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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073048

RESUMO

We report an intracellular imaging and assay nanoplatform for RNase A using a DNA tetrahedron-based fluorescent probe as a substrate. Importantly, a natural compound was used as an RNase A activity stimulator to improve the sensitivity. This platform provides an alternative for the diagnosis and prognosis of RNase A-related diseases and drug screening.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(7): 7931-7941, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003218

RESUMO

Multicellular spheroids can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and maintain the unique functions of tissues, which has attracted great attention in tissue engineering. However, the traditional culture microenvironment with structural deficiencies complicates the culture and collection process and tends to lose the function of multicellular spheroids with the increase of cell passage. In order to construct efficient and functional multicellular spheroids, in this study, a chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber sponge which has an open-cell cellular structure is obtained. The hair follicle (HF) regeneration model was employed to evaluate HF-inducing ability of dermal papilla (DP) multicellular spheroids which formed on the cellular structure nanofiber sponge. Through structural fine-tuning, the nanofiber sponge has appropriate elasticity for the creation of a three-dimensional dynamic microenvironment to regulate cellular behavior. The cellular structure nanofiber sponge tilts the balance of cell-substratum and cell-cell interactions to a state which is more conducive to the formation of controllable multicellular spheroids in a short time. More importantly, it improves the secretory activity of high-passaged dermal papilla cells and restores their intrinsic properties. Experiments using BALB/c nude mice show that cultured DP multicellular spheroids could effectively enhance HF-inducing ability. This novel system provides a simple and efficient strategy for multicellular spheroid formation and HF regeneration.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061752

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a big problem in cancer treatment and one of the most prominent mechanisms underlain is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, particularly ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Inhibition of ABC transporters is an important approach to overcome drug resistance. The inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), an arm of unfolded protein response (UPR), splices XBP1 mRNA to generate an active transcription factor XBP1s. UPR is implicated in drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We found that the anticancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) activated the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway to induce the expression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of IRE1α RNase activity with small molecule 4µ8c suppressed the drug-induced expression of these ABC transporters and sensitized 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells to drug treatment. In vivo xenograft assay indicates that administration of 4µ8C substantially enhanced the efficacy of 5-FU chemotherapy on 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells. These results suggest that IRE1α-targeting might be a strategy to cope with drug resistance of colon cancer.

4.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO), and to determine if PFO could delay degeneration of the medial compartment of the knee joint in a mouse model. METHODS: An animal model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) was used to induce post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). PFO was performed to examine the effectiveness of PFO on protection against medial compartment knee OA. Micro-CT was used to observe osteosclerosis development in the subchondral bone, and Safranin O-fast green staining was used to evaluate the progression of articular cartilage destruction. The condylar-plateau angle (CPA) and anatomical femorotibial angle (aFTA) were measured to determine whether knee alignment was changed after PFO. RESULTS: PFO treatment could decrease osteophyte formation and osteosclerosis development in the subchondral bone, as observed by micro-CT. The value of the ratio of trabecular bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) of DMM+PFO group was lower than that of DMM group. PFO also inhibited the progression of articular cartilage destruction. DMM + PFO group displayed decreased maximal and summed OA scores, as compared with DMM group. Moreover, the change of knee alignment was reduced by PFO, which might be the mechanism of PFO alleviating medial compartment knee OA. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that PFO could alleviate medial compartment knee OA in a mouse model.

5.
Ultrasonics ; 103: 106102, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078844

RESUMO

Aluminum honeycomb has been widely used in many industrial fields, especially the aeronautics and aerospace industries, owing to its high strength and stiffness to weight ratio. Machining of aluminum honeycomb is usually associated with deformations and burrs. Ultrasonic cutting has been introduced as a promising method to overcome these constraints. In order to conduct in-depth research on the ultrasonic cutting for aluminum honeycomb by disc cutter, a 3D finite element model is carried out and verification tests are performed. Comparison result of simulated and experimental cutting forces indicates that the developed model agrees well with the experiment. Based on the developed model, cutting forces and contact relationship between cutter and honeycomb during the cutting process are studied. The reason for the periodic increase in cutting force is analyzed, subsequently. Moreover, the stress distribution in the cutting zone and honeycomb morphologies under different cutting conditions are compared and analyzed. Results show that the hexagonal structure of aluminum honeycomb can be protected and machining quality can be improved by using ultrasonic vibration. Therefore, high quality and efficient machining for aluminum honeycomb can be achieved.

