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1.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 6): 2075-2080, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721753

RESUMO

The upgrade of the laser pump time-resolved X-ray probes, namely time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) and X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD), implemented at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, is described. The improvements include a superbunch fill, a high-efficiency fluorescence collection, an efficient spatial overlap protocol and a new data-acquisition scheme. After upgrade, the adequate TR-XAS signal is now obtained in a 0.3 mM solution, compared with a 6 mM solution in our previous report. Furthermore, to extend application in photophysics, the TR-XAS probe is applied on SrCoO2.5 thin film. And for the first time, TR-XAS is combined with TR-XRD to simultaneously detect the kinetic trace of structural changes in thin film.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642335

RESUMO

AIMS: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and NO signaling have been implicated in learning, memory, and underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity. In this study, we aimed at detecting whether nNOS is a target protein of SUMOylation in the hippocampus and its contributions to hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. RESULTS: We showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-dependent neuronal activity enhancement induced the attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1) to nNOS. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) promoted SUMO1 conjugation at K725 and K739 on nNOS, which upregulated NO production and nNOS S1412 phosphorylation (activation). In addition, the N-terminus (amino acids 43-86) of PIAS3 bound nNOS directly. Tat-PIAS3(43-86), a cell-permeable peptide containing PIAS3 residues 43-86, suppressed activity-induced nNOS SUMOylation by disrupting PIAS3-nNOS association. It also decreased LTP-related expression of Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and blocked signaling via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and Elk-1 in the hippocampus. More importantly, PIAS3-mediated nNOS SUMOylation was required for activity-regulated ERK1/2 activation in nNOS-positive neurons and hippocampal LTP induction. Innovation and Conclusion. These findings indicated that network activity-regulated nNOS SUMOylation underlies excitatory synaptic LTP by facilitating nNOS-NO-ERK1/2 signal cascades.

3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 82: 264-278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476414

RESUMO

Isorhynchophylline (IRN) has been demonstrated to have distinct anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity in several animal models of AD. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of IRN on the cognitive deficits and amyloid pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Male TgCRND8 mice were administered with IRN (20 or 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 4 months, followed by assessing the spatial learning and memory functions with the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) test. Brain tissues were determined immunohistochemically or biochemically for changes in amyloid pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation. Our results revealed that IRN (40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice. In addition, IRN (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the levels of Aß40, Aß42 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß, and modulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and phosphorylation by altering the protein expressions of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1), phosphorylated APP (Thr668), presenilin-1 (PS-1) and anterior pharynx-defective-1 (APH-1), as well as insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a major Aß-degrading enzyme. IRN was also found to inhibit the phosphorylation of tau at the sites of Thr205 and Ser396. Immunofluorescence showed that IRN reduced the Aß deposition, and suppressed the activation of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of TgCRND8 mice. Furthermore, IRN was able to attenuate the ratios of p-c-Jun/c-Jun and p-JNK/JNK in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. IRN also showed marked inhibitory effect on JNK signaling pathway in the Aß-treated rat primary hippocampus neurons. We conclude that IRN improves cognitive impairment in TgCRND8 transgenic mice via reducing Aß generation and deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation through inhibiting the activation of JNK signaling pathway, and has good potential for further development into pharmacological treatment for AD.

4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 143: 454-470, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472247

