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1.
World J Pediatr ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a strong determinant of infant short- and long-term health outcomes. Family socioeconomic position (SEP) is usually positively associated with birth weight. Whether this association extends to abnormal birth weight or there exists potential mediator is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14,984 mother-infant dyads from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of a composite family SEP score quartile with macrosomia and low birth weight (LBW), and examined the potential mediation effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia and LBW was 2.62% (n = 392) and 4.26% (n = 638). Higher family SEP was associated with a higher risk of macrosomia (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.82; OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11; and OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.20 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively) and a lower risk of LBW (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively), compared to the 1st SEP quartile. We found that pre-pregnancy BMI did not mediate the associations of SEP with macrosomia and LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in fetal macrosomia and LBW exist in Southern China. Whether the results can be applied to other populations should be further investigated.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272350

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) plays a central role in DNA replication and DNA damage repair process. In mammal, FEN1 functional sites variation is related to cancer and chronic inflammation, and supports the role of FEN1 as a tumor suppressor. However, FEN1 is overexpressed in multiple types of cancer cells and is associated with drug resistance, supporting its role as an oncogene. Hence, it is vital to explore the multi-functions of FEN1 in normal cell metabolic process. This study was undertaken to examine how the gene expression profile changes when FEN1 is down regulated in 293T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the RNA sequencing and real-time PCR approaches, the transcript expression profile of FEN1 knockdown HEK293T cells have been detected for the next step evaluation, analyzation, and validation. RESULTS: Our results confirmed that FEN1 is important for cell viability. We showed that when FEN1 down regulation led to interruption of nucleic acids related metabolisms and cell cycle related metabolisms are significantly interrupted. FEN1 may also participate in non-coding RNA processing, ribosome RNA processing, transfer RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis, virus infection and cell morphogenesis. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insight into how FEN1 nuclease might regulate a wide variety of biological processes, and laid the foundation for understanding the role other RAD2 family nucleases in cell growth and metabolism.

3.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002846, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cesarean section (CS) rate has risen globally during the last two decades. Effective and feasible strategies are needed to reduce it. The aim of this study was to assess the CS rate change after a two-stage intervention package that was designed to reduce the overall CS rate in Guangzhou, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This intervention package was implemented by the Health Commission of Guangzhou Municipality in 2 stages (October 2010-September 2014 and October 2014-December 2016) and included programs for population health education, skills training for healthcare professionals, equipment and technical support for local healthcare facilities, and capacity building for the maternal near-miss care system. A retrospective repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate influences of the intervention on CS rates. A pre-intervention period from January 2008 to September 2010 served as the baseline. The primary outcome was the CS rate, and the secondary outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and perinatal mortality rate (PMR), all obtained from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System (GPHCDSS). The Cochran-Armitage test was used to examine the trends of the overall CS rate, MMR, and PMR across different stages. Segmented linear regression analysis was used to assess the change of the CS rate over the intervention period. A total of 1,921,932 records of births and 108 monthly CS rates from 2008 to 2016 were analyzed. The monthly CS rate declined across the intervention stages (Z = 75.067, p < 0.001), with an average rate of 42.4% at baseline, 39.8% at Stage 1, and 35.0% at Stage 2. The CS rate declined substantially among nulliparous women who delivered term singletons, with an accelerating decreasing trend observed across Stage 1 and Stage 2 (the difference in slopes: -0.09 [95% CI -0.16 to -0.02] between Stage 1 and baseline, p = 0.014; -0.11 [95% CI -0.20 to -0.02] between Stage 1 and Stage 2, p = 0.017). The CS rate in the remaining population increased during baseline and Stage 1 and subsequently decreased during Stage 2. The sensitivity analysis suggested no immediate impact of the universal two-child policy on the trend of the CS rate. The MMR (Z = -4.368, p < 0.001) and PMR (Z = -13.142, p < 0.001) declined by stage over the intervention period. One of the main limitations of the study is the lack of a parallel control group. Moreover, the influence of temporal changes in the study population on the CS rate was unknown. Given the observational nature of the present study, causality cannot be confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Apparent decline in the overall CS rate was observed in Guangzhou, China, after the implementation of a two-stage intervention package. The decline was most evident among nulliparous women who delivered term singletons. Despite some limitations for causal inference, Guangzhou's experience in controlling the CS rate by implementing composite interventions with public health education and perinatal healthcare service improvement could have implications for other similar areas with high rates of CS.