6.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959916

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelia self-renew constantly and generate differentiated cells such as secretary goblet cells. The intestine goblet cells secrete gel-forming mucins that form mucus to create a barrier of defense. We reported previously that loss of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 3 led to disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier function. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that PHD3 controls the generation of intestine goblet cell. We found that genetic ablation of Phd3 in mice intestine epithelial cells reduced the amount of goblet cells. Mechanistically, PHD3 bounds the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 and prevented HUWE1 from mediating ubiquitination and degradation of ATOH1, an essential driver for goblet cell differentiation. The prolyl hydroxylase activity-deficient variant PHD3(H196A) also prevented ATOH1 destruction. A genetic intestine epithelial PHD3(H196A)-knockin had no effect on ATOH1 expression or goblet cell amount in mice, suggesting that the PHD3 prolyl hydroxylase activity is dispensable for its ability to control ATOH1 expression and goblet cell generation. In dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis, PHD3-knockout rather than PHD3(H196A)-knockin sensitized the mice to DSS treatment. Our results reveal an additional critical mechanism underlying the regulation of ATOH1 expression and goblet cell generation and highlight that PHD3 plays a role in controlling intestine goblet cell generation in a hydroxylase-independent manner.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 30, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotiana tabacum is an important economic crop. Topping, a common agricultural practice employed with flue-cured tobacco, is designed to increase leaf nicotine contents by increasing nicotine biosynthesis in roots. Many genes are found to be differentially expressed in response to topping, particularly genes involved in nicotine biosynthesis, but comprehensive analyses of early transcriptional responses induced by topping are not yet available. To develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms regulating nicotine biosynthesis after topping, we have sequenced the transcriptomes of Nicotiana tabacum roots at seven time points following topping. RESULTS: Differential expression analysis revealed that 4830 genes responded to topping across all time points. Amongst these, nine gene families involved in nicotine biosynthesis and two gene families involved in nicotine transport showed significant changes during the immediate 24 h period following topping. No obvious preference to the parental species was detected in the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Significant changes in transcript levels of nine genes involved in nicotine biosynthesis and phytohormone signal transduction were validated by qRT-PCR assays. 549 genes encoding transcription factors (TFs), found to exhibit significant changes in gene expression after topping, formed 15 clusters based on similarities of their transcript level time-course profiles. 336 DEGs involved in phytohormone signal transduction, including genes functionally related to the phytohormones jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, ethylene, and gibberellin, were identified at the earliest time point after topping. CONCLUSIONS: Our research provides the first detailed analysis of the early transcriptional responses to topping in N. tabacum, and identifies excellent candidates for further detailed studies concerning the regulation of nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco roots.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(8): 1219-1222, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895373

