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2.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 287-290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065061

RESUMO

Clostridium botulinum is an important pathogen that causes botulism in humans and animals worldwide. C. botulinum group III strains, which produce a single toxin of type C or D or a chimeric toxin of type C/D or D/C, are responsible for botulism in a wide range of animal species including cattle and birds. We used unbiased high-throughput RNA sequencing (i.e., metatranscriptomics) to identify a strain of group III C. botulinum from a deceased Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus). The strain was closely related to some European strains. Genetic analysis of the recovered bacterial sequences showed that the C. botulinum strain identified might represent a type C/D strain of group III. Infection by C. botulinum producing the mosaic toxin of type C/D is the most likely cause of the death of the wild ass.

3.
Nature ; 540(7634): 539-543, 2016 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27880757

RESUMO

Current knowledge of RNA virus biodiversity is both biased and fragmentary, reflecting a focus on culturable or disease-causing agents. Here we profile the transcriptomes of over 220 invertebrate species sampled across nine animal phyla and report the discovery of 1,445 RNA viruses, including some that are sufficiently divergent to comprise new families. The identified viruses fill major gaps in the RNA virus phylogeny and reveal an evolutionary history that is characterized by both host switching and co-divergence. The invertebrate virome also reveals remarkable genomic flexibility that includes frequent recombination, lateral gene transfer among viruses and hosts, gene gain and loss, and complex genomic rearrangements. Together, these data present a view of the RNA virosphere that is more phylogenetically and genomically diverse than that depicted in current classification schemes and provide a more solid foundation for studies in virus ecology and evolution.

4.
J Virol ; 90(2): 659-69, 2016 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26491167

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Viruses of the family Flaviviridae are important pathogens of humans and other animals and are currently classified into four genera. To better understand their diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic flexibility, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to search for the viruses related to the Flaviviridae in a range of potential invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Accordingly, we recovered the full genomes of five segmented jingmenviruses and 12 distant relatives of the known Flaviviridae ("flavi-like" viruses) from a range of arthropod species. Although these viruses are highly divergent, they share a similar genomic plan and common ancestry with the Flaviviridae in the NS3 and NS5 regions. Remarkably, although these viruses fill in major gaps in the phylogenetic diversity of the Flaviviridae, genomic comparisons reveal important changes in genome structure, genome size, and replication/gene regulation strategy during evolutionary history. In addition, the wide diversity of flavi-like viruses found in invertebrates, as well as their deep phylogenetic positions, suggests that they may represent the ancestral forms from which the vertebrate-infecting viruses evolved. For the vertebrate viruses, we expanded the previously mammal-only pegivirus-hepacivirus group to include a virus from the graceful catshark (Proscyllium habereri), which in turn implies that these viruses possess a larger host range than is currently known. In sum, our data show that the Flaviviridae infect a far wider range of hosts and exhibit greater diversity in genome structure than previously anticipated. IMPORTANCE: The family Flaviviridae of RNA viruses contains several notorious human pathogens, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, and hepatitis C virus. To date, however, our understanding of the biodiversity and evolution of the Flaviviridae has largely been directed toward vertebrate hosts and their blood-feeding arthropod vectors. Therefore, we investigated an expanded group of potential arthropod and vertebrate host species that have generally been ignored by surveillance programs. Remarkably, these species contained diverse flaviviruses and related viruses that are characterized by major changes in genome size and genome structure, such that these traits are more flexible than previously thought. More generally, these data suggest that arthropods may be the ultimate reservoir of the Flaviviridae and related viruses, harboring considerable genetic and phenotypic diversity. In sum, this study revises the traditional view on the evolutionary history, host range, and genomic structures of a major group of RNA viruses.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Flaviviridae/classificação , Flaviviridae/genética , Variação Genética , Vertebrados/virologia , Animais , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Flaviviridae/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Filogenia , Sintenia
5.
Elife ; 42015 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25633976

RESUMO

Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/virologia , Biodiversidade , Genoma , Vírus de RNA/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(18): 6744-9, 2014 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24753611

RESUMO

Although segmented and unsegmented RNA viruses are commonplace, the evolutionary links between these two very different forms of genome organization are unclear. We report the discovery and characterization of a tick-borne virus--Jingmen tick virus (JMTV)--that reveals an unexpected connection between segmented and unsegmented RNA viruses. The JMTV genome comprises four segments, two of which are related to the nonstructural protein genes of the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae), whereas the remaining segments are unique to this virus, have no known homologs, and contain a number of features indicative of structural protein genes. Remarkably, homology searching revealed that sequences related to JMTV were present in the cDNA library from Toxocara canis (dog roundworm; Nematoda), and that shared strong sequence and structural resemblances. Epidemiological studies showed that JMTV is distributed in tick populations across China, especially Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis spp., and experiences frequent host-switching and genomic reassortment. To our knowledge, JMTV is the first example of a segmented RNA virus with a genome derived in part from unsegmented viral ancestors.