RESUMO

Brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) occurs when the spinal nerve roots are pulled away from the surface of the spinal cord and disconnects neuronal cell body from its distal downstream axon, which induces massive motoneuron death, motor axon degeneration and de-innervation of targeted muscles, thereby resulting in permanent paralysis of motor functions in the upper limb. Avulsion injury triggers oxidative stress and intense local neuroinflammation at the lesioned site, leading to the death of most motoneurons. Berberine (BBR), a natural isoquinoline alkaloid derived from medicinal herbs of Berberis and Coptis species, has been reported to possess neuro-protective, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in various animal models of central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BBR on motoneuron survival and axonal regeneration following spinal root avulsion plus re-implantation in rats. Our results indicated BBR significantly accelerated motor function recovery in the forelimb as revealed by the increased Terzis grooming test score, facilitated motor axon regeneration as evidenced by the elevated number of Fluoro-Gold-labeled and P75-positive regenerative motoneurons. The survival of motoneurons was notably promoted by BBR administration presented with boosted ChAT-immunopositive and neutral red-stained neurons. BBR treatment efficiently alleviated muscle atrophy, attenuated functional motor endplates loss in biceps and prevented the reduction of motor axons in the musculocutaneous nerve. Additionally, BBR treatment markedly mitigated the avulsion-induced neuroinflammation via inhibiting microglial and astroglial reactivity, up-regulated the expression of antioxidative indicator Cu/Zn SOD, and down-regulated the levels of nNOS, 3-NT, lipid peroxidation and NF-κB, as well as promoted SIRT1, PI3K and Akt activation. Collectively, BBR might be a promising therapy to assist re-implantation surgery for the treatment of BPA.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109257, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377472

RESUMO

Combination treatment through simultaneous delivery of anticancer drugs and gene with nano-formulation has been demonstrated to be an elegant and efficient approach for colorectal cancer therapy. Recently, sorafenib being studied in combination therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) attracted attention of researchers. On the basis of our previous study, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) loaded nanoparticles showed good effect on CRC in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we designed a combination therapy for sorafenib (Sora), a multi-kinase inhibitor and PEDF, a powerful antiangiogenic gene, in a nano-formulation aimed to increase anti-tumor effect on CRC for the first time. Sora and PEDF were simultaneously encapsulated in PEG-PLGA based nanoparticles by a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. The obtained co-encapsulated nanoparticles (Sora@PEDF-NPs) showed high entrapment efficiency of both Sora and PEDF - and exhibited a uniform spherical morphology. The release profiles of Sora and PEDF were in a sustained manner. The most effective tumor growth inhibition in the C26 cells and C26-bearing mice was observed in the Sora@PEDF-NPs in comparison with none-drug nanoparticles, free Sora, mono-drug nanoparticles (Sora-NPs and PEDF-NPs) and the mixture of Sora-NPs and equivalent PEDF-NPs (Mix-NPs). More importantly, Sora@PEDF-NPs showed lower toxicity than free Sora in mice according to the acute toxicity test. The serologic biochemical analysis and mice body weight during therapeutic period revealed that Sora@PEDF-NPs had no obvious toxicity. All the data demonstrated that the simultaneously loaded nanoparticles with multi-kinase inhibitor and anti-angiogenic gene might be one of the most potential formulations in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma in clinic and worthy of further investigation.

6.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441704

RESUMO

ZTW-41, an indolizinoquinoline-5,12-dione derivative, was investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In our study, the MIC90s (minimum inhibitory concentrations) of ZTW-41 against MRSA (MRSA, n = 200), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, n = 100), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis, n = 32), and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium n = 32) were 0.25, 0.25, 0.125, and 8 µg/mL, respectively, whereas the MBC90s (minimum bactericidal concentrations) were 2, 1, 1, and >32 µg/mL, respectively. ZTW-41 maintained its potency at different pH levels (range 5-9) and in starting inoculum size up to 107 CFU/mL. The presence of human serum (25-75%) increased ZTW-41 MICs by two- to eightfold. Time-kill curves showed that ZTW-41 had bactericidal activity against MRSA, MSSA, and E. faecalis strains within 8 hours, and rebound growth occurred after 8 hours except at higher multiples of the MIC (4 × and 8 × ). In the acute toxicity study, no mortality or signs of toxicity was noted in mice after 14 days of observation at doses <50 mg/kg. ZTW-41 exhibited good selectivity indices (SIs) (SI = IC50/MIC90) ranging from 1.12 to 71.76 against clinical isolates, demonstrating excellent therapeutic selectivity in MRSA, MSSA, and E. faecalis strains. Moreover, the in vivo efficacy (effective dose [ED]50 = 6.59 mg/kg) of ZTW-41 was found comparable with vancomycin. Collectively, our favorable results supported ZTW-41 as a promising investigational candidate for treating drug-resistant bacteria infection.

