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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(14): 3589-3593, 2023 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37018542

RESUMO

The first step of electrochemical surface oxidation is extraction of a metal atom from its lattice site to a location in a growing oxide. Here we show by fast simultaneous electrochemical and in situ high-energy surface X-ray diffraction measurements that the initial extraction of Pt atoms from Pt(111) is a fast, potential-driven process, whereas charge transfer for the related formation of adsorbed oxygen-containing species occurs on a much slower time scale and is evidently uncoupled from the extraction process. It is concluded that potential plays a key independent role in electrochemical surface oxidation.

2.
ACS Catal ; 12(6): 3256-3268, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359579

RESUMO

Co oxides and oxyhydroxides have been studied extensively in the past as promising electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in neutral to alkaline media. Earlier studies showed the formation of an ultrathin CoO x (OH) y skin layer on Co3O4 at potentials above 1.15 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), but the precise influence of this skin layer on the OER reactivity is still under debate. We present here a systematic study of epitaxial spinel-type Co3O4 films with defined (111) orientation, prepared on different substrates by electrodeposition or physical vapor deposition. The OER overpotential of these samples may vary up to 120 mV, corresponding to two orders of magnitude differences in current density, which cannot be accounted for by differences in the electrochemically active surface area. We demonstrate by a careful analysis of operando surface X-ray diffraction measurements that these differences are clearly correlated with the average thickness of the skin layer. The OER reactivity increases with the amount of formed skin layer, indicating that the entire three-dimensional skin layer is an OER-active interphase. Furthermore, a scaling relationship between the reaction centers in the skin layer and the OER activity is established. It suggests that two lattice sites are involved in the OER mechanism.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 1): 333-349, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399586

RESUMO

ROBL-II provides four different experimental stations to investigate actinide and other alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides at the new EBS storage ring of ESRF within an energy range of 3 to 35 keV. The XAFS station consists of a highly automatized, high sample throughput installation in a glovebox, to measure EXAFS and conventional XANES of samples routinely at temperatures down to 10 K, and with a detection limit in the sub-p.p.m. range. The XES station with its five bent-crystal analyzer, Johann-type setup with Rowland circles of 1.0 and 0.5 m radii provides high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) for XANES, XES, and RIXS measurements, covering both actinide L and M edges together with other elements accessible in the 3 to 20 keV energy range. The six-circle heavy duty goniometer of XRD-1 is equipped for both high-resolution powder diffraction as well as surface-sensitive CTR and RAXR techniques. Single crystal diffraction, powder diffraction with high temporal resolution, as well as X-ray tomography experiments can be performed at a Pilatus 2M detector stage (XRD-2). Elaborate radioprotection features enable a safe and easy exchange of samples between the four different stations to allow the combination of several methods for an unprecedented level of information on radioactive samples for both fundamental and applied actinide and environmental research.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(11): 6651-6660, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396730

RESUMO

The Pb(II)-binding mechanism on an annealed hematite (1102) surface was studied using crystal truncation rod (CTR) X-ray diffraction coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The best fit CTR model suggested that Pb(II) sorbed selectively to one type of edge-sharing surface site (ES2) over two other potential surface sites. From the best fit model structure, it was found that the Pb surface complex species forms a trigonal pyramid geometry. The base consists of three oxygen groups, two of which are associated with the substrate surface (IO and IIIO) and one that is a distal O extending toward solution. The trigonal pyramid geometry is slightly distorted with Pb-O bond lengths ranging from 2.21 to 2.31 Å and O-Pb-O bond angles ranging from 72° to 75°. Under this structural distortion, the nearest distance between Pb and Fe is found to be 3.39(1) Å. Consistent with the CTR results, DFT calculations indicate the Pb binding energy at the ES2 site is at least 0.16 eV more favorable than that at the other two potential binding sites considered. Using bond-valence rules we propose a stoichiometry of Pb(II) binding on the hematite (1102) surface which indicates proton release through the deprotonation of all oxygen groups bonding to Pb.