Assuntos
Flaviviridae/genética , Genoma Viral , Carrapatos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , China , DNA Viral/genética , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Flaviviridae/classificação , Flaviviridae/ultraestrutura , Flavivirus/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteômica , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/ultraestrutura , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e89896, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24587107

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic fevers (HF) caused by viruses and bacteria are a major public health problem in China and characterized by variable clinical manifestations, such that it is often difficult to achieve accurate diagnosis and treatment. The causes of HF in 85 patients admitted to Dandong hospital, China, between 2011-2012 were determined by serological and PCR tests. Of these, 34 patients were diagnosed with Huaiyangshan hemorrhagic fever (HYSHF), 34 with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), one with murine typhus, and one with scrub typhus. Etiologic agents could not be determined in the 15 remaining patients. Phylogenetic analyses of recovered bacterial and viral sequences revealed that the causative infectious agents were closely related to those described in other geographical regions. As these diseases have no distinctive clinical features in their early stage, only 13 patients were initially accurately diagnosed. The distinctive clinical features of HFRS and HYSHF developed during disease progression. Enlarged lymph nodes, cough, sputum, and diarrhea were more common in HYSHF patients, while more HFRS cases presented with headache, sore throat, oliguria, percussion pain kidney area, and petechiae. Additionally, HYSHF patients displayed significantly lower levels of white blood cells (WBC), higher levels of creations kinase (CK) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while HFRS patients presented with an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CREA). These clinical features will assist in the accurate diagnosis of both HYSHF and HFRS. Overall, our data reveal the complexity of pathogens causing HFs in a single Chinese hospital, and highlight the need for accurate early diagnosis and a better understanding of their distinctive clinical features.


Assuntos
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/diagnóstico , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , China/epidemiologia , Equimose/patologia , Feminino , Febre , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/etiologia , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/terapia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Contagem de Plaquetas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Resultado do Tratamento , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
8.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 4(4): 288-96, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23538111

RESUMO

Over the past several years, there was a substantial increase in the number of cases of known and novel tick-borne infections in humans in China. To better understand the ticks associated with these infections, we collected hard ticks from animals or around livestock shelters in 29 localities in 5 provinces (Beijing, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang) where cases of tick-borne illness were reported. We collected 2950 hard ticks representing 7 species of 4 genera (Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes granulatus, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). These ticks were identified to species using morphological characters initially. We then sequenced the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12S rRNA) gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) gene of these ticks, and conducted phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses showed that the molecular and morphological data are consistent in the identification of the 7 tick species. Furthermore, all these 7 tick species from China were genetically closely related to the same species or related species found outside China. Rapid and accurate identification and long-term monitoring of these ticks will be of significance to the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases in China.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/genética , Animais , China , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/fisiologia
9.
J Gen Virol ; 93(Pt 5): 1017-1022, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22258864