RESUMO

To monitor delicate changes of biological HOCl in vivo, a new probe (OH-substituted coumarin-hemicyanine, probe 2) was synthesized for NIR and ratiometric HOCl detection. Selectivity studies indicated that the electron-donating group (OH) substituted on the indolium moiety enhanced the selectivity to detect HOCl. With HOCl, the probe showed a ratiometric fluorescence (I500/I650) with a low detection limit (49.1 nM) and a rapid response (within 2 min). In addition, probe 2 was successfully applied to visualize exogenous and endogenous HOCl in living cells and animals and exhibited a perfect mitochondria target ability. This probe has been further studied as a potential and powerful tool to probe HOCl in arthritis models.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/análise , Indóis/química , Animais , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Artrite/diagnóstico , Carragenina , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/toxicidade , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(3): 267-275, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoprevention of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer remains an important public health goal. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical potential and safety of berberine for prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in seven hospital centres across six provinces in China. Individuals aged 18-75 years who had at least one but no more than six histologically confirmed colorectal adenomas that had undergone complete polypectomy within the 6 months before recruitment were recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive berberine (0·3 g twice daily) or placebo tablets via block randomisation (block size of six). Participants were to undergo a first follow-up colonoscopy 1 year after enrolment, and if no colorectal adenomas were detected, a second follow-up colonoscopy at 2 years was planned. The study continued until the last enrolled participant reached the 2-year follow-up point. All participants, investigators, endoscopists, and pathologists were blinded to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the recurrence of adenomas at any follow-up colonoscopy. Analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat, with the full analysis set including all randomised participants who received at least one dose of study medication and who had available efficacy data. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02226185; the trial has ended and this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Nov 14, 2014, and Dec 30, 2016, 553 participants were randomly assigned to the berberine group and 555 to the placebo group. The full analysis set consisted of 429 participants in the berberine group and 462 in the placebo group. 155 (36%) participants in the berberine group and 216 (47%) in the placebo group were found to have recurrent adenoma during follow-up (unadjusted relative risk ratio for recurrence 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91; p=0·001). No colorectal cancers were detected during follow-up. The most common adverse event was constipation (six [1%] of 446 patients in the berberine group vs one [<0·5%] of 478 in the placebo group). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Berberine 0·3 g twice daily was safe and effective in reducing the risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma and could be an option for chemoprevention after polypectomy. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

10.
Anal Chem ; 92(2): 1988-1996, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802668

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) levels are closely related to the homeostasis of redox state which directly affects human disease occurrence by regulating cell apoptosis. Hence, real-time monitoring of dynamic changes in intracellular GSH levels is urgently needed for disease early diagnosis and evaluation of therapy efficiency. In this study, an endogenous cysteine (Cys)-assisted detection system based on GSH@AgNCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with high sensitivity and specificity was developed for GSH detection. Compared with GSH, GSH@AgNCs with weaker affinity and bonding force was quite easier to extrude from the rGO surface when competing against GSH, leading to the obvious change in fluorescence signal. This phenomenon was termed as "a crowding out effect". Furthermore, the presence of Cys can improve GSH assay sensitivity by enhancing the quenching efficiency of rGO on the GSH@AgNCs. In vitro assay indicated that the efficiency of fluorescence recovery was positively related with GSH concentration in the range from 0 to 10 mM. In addition, the method was employed for real-time monitoring of the dynamic changes in GSH levels regulated by natural drugs. The imaging results showed that the natural compound 3 (C3) can downregulate GSH levels in HepG2 cells, which was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and apoptosis induction. Finally, the method was used to monitor the change of GSH levels in serum samples with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The results demonstrated that the occurrence and development of CHB may be positively correlated with GSH levels to some extent. Overall, the above results demonstrate the potential application of this new nanosystem in anticancer natural drug screening and clinical assay regarding GSH levels.

11.
Mol Immunol ; 118: 19-29, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837507

RESUMO

The role of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg) in the control of the immune tolerance of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been well defined. Therefore, we separate the phenotypically heterogeneous Treg cells into different subsets based on the expression of FOXP3 and CD45RA during AAV pathogenesis. Fifty-four AAV patients (38 patients with renal involvement) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. Levels of CD4+T cell subsets and cytokines were detected by flow cytometry. Treg immunesuppression capacity was measured in co-culture experiments. The diagnostic value for Treg subsets was evaluated by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Patients with AAV had lower percentages and numbers of activated Treg cells (aTreg, P = 0.044, P = 0.002), while higher levels of total Treg cells (P = 0.001, P = 0.026) with diminished immunosuppression capacity. The proportions of effector memory T-cell subpopulation (P < 0.001) were increased in AAV patients. Interestingly, the AUC of the aTreg improved significantly the diagnostic potential of AAV. Furthermore, the ratio of Th17/aTreg was significantly increased in active and renal vasculitis patient and positive correlation between Th17/Treg subset ratio and creatinine or BUN. In addition, we found that cytokine IL-2 and IL-4 exhibited a downward while IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A trend upward in AAV patients. Increase in total Treg levels, along with functional deficiency, and decrease in aTreg cells constitute potential novel biomarkers for AAV. And the ratio of Th17/aTreg might serve as an important tool to recognize and monitor AAV patients with renal involvement and disease remission.

