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1.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825295

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including mental time travel (MTT). However, findings on diminished MTT ability may be confounded by a number of factors, including the individuals' language ability, factors related to the MTT task and the demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis of MTT ability in people with ASD. The results showed significant overall reductions in MTT ability in people with ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the variables examined did not explain the reduction in MTT ability. These findings suggest that MTT ability is diminished in people with ASD and that the degree of this diminishment may not depend on the characteristics of measures or demographic variables of people with ASD.

2.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211066282, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841982

RESUMO

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon in which the subjective value of future rewards is reduced over time. There are individual differences in the DD rate, and increased discounting has been observed in those with various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the act of vividly imagining events that may happen in the future. Studies have shown that EFT could reduce DD, although inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy with which EFT reduces DD and to identify potential moderators. Forty-seven studies (including 63 contrasts) were included in the final analysis. EFT was found to significantly reduce DD (Hedges' g =0.52). Moderator analysis showed that positive EFT (g=0.64) was more effective in reducing DD than EFT with the valence not specifically mentioned (g=0.28), and EFT with neutral or negative valence (g=-0.03). In addition, several factors related to the control task and DD task were related to the efficacy of EFT to reduce DD. These findings have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

3.
J Cancer ; 12(13): 3997-4010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093805

RESUMO

Background: Adenosine A1 Receptor (ADORA1) is an adenosine receptor particularly relevant to the immunomodulatory process of malignant tumors. There are growing evidences that dysregulated overexpression of ADORA1 can promote many types of tumorigenesis. However, the expression and prognostic value and mechanism of ADORA1 in thyroid papillary carcinoma have not been reported. Methods: TCGA, ONCOMINE, UALCAN, cBioPortal, GeneMANIA, LinkedOmics, TIMER, GSCALite, TISIDB and EPIC tools were used in this study. Results: ADORA1 was overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to paracancerous tissue. And ADORA1 was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis as well as pathological stage in PTC. ADORA1 had diagnostic and prognostic value for PTC. The functions of ADORA1 co-expressed genes were mainly enriched in immune response, immune response-regulation signaling pathway, regulation of leukocyte activation and cancer-related pathways. Besides, ADORA1 expression was significantly correlated with tumor-infiltrating cells and immune biomarkers in PTC. Finally, the high expression of ADORA1 was sensitive to JW-55 drug. Conclusion: ADORA1 is a diagnostic and a prognostic biomarker for PTC. The expression of ADORA1 is positively correlated with many immunoregulatory factors in PTC.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8394, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863942

RESUMO

Schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, has been found to show impairments in response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether this impairment is accompanied by outright stopping (reactive inhibition) or preparation for stopping (proactive inhibition). We recruited 20 schizotypy and 24 non-schizotypy individuals to perform a modified stop-signal task with electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded. This task consists of three conditions based on the probability of stop signal: 0% (no stop trials, only go trials), 17% (17% stop trials), and 33% (33% stop trials), the conditions were indicated by the colour of go stimuli. For proactive inhibition (go trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly lesser increase in go response time (RT) as the stop signal probability increasing compared to non-schizotypy individuals. Individuals with schizotypy also exhibited significantly increased N1 amplitude on all levels of stop signal probability and increased P3 amplitude in the 17% stop condition compared with non-schizotypy individuals. For reactive inhibition (stop trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly longer stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in both 17% and 33% stop conditions and smaller N2 amplitude on stop trials in the 17% stop condition than non-schizotypy individuals. These findings suggest that individuals with schizotypy were impaired in both proactive and reactive response inhibition at behavioural and neural levels.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Inibição Psicológica , Inibição Proativa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inibição Reativa , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(5): 801-811, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535921

RESUMO

Saccade-induced retrieval enhancement (SIRE) refers to the phenomenon that actively engaging in horizontal eye movements before recall enhances subsequent memory performance. This effect is thought to be the result of interhemispheric interactions stimulated by saccades. An alternative explanation is that saccades promote memory retrieval by improving top-down attention control. Thus, the mechanisms of SIRE are unclear, and the present meta-analysis quantitatively analysed the effect of saccades on memory performance and examined the mechanisms of SIRE. We searched "Web of Science," "PubMed," and "Springer" for peer-reviewed papers using the keywords "eye movements + memory" and "saccades + memory." Twenty-two papers were included in the final analysis. There was a significant facilitation of horizontal saccades on overall memory performance, with a pooled effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.45 (p < .001). However, the overall effect of vertical saccades was not significant (d = 0.1, p = .14). Moderation analysis showed that the handedness of participants was a significant moderator of SIRE, with strongly right-handed individuals benefitting more from horizontal saccades than non-strongly right-handed individuals (p < .01). Horizontal saccades improved memory performance, particularly for strongly right-handed individuals. These results support the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis.