RESUMO

To better understand the pathogenicity and infectivity of a natural reassortant CGRn9415 generated from Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus (SEOV), CGRn9415, HTNV 76-118 and SEOV L99 were used to infect newborn Kunming (KM) mice and newborn Wistar rats. In KM mice, there was no statistical difference between the death rate with CGRn9415 and that of L99, while 76-118 killed all mice even at low dosage; CGRn9415 killed all infected rats similar to L99 at the dosage of 10(5) f.f.u., while no death occurred in rats infected with 76-118 even as high as 2 × 10(5) f.f.u., suggesting that the reassortant CGRn9415 possesses similar pathogenicity as L99. Furthermore, the reassortant CGRn9415 could establish a persistent infection in both KM mice and Wistar rats more easily than 76-118 or L99. These data suggest that the reassorted hantavirus behaves more like SEOV as far as the pathogenicity is concerned.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Vírus Hantaan/patogenicidade , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Vírus Seoul/patogenicidade , Animais , Vírus Hantaan/genética , Vírus Hantaan/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/mortalidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Seoul/genética , Vírus Seoul/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 54(4): 527-33, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22144540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever-like illness caused by a novel Bunyavirus, Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV, also known as Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia virus [SFTSV] and Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome [FTLS]), has recently been described in China. METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed HYSV infection who were admitted to Union Hospital or Zhongnan Hospital between April 2010 and October 2010 were included in this study. Clinical and routine laboratory data were collected and blood, throat swab, urine, or feces were obtained when possible. Viral RNA was quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Blood levels of a range of cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins were assayed. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients with hemorrhagic fever caused by HYSV were included; 8 (16.3%) patients died. A fatal outcome was associated with high viral RNA load in blood at admission, as well as higher serum liver transaminase levels, more pronounced coagulation disturbances (activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time), and higher levels of acute phase proteins (phospholipase A, fibrinogen, hepcidin), cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, interferon-γ), and chemokines (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1b). The levels of these host parameters correlated with viral RNA levels. Blood viral RNA levels gradually declined over 3-4 weeks after illness onset, accompanied by resolution of symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. Viral RNA was also detectable in throat, urine, and fecal specimens of a substantial proportion of patients, including all fatal cases assayed. CONCLUSIONS. Viral replication and host immune responses play an important role in determining the severity and clinical outcome in patients with infection by HYSV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/mortalidade , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/diagnóstico , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/mortalidade , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Sangue/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/epidemiologia , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Urina/virologia , Carga Viral
11.
J Virol ; 86(5): 2864-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22190717