12.
J Immunol ; 204(3): 622-631, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871020

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) can internalize and cross-present exogenous Ags to CD8+ T cells for pathogen or tumor cell elimination. Recently, growing evidences suggest the possible immunoregulatory role of flavonoids through modulating the Ag presentation of DCs. In this study, we report that naringenin, a grapefruit-derived flavonoid, possesses the ability to increase the Ag cross-presentation in both murine DC line DC2.4 as well as bone marrow-derived DCs, and naringenin-induced moderate intracellular oxidative stress that contributed to the disruption of lysosomal membrane enhanced Ag leakage to cytosol and cross-presentation. Moreover, in a murine colon adenocarcinoma model, naringenin induced more CD103+ DCs infiltration into tumor and facilitated the activation of CD8+ T cells and strengthened the performance of therapeutic E7 vaccine against TC-1 murine lung cancer. Our investigations may inspire novel thoughts for vaccine design and open a new field of potential applications of flavonoids as immunomodulators to improve host protection against infection and tumor.

13.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 147: 76-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887349

RESUMO

Although nanoparticle vaccine is one of the promising therapeutic vaccines against cancers and many chronic infections, induction of strong and long-lasting antigen specific T cell response has still remained many challenges. A major challenge in achieving a robust CD8+ T cell response is the requirement of spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells with innate stimulation. CD8α+ DCs are specialized for cross presentation and critical for cytotoxic T cell responses, which locate in the deeper paracortex of lymph nodes (LNs) in mice. However, due to size exclusion of compartmentalized network in LNs, nanoparticles with a radius of larger than 5 nm are difficult to access to the CD8α+ DCs. Here, we showed that polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles had an extensive contact with the resident CD8α+ DCs in LNs and delivered more OVA peptides than their free form to these DCs. Meanwhile, successfully delivering antigens into the CD8α+ DCs resulted in the increased cross presentation of antigens and the enhanced generation of effector CD8+ T cell. Our findings further demonstrated the critical role of CD8α+ DCs in cytotoxic T cell immunity in response to PEG-PE micelle-based vaccine, and also provided a valuable approach to generate T cell-mediated immune response.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 683-690, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286522

RESUMO

tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs), important components of tRNA-derived fragments, are gaining popularity for their functions as small noncoding RNAs involved in cancer progression. Under cellular stress, tiRNAs are generated when mature tRNA is specifically cleaved by angiogenin and suggested to act as transducers or effectors involved in cellular stress responses. tiRNAs facilitate cells to respond to stresses mainly via reprogramming translation, inhibiting apoptosis, degrading mRNA, and generating stress granules. This review introduces the cellular biogenesis, molecular mechanisms, and biological roles of tiRNAs in stress response and disease regulation. A better understanding of their roles in regulating cancer may provide novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets for diagnosis and treatment.