7.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 139(10): 870-875, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403828

RESUMO

Background: Deletions of the interstitial 2q36 are uncommon and associated with varying phenotypes. However, the list of currently known phenotypes is still far complete for an understanding of the interstitial 2q36 deletion syndrome characteristics. Aims/Objectives: To identify the genetic and clinical characterization of a 6-year-old male patient suffering from a severe form of syndromic hearing loss, with brachydactyly family history. Material and Methods: We performed conventional cytogenetic analysis on the peripheral blood lymphocytes and whole exome sequencing and SNP array analysis on DNA samples from the family. Results: The proband showed signs such as bilateral sensorineural deafness, ocular hypertelorism, flat facial profile and several decayed teeth, slightly ulnar deviation of the hands, single transverse palmar crease, short stature and intellectual disability. Through cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis, we discovered that the syndromic hearing loss was the result of a de novo 5.175-Mb microdeletion at chromosome 2q36.1q36.3 whose breakpoints had been precisely mapped by us. Conclusions and Significance: Our study warns that auditory assessment should be evaluated even if the patient with 2q36 deletion syndrome is not obviously presenting hearing loss. In addition, a comprehensive molecular genetics diagnosis involving multiple methods is important to support accurate genetic characterization of this syndrome.

8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1100-1110, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422179

RESUMO

Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is associated with oxidative stress. l-carnitine is currently under preclinical evaluation as a antioxidant, but the use of l-carnitine in aquaculture has been poorly evaluated and so far no mechanism has been demonstrated. Here, we explored the effects of l-carnitine in vitro and in vivo and discussed the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Firstly, Nrf2-siRNA significantly knocked down the mRNA level of Nrf2 in FHM cells. Thus, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (T-SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) and the level of antioxidant substance (GSH) and the level of MDA showed that Nrf2-siRNA pretreatment weakened the protective effect of l-carnitine. Moreover, the mRNA levels of Keap1, Nrf2, Maf and HO-1 indicated that l-carnitine regulated Nrf2/Keap1 activation. Furthermore, oxidized fish oil remarkably suppressed growth in Rhynchocypris lagowski Dybowski, and the lower antioxidant capacity was also observed in liver. According to the results of immune related indexes (the levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, LZM, AKP) in serum and the mRNA levels of immune related genes (NF-κB, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10 and TGF-ß) in liver, oxidized fish oil also induced inflammatory response in fish. Also, l-carnitine supplementation can relieve this bad condition. In conclusion, l-carnitine regulated Nrf2/Keap1 activation in vitro and in vivo and protected oxidized fish oil-induced inflammation response by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in Rhynchocypris lagowski Dybowski.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265863

RESUMO

Glutamatergic dysregulation has served as one common pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and a promising target for treatment intervention. Previous studies implicate neurotransmission via metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and Homer1 in stress-induced anhedonia, but the mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we used two different animal models of depression, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS), to investigate the expression of Homer1 isoforms and functional interaction with mGluRs. We found that chronic stress selectively upregulated the expression of Homer1b/c in the hippocampus, whereas the level of Homer1a was unchanged. Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of Homer1-mGluR5 signaling and depressive-like behaviors. Both application of paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation (PP-LFS) and the selective group 1 mGluRs agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) significantly enhanced mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at CA3-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in slices from susceptible mice, whereas there was no change in NMDAR-dependent LTD induced by LFS. Furthermore, these effects were associated with the internalization of surface AMPARs in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, including reduced the expression of AMPARs and amplitude of AMPARs-mediated mEPSC. Finally, we found that chronic stress activated the KR-like ER kinase-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling pathway, subsequently phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at the S129 and reduced the BDNF level, eventually leading to the impairment of synaptic transmission and depressive-like behaviors. Therefore, our study suggests that PERK-eIF2α acts as a critical target downstream of Homer1-mGluR5 complex to mediate chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors, and highlights them as a potential target for the treatment of mood disorder.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e961-e970, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the outcomes of severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) corrected with 3D-printed individualized guiding templates. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) data of patients with severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to AS were used to reconstruct 3D models of the spine and to develop a surgical plan. An asymmetric wedge pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) was simulated using medical computer design software. Before the actual surgery, continual surgical simulations were performed until the most suitable one was obtained, and personalized guiding templates were manufactured for the anticipated PSO. During operation, the osteotomy plane and trajectories for the pedicle screws were positioned by the designed patient-specific 3D-printed guiding templates. RESULTS: In this study, we reviewed 9 patients who underwent correction of kyphoscoliosis using a 3D-printed individualized guiding template and were followed for a median of 21.4 months (range, 9-36 months). The average correction at the site of osteotomy was 65.9°. No patient experienced severe complications, such as misplaced pedicle screws or neurologic complications. At the last follow-up, no patient exhibited implant dysfunction on radiography. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative surgical simulation using 3D-printed templates is a viable technique that enables surgery to meet both patient- and surgeon-specific requirements for correction of severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis. These 3D-printed templates can guide the performance of planned PSO to provide functional restoration of severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to AS.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3371, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358760