RESUMO

Surveys were carried out to better understand the tick vector ecology and genetic diversity of Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) in both regions of endemicity and regions of nonendemicity. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were dominant in regions of endemicity, while Rhipicephalus microplus is more abundant in regions of nonendemicity. HYSV RNA was found in human and both tick species, with greater prevalence in H. longicornis and lesser prevalence in R. microplus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that HYSV is a novel species of the genus Phlebovirus.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Bunyaviridae/classificação , Bunyaviridae/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Rhipicephalus/virologia , Animais , Bunyaviridae/isolamento & purificação , China , Ecossistema , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
12.
J Sex Med ; 8(10): 2761-72, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21967314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Icariin has been shown to improve penile hemodynamics in animal models of erectile dysfunction from cavernous nerve injury and castration. The effects of icariin on penile hemodynamics in diabetic animals remain to be determined. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related erectile dysfunction. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of icariin in the penis of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. METHODS: Two-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats received one-time intraperitoneal (IP) STZ (60 mg/kg) or vehicle injection after a 16-hour fast. Three days later, the STZ-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups and were treated with daily gavage feedings of a 50:50 mix of normal saline and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or icariin dissolved in DMSO at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg for 3 months. A positive control group underwent IP injection of saline followed by daily gavage of saline/DMSO solution. Treatment was stopped 1 week prior to functional assay and euthanasia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Penile hemodynamics was assessed by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerves with real-time intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement. After euthanasia, penile tissue was studied using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) and TGFß1/Smad2 signaling pathway. RESULTS: Diabetes attenuated ICP response in control animals. Untreated diabetic animals had decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio and endothelial cell content in the corpora cavernosa; treatment with icariin partially attenuating these effects. Icariin-treated animals also had a significantly greater expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-positive nerves and the endothelial cell markers, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM). TGFß1/Smad2 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the penis from icariin-treated models relative to what was observed in negative control animals. CONCLUSION: Icariin treatment preserved penile hemodynamics, smooth muscle and endothelial integrity, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis of diabetic rats. Down-regulation of TGFß1/Smad2 signaling pathway might mediate this effect.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Western Blotting , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Imunofluorescência , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/química , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/análise , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/irrigação sanguínea , Pênis/química , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/análise
13.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 43(4): 500-4, 2011 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21844953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of icariin and icariside II on eNOS expression and NOS activity in endothelial cells and possible mechanisms using EGFR over-expressed porcine aorta endothelial (PAE) cell line. METHODS: The EGFR gene was transfected into PAE cells and genetic stable cell line (PAE-EGFR) was selected. 12.5 µmol/L of icariin and of icariside II were used to treat the PAE and PAE-EGFR cells respectively for 48 h, the eNOS expression in each group was observed. EGF was also used to treat the cells to observe the regulatory effects of icariin and icariside II on NOS activity. The regulatory effects of icariin and icariside II on NOS activity were also observed, and sildenafil was used as a control. RESULTS: Western blot showed that the basic value of eNOS expression was higher in PAE-EGFR group compared with that in PAE group, both of icariin and icariside II increased the eNOS expression in PAE and PAE-EGFR group (P<0.01), and the value of eNOS expression was higher in PAE-EGFR group than that in PAE group. In the PAE-EGFR cell line, the NOS activity reached (15.37 ± 1.49) u/mg when the concentration of icariside II was 10(-8) mol/L, which was 4.66 u/mg more than that in the PAE cell line. When the concentration reached 10(-7), 10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L, the change of NOS activity in PAE-EGFR group was greater than that in PAE group (P<0.01). icariin also increased the NOS activity in PAE and PAE-EGFR cells, but the activity was 20% lower compared with icariside II group, however, Sildenafil showed no influence on NOS activity. CONCLUSION: Icariin and icariside II may increase the eNOS expression through activating EGF-EGFR pathway in PAE cell, by which endothelial cells function could be regulated and the better effect was noted in icariside II compared to icariin.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 32(6): 608-12, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21781482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method combined morphology and molecular marker for identifying Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus microplus. METHODS: Ticks were collected from domestic animals and wild environment in epidemic area of Hubei and Henan provinces where cases of fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome were prevalent. We classified the ticks by morphology characteristics before 12S rDNA of ticks were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by PAUP4.0. RESULTS: The ticks belonged to Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus microplus through observation and analysed by the morphological characteristics of the ticks. 12S rDNA was cloned and sequenced while data confirmed the morphological identification of the results. CONCLUSION: The method based on morphology that combined with molecular marker seemed a good method for the identification of ticks.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/genética , Rhipicephalus/anatomia & histologia , Rhipicephalus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Ribossômico , Ixodidae/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 32(3): 209-20, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21457654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From April to July in 2009 and 2010, unexplained severe hemorrhagic fever-like illnesses occurred in farmers from the Huaiyangshan mountains range. METHODS: Clinical specimens (blood, urine, feces, and throat swabs) from suspected patients were obtained and stored. Mosquitoes and ticks in affected regions were collected. Virus was isolated from 2 patients and characterized by whole genome sequencing. Virus detection in additional patients and arthropods was done by virus-specific reverse transcription (RT) PCR. Clinical and epidemiological data of RT-PCR confirmed patients were analyzed. RESULTS: An unknown virus was isolated from blood of two patients and from Haemaphysalis ticks collected from dogs. Whole genome sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel member of the family Bunyaviridae, most closely related to the viruses of the genus Phlebovirus within which it forms a separate lineage. Subsequently, infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 33 of 58 suspected patients. The illness in these patients was characterized by fever, severe malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Prominent laboratory findings included low white cell- and platelet counts, coagulation disturbances, and elevation of liver enzymes. Hemorrhagic complications were observed in 3 cases, 5 (15%) patients died. CONCLUSIONS: A novel tick-borne Bunyavirus causing life-threatening hemorrhagic fever in humans has emerged in the Huaiyangshan mountain areas of China. Further studies are needed to determine the epidemiology, geographic distribution and vertebrate animal ecology of this virus.


Assuntos
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/epidemiologia , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Carrapatos/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , RNA Viral/genética
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 31(3): 300-3, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20510058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the epidemiology of rabies during the past ten years in Yancheng city, Jiangsu province. METHODS: Data was collected and analyzed on rabies cases in Yancheng. Density and vaccination rate on Canine, Rate of injured people bit by dogs, and the information of post-exposure prophylaxis were studied. Rabies virus in the dog brains, collected around the epidemic areas of Yancheng, were detected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 135 human rabies cases occurred from 1999 through 2008, and formed the second epidemic peak since 1958. Of these victims, 84% (114) were farmers. In general, the rate of people having dogs were 3% - 6% per 100 people, and the injured person-times of 100 dogs were 6.37 per year. Notably, the vaccination rate of dogs was only 20%. Of those people injured by dogs and other animals, 77% had received post-exposure treatment, and only 5% - 10% had been administered anti-rabies serum. Rabies virus antigen was found in 4 (3.6%) of 111 brain specimens among dogs collected from epidemic areas. Genetic analysis of N and G genes, which were amplified from brain specimens, indicated that these viruses belong to genotype I rabies and expressing a close relationship with the Chinese vaccine strain CTN. CONCLUSION: The large number of dogs with low vaccination rate among them, together with the incorrect and low post-exposure treatment in rural areas seemed to be responsible for the outbreak of rabies in Yancheng city.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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