15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 540, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dodder (Cuscuta spp., Convolvulaceae) species are obligate leaf- and rootless parasites that totally depend on hosts to survive. Dodders naturally graft themselves to host stems to form vascular fusion, from which they obtain nutrients and water. In addition, dodders and their hosts also exchange various other molecules, including proteins, mRNAs, and small RNAs. It is very likely that vascular fusion also allows inter-plant translocation of systemic signals between dodders and host plants and these systemic signals may have profound impacts on the physiology of dodder and host plants. Herbivory is a common biotic stress for plants. When a dodder parasite is attacked by lepidopteran insects, how dodder responds to caterpillar feeding and whether there are inter-plant communications between the host plants and the parasites is still poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, wild-type (WT) tobacco and a tobacco line in which jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was silenced (AOC-RNAi) were used as the hosts, and the responses of dodders and their host plants to herbivory by Spodoptera litura caterpillars on the dodders were investigated. It was found that after caterpillar attack, dodders grown on AOC-RNAi tobacco showed much a smaller number of differentially expressed genes, although the genotypes of the tobacco plants did not have an effect on the simulated S. litura feeding-induced JA accumulation in dodders. We further show that S. litura herbivory on dodder also led to large changes in transcriptome and defensive metabolites in the host tobacco, leading to enhanced resistance to S. litura, and the JA pathway of tobacco host is critical for these systemic responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that during caterpillar attack on dodder, the JA pathway of host plant is required for the proper transcriptomic responses of both dodder and host plants. This study highlights the importance of the host JA pathway in regulating the inter-plant systemic signaling between dodder and hosts.

16.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 457, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a well-known male-predominant inflammatory disease. This study aimed to assess the gender disparity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in AS patients in China. METHODS: AS patients were retrospectively studied at Peking Union Medical College hospital between January 2002 and June 2018. RESULTS: Among 616 patients with AS, 154 (25.0%) patients had CKD (age, 41.8 ± 14.2 years; male:female, 3.2:1). Overall, 80 (13.0%) patients had only microscopic hematuria, 62 (10.1%) had proteinuria with or without hematuria, and 33 (5.4%) exhibited a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Male CKD patients had more frequent proteinuria (p < 0.01), less microscopic hematuria only (p < 0.01), and lower eGFR (p = 0.04) compared with females. CKD was independently associated with hyperuricemia and total cholesterol in females, and with hyperuricemia, hypertension, and serum albumin in males. After follow-up for 1-7 years, five patients required renal replacement therapy including two patients who were already at stage 5 CKD when enrolled and three patients whose creatinine doubled. One patient died in the male group. No patients in the female group showed progression of renal dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: CKD is a common comorbidity in patients with AS. Male patients are more likely to develop severe manifestations compared with female patients. Hyperuricemia was a strong independent risk factor for CKD in both genders, while hypertension and low serum albumin were risk factors for CKD only in males.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) has a high mortality rate. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) triggers both harmful and beneficial effects in numerous physiological systems. The effects of IH on TAD development were explored in a mouse model. METHODS: ß-Aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN) was used to induce TAD in C57BL/6 mice. Three week old male mice were treated with 1 g/kg/day BAPN in drinking water for four weeks and simultaneously subjected to IH (n = 30) (21%-5% O2, 90 s/cycle, 10 h/day, IH + BAPN group) or normoxia (n = 30) (21% O2, 24 h/day, BAPN group). Human VSMCs (HUASMCs) exposed to IH (30 min, 5% O2)/re-oxygenation (30 min, 21% O2) cycles with a maximum of 60 min/cycle to detect the effect of IH on HIF-1α and LOX via HIF-1α-siRNA. RESULTS: It was found that BAPN administration significantly increased the lumen size and wall thickness of aortas compared with the normal group, but was significantly reversed by IH exposure. Additionally, IH exposure significantly increased the survival rate of BAPN induced TAD (70% vs. 40%). Furthermore, IH exposure reduced BAPN induced elastin breaks and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. IH exposure also reversed BAPN induced upregulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that IH inhibited inflammation and ECM degradation related genes interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, cathepsin S (Cat S), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), but upregulated the ECM synthesis related genes lysyl oxidase (LOX) and collagen type I alpha2 (Col1a2) compared with the BAPN group. In vitro results suggest that IH promotes the expression of LOX via HIF-1α. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that IH alleviates BAPN induced TAD in C57BL/6 mice.

