was confirmed to suppress apoptosis in CLP-induced sepsis rats as well as promote aquaporin APQ1 expression. Mechanistically, the rescue experiments indicated that MEF2C alleviated CLP-induced lung inflammatory response and apoptosis via up-regulating AQP1. CONCLUSION: In summary, overexpression of MEF2C suppressed CLP-induced lung inflamma-tory response and apoptosis via up-regulating AQP1, providing a novel therapeutic target for sepsis-induced ALI.

8.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113543, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392095

RESUMO

Algae based wastewater treatment has been considered as the most promising win-win strategy for nutrients removal and biomass accumulation. However, the poor linking between traditional wastewater treatment and algal cultivation limits the achievement of this goal. In this study, a novel combination of Fenton oxidation and algal cultivation (CFOAC) system was investigated for the treatment of chicken farm flushing wastewater (CFFW). Fenton oxidation (FO) was adopted to reduce the excessive ammonia nitrogen, which might inhibit the algal growth. The results showed that single FO pretreatment removed 70.5 %, 96.7 %, 86.1 %, and 96.2 % of TN, TAN, TP, and COD, respectively. The highest biomass (235.8 mg/L/d) and lipid (77.3 mg/L/d) productivities were achieved on optimized CFOAC system after 7 days batch cultivation. Accordingly, the nutrients removal efficiencies increased to almost 100 %. Further fatty acid profile analysis showed that algae grown on optimal CFOAC system accumulated a high level of total lipids (32.8 %) with C16-C18 fatty acid as the most abundant compositions (accounting for over 60.6 %), which were propitious to biodiesel production. In addition, this CFOAC system was magnified from 1 L flask to 50 L horizontal pipe photobioreactor (HPPB) in semi-continuously culture under optimal conditions. The average biomass and lipid productivities were 995.7 mg/L/d and 320.6 mg/L/d, respectively, when cultured at 6 days hydraulic retention time with 1/3 substitution every two days. These findings proved that the novel CFOAC system is efficient in nutrients removal, algal cultivation, and biomass production for advanced treatment of CFFW.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Galinhas , Fazendas , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372087

RESUMO

With the increase of wounds and body damage, the clinical demand for antibacterial, hemostatic, and repairable biomaterials is increasing. Various types of biomedical materials have become research hotspots. Of these, and among materials derived from marine organisms, the research and application of alginate, chitosan, and collagen are the most common. Chitosan is mainly used as a hemostatic material in clinical applications, but due to problems such as the poor mechanical strength of a single component, the general antibacterial ability, and fast degradation speed research into the extraction process and modification mainly focuses on the improvement of the above-mentioned ability. Similarly, the research and modification of sodium alginate, used as a material for hemostasis and the repair of wounds, is mainly focused on the improvement of cell adhesion, hydrophilicity, degradation speed, mechanical properties, etc.; therefore, there are fewer marine biological collagen products. The research mainly focuses on immunogenicity removal and mechanical performance improvement. This article summarizes the source, molecular structure, and characteristics of alginate, chitosan, and collagen from marine organisms; and introduces the biological safety, clinical efficacy, and mechanism of action of these materials, as well as their extraction processes and material properties. Their modification and other issues are also discussed, and their potential clinical applications are examined.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14367, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257340

RESUMO

Phycobilisomes (PBSs) are the largest light-harvesting antenna in red algae, and feature high efficiency and rate of energy transfer even in a dim environment. To understand the influence of light on the energy transfer in PBSs, two red algae Griffithsia pacifica and Porphyridium purpureum living in different light environment were selected for this research. The energy transfer dynamics in PBSs of the two red algae were studied in time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in sub-picosecond resolution. The energy transfer pathways and the related transfer rates were uncovered by deconvolution of the fluorescence decay curve. Four time-components, i.e., 8 ps, 94 ps, 970 ps, and 2288 ps were recognized in the energy transfer in PBSs of G. pacifica, and 10 ps, 74 ps, 817 ps and 1292 ps in P. purpureum. In addition, comparison in energy transfer dynamics between the two red algae revealed that the energy transfer was clearly affected by lighting environment. The findings help us to understand the energy transfer mechanisms of red algae for adaptation to a natural low light environment.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8695-8702, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319737

RESUMO

Polydatin, resveratrol-3-O-ß-glucoside, possesses various biological activities. However, the regioselective glucosylation of resveratrol by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) constitutes a persistent problem. In this study, semi-rational design and iterative combinatorial mutagenesis were carried out to screen the mutants of UGTBL1 and the high specificity with the glycosylation of the 3-OH group of resveratrol was explored. The triple mutant I62G/M112D/K143G exhibited near-perfect control of polydatin synthesis (regioselectivity ∼ 99%), and the ratio of polydatin to resveratrol-4'-O-ß-glucoside was finally enhanced by 786-fold. Molecular docking revealed that the mutant could form three H-bonds between 3-, 5-, and 4'-OH groups of resveratrol and the residues around the active center, resulting in the oriented-binding of resveratrol. Furthermore, UGTBL1 mutant coupling sucrose synthase AtSuSy can synthesize polydatin at an unprecedented high titer of 10.33 g/L, together with efficient UDPG regeneration (RCmax = 54). This study provides an efficient approach for the regioselective biosynthesis of polydatin.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Estilbenos , Glicosiltransferases , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2457-2467, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056723