RESUMO

TNF-like ligand 1 A (TL1A) and death receptor 3 (DR3) are a ligand-receptor pair involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) regulate intestinal immunity and highly express DR3. Here, we report that activation of DR3 signaling by an agonistic anti-DR3 antibody increases GM-CSF production from ILC3s through the p38 MAPK pathway. GM-CSF causes accumulation of eosinophils, neutrophils and CD11b+CD11c+ myeloid cells, resulting in loss of ILC3s from the intestine in an IL-23-dependent manner and exacerbating colitis. Blockade of GM-CSF or IL-23 reverses anti-DR3 antibody-driven ILC3 loss, whereas overexpression of IL-23 induces loss of ILC3s in the absence of GM-CSF. Neutralization of TL1A by soluble DR3 ameliorates both DSS and anti-CD40 antibody-induced colitis. Moreover, ILC3s are required for the deleterious effect of anti-DR3 antibodies on innate colitis. These findings clarify the process and consequences of DR3 signaling-induced intestinal inflammation through regulation of ILC3s.

12.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300804

RESUMO

Histologically, drug-induced liver injury could be classified into acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute cholestasis, chronic cholestasis, and cholestatic hepatitis. The correlation between these histologic patterns and long-term clinical outcomes has not been well established. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the association of histologic patterns and long-term clinical outcomes defined as biochemical normalization, persistent abnormal liver biochemistry or death at designated time points. In this study, biochemical classification was determined by R-values; histologic injury pattern was determined by morphological features. Predictive ability of clinical outcomes by these two classifications was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves. Logistic regression was performed to identify histologic factors associated with outcomes. Totally, 88 patients with drug-induced liver injury were included for final analysis. Biochemical and histologic classification were consistent in 50 (57%) cases. 53 (60%) cases showed biochemical normalization within 6 months, and a further 11 (13%), 16 (18%), and 6 (7%) cases within 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Compared with biochemical classification, histologic injury pattern had better predictive ability for abnormal biochemistry at 6 months (Areas under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves 0.92 versus 0.60, P < 0.001) and 1 year (Areas under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves 0.94 versus 0.69, P < 0.001). Interlobular bile duct loss in >25% portal areas was independently associated with abnormal biochemistry at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. In conclusion, histologic injury pattern is better correlated with clinical outcome at 6 months and 1 year than biochemical classification. Moderate bile duct loss is an important histologic feature associated with persistent biochemical abnormality at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years.

13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(25): 3151-3167, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333308

RESUMO

Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies, and various pathogenic factors can lead to its occurrence and development. Among all primary liver cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common. With extensive studies, an increasing number of molecular mechanisms that promote HCC are being discovered. Surgical resection is still the most effective treatment for patients with early HCC. However, early detection and treatment are difficult for most HCC patients, and the postoperative recurrence rate is high, resulting in poor clinical prognosis of HCC. Although immunotherapy takes longer than conventional chemotherapy to produce therapeutic effects, it persists for longer. In recent years, the emergence of many new immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies, has given new hope for the treatment of HCC.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9781212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211144