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Chumbo , Adsorção , Compostos Férricos , Difração de Raios X
5.
Langmuir ; 34(41): 12270-12278, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217107

RESUMO

We studied the adsorption behavior of ZrO2 nanoparticles on a muscovite (001) surface in the presence of cations from the alkali series (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+). The results of X-ray reflectivity, i.e., specular crystal truncation rod and resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity in combination with AFM images, show that the sorption of ZrO2 nanoparticles is significantly affected by the binding mode of alkali ions on the muscovite (001) surface. From solutions containing alkali ions binding as outer sphere surface complexes (i.e., Li+ and Na+), higher uptake of Zr4+ is observed corresponding to the binding of larger nanoparticles, which relatively easily replace the loosely bound alkali ions. However, Zr4+ uptake in solutions containing alkali ions binding as inner sphere surface complexes (i.e., K+, Rb+, and Cs+) is significantly lower, and smaller nanoparticles are found at the interface. In addition, the uptake of Zr4+ in the presence of inner sphere bound cations displays a strong linear relationship with the hydration energy of the coexisting alkali ion. The linear trend can be interpreted as competitive adsorption between ZrO2 nanoparticles and inner sphere bound alkali cations, which are replaced on the surface and undergo rehydration after release to the solution. The rehydration of alkali ions gives rise to a large energy gain, which dominates the reaction energy of the competitive adsorption process. The competitive adsorption mechanism of ZrO2 nanoparticles and alkali ions is discussed comprehensively to highlight the potential relationship between the hydration effect of alkali ions and the effect of charge density of the nanoparticles.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(19): 11161-11168, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188697

RESUMO

The binding mechanism of Sb(V) on a single-crystal hematite (11̅02) surface was studied using crystal truncation rod X-ray diffraction (CTR) under in situ conditions. The best-fit CTR model indicates Sb(V) adsorbs at the surface as an inner-sphere complex forming a tridentate binding geometry with the nearest Sb-Fe distance of 3.09(4) Å and an average Sb-O bond length of 2.08(5) Å. In this binding geometry, Sb is bound at both edge-sharing and corner-sharing sites of the surface Fe-O octahedral units. The chemical plausibility of the proposed structure was further verified by bond valence analysis, which also deduced a protonation scheme for surface O groups. The stoichiometry of the surface reaction predicts the release of one OH- group at pH 5.5.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Adsorção , Difração de Raios X , Raios X
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 524: 65-75, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631220

RESUMO

A structural study of the surface complexation of Pb(II) on the (11¯02) surface of hematite was undertaken using crystal truncation rod (CTR) X-ray diffraction measurements under in situ conditions. The sorbed Pb was found to form inner sphere (IS) complexes at two types of edge-sharing sites on the half layer termination of the hematite (11¯02) surface. The best fit model contains Pb in distorted trigonal pyramids with an average PbO bond length of 2.27(4) Å and two characteristic Pb-Fe distances of 3.19(1) Å and 3.59(1) Å. In addition, a site coverage model was developed to simulate coverage as a function of sorbate-sorbate distance. The simulation results suggest a plausible Pb-Pb distance of 5.42 Å, which is slightly larger than the diameter of Pb's first hydration shell. This relates the best fit surface coverage of 0.59(4) Pb per unit cell at monolayer saturation to steric constraints as well as electrostatic repulsion imposed by the hydrated Pb complex. Based on the structural results we propose a stoichiometry of the surface complexation reaction of Pb(II) on the hematite (11¯02) surface and use bond valence analysis to assign the protonation schemes of surface oxygens. Surface reaction stoichiometry suggests that the proton release in the course of surface complexation occurs from the Pb-bound surface O atoms at pH 5.5.

8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1217(8): 1191-202, 2010 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20034632

RESUMO

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the highly effective enrichment of 17 ultra trace organochlorine pesticides in water samples. The target compounds were successfully transferred from water samples to a gas chromatography capillary column by means of four consecutive steps, namely SPE, solvent conversion, HS-SPME, and thermal desorption of the SPME fiber. Parameters, including elution volume and breakthrough volume in the SPE step, temperature in the solvent conversion step, and fiber type, ionic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, and pH in the SPME step were optimized to improve the performance of the method through either single factor comparative experiment or the orthogonal experimental design approach. After optimization, the method gave high sensitivity with a method detection limit ranging from 0.0018 to 0.027 ng L(-1), good repeatability with a relative standard deviation less than 20% (n=4) and acceptable recovery with a value mostly exceeding 60%. External standard calibration was employed for the quantification, and a wide linear range (from 0.0010 to 60 ng mL(-1)) with R(2) values ranging from 0.9988 to 0.9999 were observed. In the end, the method was successfully applied to the Arctic samples, and the results showed that, among all the organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the most predominant in the Arctic surface water body with sum of their concentrations ranging from 0.262 to 3.156 ng L(-1).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Água/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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