Assuntos
Memória , Movimentos Sacádicos , Movimentos Oculares , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Rememoração Mental
6.
Psych J ; 10(3): 437-443, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594832

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the relationships among clinical insight, subjective memory complaints, and objective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 205 patients with schizophrenia and 221 healthy controls in this study. The participants were administered a subjective-report scale on memory (the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire), and several objective memory tasks measuring verbal memory, visual memory, and working memory. Clinical insight was measured with an item in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We found that when patients with schizophrenia were divided into subgroups with good and poor insight, both subgroups showed impairment in memory performance compared with controls. The schizophrenia patients with good insight reported similar memory complaints as controls whereas patients with poor insight reported less memory complaints than did the controls. These findings suggest that clinical insight may be related to subjective memory complaints, but not objective memory performance.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 27(10): 981-991, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control. METHOD: Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360-530 ms) and conflict SP (600-1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/complicações , Teste de Stroop
8.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the annual incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has increased, with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) identified as the most commonwinwordpathological type accounting for approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases. The tumor microenvironment is known to play a vital role in tumor information transmission and immune detection. METHODS: In the present study, we examined gene expression data from 518 patients with PTC. The ESTIMATE algorithm was used to calculate immune and stromal scores of PTC patients. Based on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, functional enrichment and overall survival analyses, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) was identified as a core gene. We further investigated the roles of core genes of PTC in the tumor immune microenvironment using LinkedOmics, GSEA, and TIMER tools. RESULTS: Immune, stromal and ESTIMATE scores were related to clinicopathological variables of patients with PTC, but not survival outcomes. Eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with survival outcome. In addition, immunochemical staining experiments revealed lower expression of CXCL10 in PTC than paracancerous tissues. GSEA pathway enrichment analysis revealed downregulation of CXCL10 in multiple cancer pathways. CXCL10 and related genes were enriched in pathways related to adaptive immune response, cellular defense response and regulation of innate immune response. CONCLUSION: The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in development of PTC and CXCL10 may serve as a novel target of precision therapy for this patient population.

9.
Psych J ; 9(1): 87-95, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722451

RESUMO

Involuntary mental time travel (MTT) refers to the phenomenon of mentally reliving past experiences or pre-living possible future events in an involuntary form. Few studies have explored involuntary MTT in individuals with schizotypal personality features. The present study aimed to first explore the psychometric properties of the Involuntary Autobiographic Memory Inventory (IAMI) in a Chinese sample (Study 1), and then to explore whether individuals with schizotypal personality features experience involuntary MTT more frequently than individuals without schizotypal features. Moreover, the study explored whether the aberrant frequency of involuntary MTT is correlated with positive schizotypal features (Study 2). The results showed that the IAMI had good structural validity and reliability in a Chinese sample. Individuals with schizotypal traits reported a significantly higher frequency, less positive emotion, and stronger emotional intensity for both involuntary memories and future thoughts compared with individuals without schizotypal features. Further analyses in individuals with schizotypal personality features showed that the frequencies of both involuntary memories and future thoughts were significantly correlated with positive schizotypal traits. These results have potential theoretical and clinical implications for a comprehensive understanding of involuntary MTT among individuals with schizotypal personality features.


Assuntos
Associação Livre , Memória Episódica , Psicometria/normas , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Tempo , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
10.
Conscious Cogn ; 74: 102774, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276909

RESUMO

Mind wandering has consistently been associated with impairments in cognition, emotion and daily performance. However, few experimental studies on mind wandering have been conducted in individuals with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine mind wandering in schizophrenia patients with a thought-sampling experiment embedded in a rapid go/no-go task and the relationship between the frequency of mind wandering and psychotic symptoms. Fifty-eight schizophrenia patients and 56 matched healthy controls were recruited and engaged in a task that assessed mind wandering. The results showed that schizophrenia patients (1.4%) reported less frequent mind wandering than healthy controls (5.8%). Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the frequency of mind wandering and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Further studies in different stages of schizophrenia and in patients with more severe psychotic symptoms are needed to demonstrate a more comprehensive picture of mind wandering in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Schizophr Res ; 206: 378-385, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366712