RESUMO

Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of vonoprazan-based versus proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomized controlled trials up to March 2019. Studies were included if they compared the efficacy and safety of H. pylori eradication of vonoprazan-based and PPI-based triple therapy. Results: Three studies with 897 patients were evaluated in this meta-analysis. The H. pylori eradication rate of vonoprazan-based triple therapy was higher than that of PPI-based triple therapy as first-line regimens (intention-to-treat analysis: pooled eradication rates, 91.4% vs 74.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.87-7.26]; P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events in vonoprazan-based triple therapy was lower than that in PPI-based triple therapy (pooled incidence, 32.7% vs 40.5%; OR, 0.71; 95%CI: [0.53-0.95]; P<0.05). Conclusions: Efficacy of vonoprazan-based triple therapy is superior to that of PPI-based triple therapy for first-line H. pylori eradication. Additionally, vonoprazan-based triple therapy is better tolerated than PPI-based triple therapy.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 888-896, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207573

RESUMO

In this study, we develop a new composite material of Fe-Cu/D407 composite via using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with copper deposited on chelating resin (D407) to remove nitrate from the water. The experimental results show that a remarkable nitrate removal and the selectivity of N2 are 99.9% and 89.7%, respectively, under the anaerobic conditions of Cu/Fe molar ratio of 1:2, pH = 3.0. Even without of inert gas and adjusting the initial pH of the solution, the removal rate of nitrate by Fe-Cu/D407 reached to 85% and the selectivity of nitrogen reached to 55%. Meanwhile, the Fe-Cu/D407 maintained preferable removal efficiency of nitrate (100% - 92%) over a wide pH range of 3-11. In addition, the removal rate of the drinking water, lake water and wastewater from the Fe-Cu/D407 is still very high and the reactivity of Fe-Cu/D407 was relatively unaffected by the presence of dissolved ions in the waters tested. Moreover, the synergetic effect of Fe, Cu and D407 in the composite Fe-Cu/D407 were well investigated for the first time according to the analyses of TPR, XPS and EIS. The catalytic mechanism and denitrification routes were also proposed.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Ferro/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Catálise , Desnitrificação , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
16.
Pathobiology ; : 1-11, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress function, but their pharmacological regulation remains unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is redox-sensitive protein belongs to class III histone/protein deacetylases, SIRT1 regulates the acetylation/expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and is involved in the airway inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to examine the effects of erythromycin (EM) on the SIRT1-NF-κB axis and NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Human macrophages were preincubated with EM and then treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mice were treated by injecting drugs to gastric with EM before cigarette smoke exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by treated human macrophages were detected using flow cytometry. The expression of SIRT1 and NF-κB was analyzed by western blotting. SIRT1 and the RelA/p65 subunits of NF-κB interaction were detected by coimmunoprecipitation. We found that EM suppressed CSE-induced ROS released in human macrophages, which coincided with increases in SIRT1 protein expression in the macrophages and lungs of mice, resulting in suppressed -NF-κB acetylation and expression correlated with a reduction of inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that EM increased SIRT1, leading to acetylation/expression of NF-κB, and thereby decreasing cigarette smoke-driven NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokine.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 286: 7-13, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between amino acids and small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the association between plasma essential amino acids (EAAs) and atherogenic lipid profiles. METHODS: Plasma amino acid levels of 475 individuals were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SdLDL-C, RLP-C, and other lipid components were evaluated. Associations between EAAs and lipid components or dyslipidemia were determined using correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Concentrations of plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) were positively correlated with sdLDL-C, RLP-C, and triglycerides (TG) levels, but inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In contrast, threonine concentration was inversely correlated with sdLDL-C, RLP-C, and TG. Compared with the lowest tertile, individuals in the highest tertile of plasma total BCAAs level had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 4.03) for the risk of high sdLDL-C, 3.63 (95%CI: 1.69, 7.80) for the risk of high RLP-C, 3.10 (95%CI: 1.66, 5.80) for the risk of high TG, and 3.67 (95%CI: 2.00, 6.73) for atherogenic lipid triad (all p < 0.01). In contrast, compared with the lowest tertile, individuals in the highest plasma threonine tertile had a 43% lower OR for high sdLDL-C, 56% lower OR for high TG, and 55% lower OR for lipid triad risk (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among the EAAs evaluated, elevated plasma BCAAs were significantly associated with increased risk of atherogenic lipid profile. In contrast, elevated threonine was associated with reduced risk of atherogenic lipid profile.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e028321, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) trends in the normal pregnant Asian population in Singapore. DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted. SETTING: The largest tertiary hospital in Singapore. METHODS: Women with single viable pregnancies, less than 14 weeks of gestation, were recruited between September 2010 and November 2013 in KK Women's and Children's Hospital. They were followed up from recruitment till their postnatal discharge from the hospital. There were four antenatal visits: gestational age (GA) less than 14+0 weeks of gestation (V1), GA 18+0 to 22+0 weeks (V2), GA 28+0 to 32+0 weeks (V3) and GA 34+0 and above (V4). Serum biochemical markers (sFlt-1, PlGF) were measured at each visit. RESULTS: There were 934 participants in the study, of which 674 had normal pregnancy outcomes. The sFlt-1 remained relatively constant till GA 28-32 weeks before it increased (p<0.001). The sFlt-1 levels increased earlier before 30 weeks' of gestation among the Malay participants and the other ethnicities. For PlGF, the levels increased from the first to the third trimester, peaking at 30-32 weeks before decreasing (p<0.001). Its serum levels significantly differed among the Indian participants and other ethnicities as compared with the Malay and Chinese participants at V3 and V4, (p=0.04 and p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in the PlGF and sFlt-1 concentrations during pregnancy between different ethnicities, which should be taken into consideration when using these references values for further research.