RESUMO

Hydrolysates containing angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide were prepared from protein of Alaska pollack skins using alcalase and trypsin. The protein hydrolysate was separated by ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), from which a novel purified peptide was obtained. Both random coil structure and ß-sheet in the purified peptide were revealed in Fourier transform infrared spectrum. The amino sequence of the purified peptide was identified as GPLGVP, VLYPVK, VFLENVLR, and FEEF by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS (HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry). The peptide GPLGVP whose molecular weight was 538.31 Da showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50  = 105.8 µM). The purified peptide featured a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic mechanism was shown in the Lineweaver-Burk plots and was susceptible to enzymes as indicated in the studies on stability of gastrointestinal proteases. Moreover, the peptide GPLGVP can combine ACE catalytic pocket through hydrogen bonds and other forces with high binding power as disclosed in molecular docking simulation, which provides the inhibitory effect of GPLGVP on ACE.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pele/química , Alaska , Animais , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gadiformes , Hidrólise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147862, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052489

RESUMO

Thermal/ultrasonic pre-treatment of sludge has been proven to break the hydrolysis barriers of sewage sludge (SS) and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, the objective was to investigate whether the combination of two pre-treatment methods can achieve better results on the AD of SS. The results indicated that, compared with the control group and separate pre-treatment groups, the thermal combined ultrasonic pre-treatment presented more obvious solubilization of soluble proteins, polysaccharides, and other organic matters in SS. The combined method promoted the dissolution of protein-like substances more effectively, with biogas production increased by 19% and the volatile solid (VS) removal rate improved to above 50% compared with the control group. The capillary suction time is reduced by about 85%, which greatly improved the dewatering performance of SS. In addition, the combined method has advantages in degrading sulfonamide antibiotics, roxithromycin and tetracycline. Particularly, by analyzing the interaction between the degradation of different antibiotics and the composition of dissolved organic matters (DOMs), it was found that the composition of DOMs could affect the degradability of different antibiotics. Among them, the high content of tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like was conducive to the degradation of sulfamethoxazole, and the high content of fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like was conducive to the degradation of roxithromycin and tetracycline. This work evaluated the comprehensive effect of thermal combined ultrasonic pre-treatment on SS disposal and provided useful information for its engineering.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Ultrassom , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Hidrólise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
14.
Data Brief ; 36: 107032, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981817

RESUMO

Urechis unicinctus is mainly distributed in Japan, north Korea and the Yellow Sea and the coast of Bohai Bay in China, and its nutrition is rich. The body of Urechis unicinctus contains many types of bioactive polypeptides, such as plasmin and tachykinin, which hold high economic and medicinal values. Therefore, the study of Urechis unicinctus has great significance. But the genome of Urechis unicinctus remains unavailable till now. To further understand the evolution of Urechis unicinctus and determine more effective application of it, we assembled the first draft genome sequence and the assembly of Urechis unicinctus. The dataset can be assessed from the BioProject at NCBI (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/?term=Urechisunicinctus).

15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(4): 1260-1276, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973440

RESUMO

The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis is the best source of natural astaxanthin (AST) in the world due to its high content under stress conditions. Although high light (HL) can effectively induce AST biosynthesis, the specific mechanisms of light signal perception and transduction are unclear. In the current study, we used transcriptomic data of normal (N), high white light (W), and high blue light (B) to study the mechanisms of light inducing AST accumulation from the point of photoreceptors. The original data of 4.0 G, 3.8 G, and 3.6 G for N, W, and B were obtained, respectively, by the Illumina Hi-seq 2000 sequencing technology. Totally, 51 954 unigenes (at least 200 bp in length) were generated, of which, 20 537 unigenes were annotated into at least one database (NR, NT, KO, SwissProt, Pfam, GO, or KOG). There were 1 255 DEGs in the W vs N, 1 494 DEGs in the B vs N, and 1 008 DEGs in the both W vs N and B vs N. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, carotenoid biosynthesis, fatty acids biosynthesis, DNA replication, nitrogen metabolism, and carbon metabolism were the significantly enriched pathways. Moreover, a large number of genes encoding photoreceptors and predicted interacting proteins were predicted in Haematococcus transcriptome data. These genes showed significant differences at transcriptional expression levels. In addition, 15 related DEGs were selected and tested by qRT-PCR and the results were significantly correlated with the transcriptome data. The above results indicate that the signal transduction pathway of "light signal - photoreceptors - interaction proteins - (interaction proteins - transcription factor/transcriptional regulator) - gene expression - AST accumulation" might play important roles in the regulation process, and provide reference for further understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of AST accumulation under HL stress.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Clorófitas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Xantofilas
16.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 673402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041232