18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105912, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669890

RESUMO

AIM: The study aimed to investigate the changes in peripherallymphocyte and CD4+T subsets and to observe the regulatory effect of low-dose interleukin-2 (ld-IL2) on these cells in polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM/DM). METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+T, CD8+T, B and natural killer (NK) cells), CD4+T subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells) and multiple cytokines of 71 patients after admission and treatment were measured by flow cytometry, as well as these indicators in 30 healthy controls (HCs). In DM, 35 cases were administrated with ld-IL2 combined with conventional therapy, the remaining 26 patients received conventional therapy only. RESULTS: The numbers of CD3+T and CD4+T cells in PM/DM were markedly decreased. Meanwhile, the absolute number and percentage of peripheral Treg cells in PM/DM, as well as Th1 cells in DM, were significantly lower than those in HCs (P < 0.05), but Th2 and Th17 cells had no significant difference. The ratio of Th17/Treg in PM (P = 0.031) and in DM (P = 0.003) were obviously higher than that in HCs. The deficiency of Treg cells was associated with the occurrence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in myositis patients. Meanwhile, reduced production of IL-2 was also observed in PM/DM (P < 0.001). ld-IL2 combination therapy could significantly increase the numbers of CD4+T subsets in DM, especially Treg cells (expanded 2.5 times). CONCLUSIONS: The decline of peripheral Treg cells and serum IL-2 were found in PM/DM. ld-IL2 combination therapy could significantly increase the number of Treg cells.

19.
Appl Opt ; 58(27): 7538-7551, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674406

RESUMO

Optimization-based semi-analytical methods (OSMs) and empirical methods (EMs) have been developed to derive bathymetry maps from satellite-based multispectral data of coral reefs, allowing for the management, monitoring, and protection of coral reefs. However, OSMs are often criticized due to the time-consuming requirements of iterative computations, yet they are praised for working without the need for in situ bathymetry data. EMs are praised for their time-saving characteristics and criticized for their need for in situ measurements. To estimate the water depth from multispectral data quickly without in situ bathymetry data, we provide a new EM that combines our previously developed OSM called the unmixing-based multispectral optimization process exemplar method (UMOPE) and an EM called Stumpf's ratio method (SRM). In the new method, reflectance values from a small number of sampled pixels and the corresponding water depths estimated by UMOPE are used to determine the regression parameters for SRM. Thus, SRM determines the upper limit of accuracy for the new method, and UMOPE determines the possibility of reaching the upper limit. The new method was evaluated using three types of imagery of Xisha Islands, namely, WorldView-2 imagery with three traditional visible bands (WV-2a), Landsat 8 imagery with four visible bands, and WV-2 imagery with six visible bands (WV-2b). The results show that the new method can perform as well as SRM for Landsat 8 data and WV-2b data with similar root mean square error values at different depths. The lack of a coastal band in WV-2a imagery may cause large errors for the new method in deep water regions, especially when the water-leaving reflectance is noise perturbed. We found that even though the depths estimated by UMOPE are not error free at different ranges of water depth, if the regression line between the depths estimated by UMOPE and the measured depths is near the 1:1 line, the new method can perform as well as SRM. The new method may facilitate the rapid estimation of bathymetry from free Landsat 8 data of optically shallow waters around the world without in situ bathymetry data.

20.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694349

RESUMO

Based upon the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism, a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe EB was developed to detect SO32-/HSO3-. The probe displayed both colorimetric and ratiometric responses toward SO32-/HSO3-. It displayed a quick response (within 60 s), good selectivity and high sensitivity (a detection limit of 28 nM) towards SO32-/HSO3-. The SO32-/HSO3- sensing mechanism was confirmed as the Michael addition reaction by ESI-MS. Moreover, the probe could be applied to measure the level of sulfite in real samples, like sugar and chrysanthemum, and it could also be used to detect SO32-/HSO3- in HepG2 cells through confocal fluorescence microscopy, which proved its practical application in clinical diagnosis.

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