19.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(6): 728-735, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of serum bilirubin level with hearing outcomes in bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (BSSHL) patients. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirteen in-patient BSSHL patients were consecutively enrolled between July 2008 and December 2015 in a tertiary center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable linear regression, generalized estimating equations (GEE), and stratified analyses were applied to examine the association between serum bilirubin level and hearing outcome measures such as final hearing threshold and absolute and relative hearing gains in BSSHL. RESULTS: After full adjustment for potential confounders, total bilirubin levels (TBIL) were observed to be positively and independently associated with hearing outcomes as measured by final hearing (ß [95% confidence interval {CI}]: -1.5 [-2.7, -0.2] dB HL per 1 µmol/L increase in TBIL) and absolute and relative hearing gains (ß [95% CI]: 1.4 [0.2, 2.7] dB and 1.6 [0.2, 3.1] dB, respectively) in the severe to profound hearing loss subpopulation. CONCLUSIONS: Higher TBIL levels, within the normal or mildly elevated ranges, were independently and significantly associated with better hearing outcome in BSSHL patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Given bilirubin elevation treatments exist, our finding suggests a novel pharmacological strategy for this specific subpopulation.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15067, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985657

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) system in patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Twelve patients who underwent posterior surgical correction of scoliosis for CS and AIS from June 2014 to July 2018 were enrolled in this study. During the operation, we monitored the functional status of the spinal cord by MIOM. An abnormal somatosensory evoked potential was defined as a prolonged latency of more than 10% or a peak-to-peak amplitude decline of more than 50% when compared to baseline. An abnormal transcranial motor evoked potential (TcMEP) was defined as a TcMEP amplitude decrease of more than 50%. A normal triggered electromyography response, which presented with the absence of an electrical response on stimulation at 8.2 mA, indicated that the pedicle screw was not in contact with the spinal cord or nerve root.A total of 12 patients underwent MIOM surgery, of which 9 patients with negative MIOM had no significant deterioration of neurological function postoperatively, and exhibited satisfactory surgical correction of scoliosis during follow-ups. However, the remaining 3 patients suffered from MIOM events, 2 patients had normal neurological function, and 1 patient had deteriorated neurological function postoperatively.Using MIOM in CS and AIS surgery could promptly detect iatrogenic neurological injury at the early stage. Therefore, rapid response by appropriate intraoperative interventions can be taken to minimize the injury. Besides, stable MIOM recordings encourage surgeons to correct scoliosis even when the Cobb angle of scoliosis was extremely large.


Assuntos
Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Imagem Multimodal , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Escoliose/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Parafusos Pediculares , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/fisiopatologia
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