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of implementation intentions (II) on prospective memory (PM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia has been reported. However, these studies were limited to brief interventions such that the transfer and long-term effects of II training remains unclear. This study examined whether a 10-session II programme could improve PM performance, social functioning and functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia immediately after training and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 42) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to II training (n = 21) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 21). Participants in the II group learned the verbal and imagery component of II and were encouraged to apply these strategies in their daily lives. We found that the II group performed better than the TAU group on computer-based PM tasks and a daily life PM task (telephone call at specified date and time) at post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The II group also exhibited better working ability than the TAU group at post-treatment. Our results suggest that the II intervention programme may have lasting beneficial effects in PM performance and significant transfer effects to functional capacity in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Memória Episódica , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 258: 145-152, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024892

RESUMO

Mental Time Travel (MTT) is the ability of individuals to project themselves to the past or to the future. Studies have shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients are impaired in MTT. The present study aimed to examine whether MTT in patients with SZ can be improved through Life Review Therapy. Fifty patients with SZ were randomly assigned to the training (SZ-training) or control (SZ-control) group. Whereas the SZ-training group received four-week Life Review Therapy in addition to conventional treatment, the SZ-control group only received conventional treatment. MTT, emotional status, life satisfaction and cognitive functions were assessed before and after the training. We also recruited 25 matched healthy controls to complete all the assessments at baseline. After training, the SZ-training group showed higher specificity and more field perspective than the SZ-control group. No significant difference was found between the SZ-training group post-training assessment and the healthy controls. The SZ-training group also showed significant improvements in emotional expression, semantic memory and verbal fluency, but the SZ-control group did not show such improvements. These results indicated that Life Review Therapy is effective in improving MTT of SZ patients.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(3): e371, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25621679

RESUMO

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous, intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. Because of its rarity, little is known about the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of FDG PET/CT in EMPD as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases.We reported a 64-year-old Chinese man who presented with a slowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous lesion with a crusted, eroded, and scaly surface involving multiple sites of penis, scrotum, left pelvic wall, hip, groin, and thigh for >4 years, which became extensive in the past 1 year. He was referred for an FDG PET/CT examination to further evaluate the lesions. A following skin biopsy was performed to obtain a definitive histological diagnosis.FDG PET/CT imaging revealed mild FDG uptake at the extensive cutaneous lesion with subcutaneous invasion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple intense FDG-avid of skeletal metastases. According to the appearance of FDG PET/CT, a provisional diagnosis of advanced cutaneous malignancy was made. Histopathology findings indicated characteristic of EMPD. The patient was treated with radiation therapy and died from complications 2 months after the last dose of radiotherapy.Our case highlighted that a whole-body FDG PET/CT should be incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of EMPD to give a comprehensive assessment of this disease.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Paget Extramamária/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Evolução Fatal , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Virilha , Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/radioterapia , Doença de Paget Extramamária/radioterapia , Pênis , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia , Escroto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Coxa da Perna , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 39(8): 762-4, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24978331

RESUMO

Primary anorectal melanoma is an extremely rare, aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. A 76-year-old man with a 2-month history of rectal bleeding, anal pain, and tenesmus was referred for an F-FDG PET/CT examination, which revealed an abnormal focal FDG uptake on the lower rectum with multiple other intense FDG-avid regions in locoregional pelvic lymph nodes, bones, liver, and lung. It was highly suggestive of malignancy, and a provisional diagnosis of advanced rectal carcinoma was made. However, a following tissue biopsy of the lesion on the lower rectum performed by colonoscopy histopathologically indicated primary anorectal melanoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Carcinoma/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
15.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 38(6): 414-7, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19781350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish differential proteomics profiles of glioblastoma cell lines from Chinese, and to provide reference for future basic studies. METHODS: Total protein was extracted from 3 glioblastoma cell lines, CHG-5, TJ899 and TJ905. After normalization, the total protein was presented by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, scanned and analyzed. Some of the identified protein spots were verified by immunocytochemistry of cell lines and immunohistochemistry of solid tumors. The glia cells were used as the control throughout the study. RESULTS: A total of 13 differential protein spots were selected, and eventually 10 were identified as unique proteins. These 10 proteins were involved in cytoskeleton forming, cellular metabolism, tumor migration, stress and inflammatory reaction. Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry further confirmed these proteins present in the solid tumors. CONCLUSION: Distinct differential proteomics profiles exist in glioblastoma cell lines and normal glia cells, likely related to the transformation of normal glia to glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma , Proteômica/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo
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