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria can acclimate to changing copper and iron concentrations in the environment via metal homeostasis, but a general mechanism for interpreting their dynamic relationships is sparse. In this study, we assessed growth and chlorophyll fluorescence of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and investigated proteomic responses to copper and iron deductions. Results showed that copper and iron exerted reciprocal effect on the growth and photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at combinations of different concentrations. And some proteins involved in the uptake of copper and iron and the photosynthetic electron transport system exhibit Cu-Fe proteomic association. The protein abundance under copper and iron deduction affected the photosynthetic electronic activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and eventually affected the growth and photosynthesis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the Cu-Fe proteomic association of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can be elucidated via the uptake system of outer membrane-periplasmic space-inner plasma membrane-thylakoid membrane, and this association is mainly required to maintain electron transfer. This study provides a broader view regarding the proteomic association between Cu and Fe in cyanobacteria, which will shed light on the role of these two metal elements in cyanobacterial energy metabolism and biomass accumulation.

17.
Data Brief ; 35: 106941, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842678

RESUMO

Urechis unicinctus has a wide range of bioactive polypeptides with high edible, economic and medicinal values. As the key technical breakthrough, the artificial breeding is imperative. However, the seedling transport becomes a primary matter, which indicates the indispensability of realizing how Urechis unicinctus responses to various situations. We compared transcriptome of Urechis unicinctus under the dry and ultraviolet irradiation treatment and different temperature. The dataset of the organism in response to water-temperature variety was provided by using the Illumina Hiseq X Ten system, which will be helpful to understand the adaptation of Urechis unicinctus to changing temperature (low, high and room temperature) and open air (ultraviolet and desiccation). The assembly of the transcriptomes was carried out using the isoform sequencing (Iso-seq) method. The functions of expressed genes were annotated and categorized, while the DEGs were presented.

18.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18338, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846967

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Astrocytes are the largest cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) with numerous functions both physiologically and pathologically. In response to TBI, astrocytes go through a series of alterations referred to as reactive astrogliosis. It is now generally recognized that reactive astrocytes play a dual role in TBI development and tissue repair. Many molecules and signaling pathways have been demonstrated to be involved in the activation of astrocytes, including vital life-supporting substances (such as ATP), regulating hormones (such as gonadal steroids), injury-induced cytokines and chemokines. In this review, we focus on the role of certain specific molecules and related signaling pathways in regulating the activation of astrocytes in TBI. We also discuss the dual role of reactive astrocytes after TBI, which will be critical in the discovery of more appropriate strategies for brain injury treatment.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 281: 116980, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799209

RESUMO

Coastal tourist and industrial cities are most likely to have differential effects on the distance dilution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an estuary system. This study used high-throughput fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify sediment ARGs in two typical estuaries of coastal tourist and industrial cities (Xiamen and Taizhou) in China. The distance dilution of ARGs and its relationship with key environmental factors were analysed. The results indicated that along the river inlet towards the sea, the distance dilution effect on ARG abundance in estuary sediments of Taizhou was approximately double that in Xiamen, and the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) and vancomycin genes were replaced by the fluoroquinolone, quinolone, florfenicol, chloramphenicol, and amphenicol (FCA) and ß-lactam genes in Taizhou, whereas ß-lactam genes succeeded the MLSB and sul genes in Xiamen. The abundance and number of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were positively correlated with the particle size and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of sediments, whereas they were negatively associated with the oxidation and reduction potential (Eh) and pH of sediments, as well as the seawater salinity. The sediment particle size (SPZ) was the dominant physicochemical factor affecting the abundance of ARGs (r = 0.826, p < 0.05) and MGEs (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that although the distance dilution effect on the ARG abundance of estuary sediments of the industrial city is greater than that of the tourist city, the larger SPZ, higher TOC content, and lower salinity, pH, and Eh in estuary regions adjacent to the industrial city can more significantly facilitate the proliferation and propagation of ARGs in the sediments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Estuários , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Cidades , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(1): 301-311, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501810

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global epidemic disease caused by hepatitis B virus that can lead to hepatic failure, even liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The occurrence and development of CHB are closely related to the changes in the gut microbiota communities. To explore the relationship between the structure of gut microbiota and liver biochemical indicators, 14 CHB patients (the CHB group) and 11 healthy people (the CN group) were randomly enrolled in this study. Our results demonstrate that CHB caused changes in the gut microbiota communities and biochemical indicators, such as alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase. Furthermore, CHB induced imbalance of the gut microbiota. Prevotella, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium eligens group, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA were associated with the critical biochemical indicators and liver injury, suggesting a new approach to CHB treatment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Bacteroides , Eubacterium , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática
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