4.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies proposed that there were racial or ethnic disparities in fetal growth, challenging the use of international standards in specific populations. This study was to evaluate the validity of applying the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to a Chinese population for identifying abnormal head circumference (HC), in comparison with a newly generated local reference. METHODS: There were 24,257 singletons delivered by low-risk mothers in four perinatal health-care centers in Southern China. New HC reference was constructed and comparison in distribution of HC categories was performed between the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and new reference after applying these two tools in study population. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between abnormal HC and adverse neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: There were 4.40% of the newborns identified with microcephaly (HC > 2 standard deviation below the mean) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard, comparing to the proportion of 2.83% using new reference. The newborns identified with microcephaly only by the INTERGROWTH-21st standard were not at a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome, compared with those identified as non-microcephaly by both tools (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.47-1.13). CONCLUSION: The new HC reference may be more appropriate for newborn assessment in Chinese populations than the INTERGROWTH-21st standard.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis is responsible for a substantial burden of preventable adverse outcomes in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes among syphilis-seropositive women who received different treatment regimens at different times in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Pregnant women with syphilis infection who received prenatal and delivery services in Guangzhou between January 2014 and December 2016 were included. Association between treatment status and the composite adverse outcomes (preterm birth, infant smaller than gestational age, stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion) was estimated. RESULTS: Of 1187 syphilis-seropositive pregnant women included in the analysis, 900 (75.8%) syphilis-seropositive pregnant women received treatment, and 287(24.2%) did not receive treatment. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed among 16.3% (147/900) of women with treatment and 33.8% (97/287) of women without treatment. Syphilis-seropositive pregnant women treated with one or two courses of penicillin had a similar risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (adjusted RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.94-1.96). Adverse outcomes were more common among women whose non-treponemal serum test titer was >1:8 and received treatment after 28 weeks compared to before 28 weeks (adjusted RR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.22-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: Women who received one course of penicillin and women who received two courses of penicillin had a similar risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Syphilis treatment before 28 weeks of pregnancy is critical. Strategies to promote high-quality prenatal services are needed.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/microbiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/transmissão
6.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

7.
Nutrition ; 59: 90-95, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between dietary patterns and gestational weight gain (GWG) in different pregnancy stages has rarely been reported among the Asian population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and GWG in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: Participants were women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at 24 to 27 wk gestation (N = 5733). Dietary patterns were generated by cluster analysis. Maternal prepregnancy weight was self-reported; weights during pregnancy were extracted from medical records. Regression analyses were performed to test the associations between dietary patterns and total GWG and GWG rates (linear regression), and the adequacy of GWG (logistic regression). RESULTS: According to food consumption frequency, six dietary patterns were generated: "richer in cereals," "richer in vegetables," "richer in meats," "richer in fruits," "richer in fish, beans, nuts, and yogurt," and "richer in milk and milk powder." Compared with women following the richer in cereals pattern, those who followed the richer in fruits pattern had a significantly higher GWG (ß = 0.592; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.166-1.018) and total rate of GWG; those who followed the richer in fish, beans, nuts, and yogurt" pattern had a greater GWG rate in the second trimester, and also had a decreased risk for inadequate GWG (odds ratio, 0.797; 95% CI, 0.638-0.997). CONCLUSION: Consuming a variety of foods and frequent consumption of fruits during pregnancy contributes to a more rapid increase in GWG among pregnant women in China. Findings may be useful in pregnancy weight monitoring.

8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between progesterone concentration in early pregnancy and duration of pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study from 2013-2014, with a singleton pregnancy, who had serum progesterone measured at least one time between 4 and 10 weeks of gestation were included. The association between progesterone concentration both continuous and as categorical variable (quartile) and the risk of preterm delivery was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences of length of gestation in four progesterone concentration quartiles were assessed using the Log-rank test. RESULTS: We studied 1860 mother-newborn pairs. The mean overall progesterone concentration was 65.7 ± 21.3 nmol/L, with mean progesterone concentrations in the four quartiles of 42.4 ± 6.2 nmol/L (n = 463), 56.2 ± 3.3 nmol/L (n = 462), 68.9 ± 4.5 nmol/L (n = 470), and 95.1 ± 15.3 nmol/L (n = 465). There was no significantly difference in duration of gestation in four progesterone concentration groups (p=.511). There was no relation between progesterone level and preterm delivery (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 10 nmol/l progesterone level 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.11)). After adjusting for potential confounders, the HR of any preterm delivery for quartiles 1, 2 and 3 versus the highest quartile of progesterone level (> 77.3 nmol/L) was 1.04 (95% CI 0.52, 2.07), 1.17 (95% CI 0.60, 2.28), and 1.46 (95% CI 0.76, 2.78), respectively. When analysis was done for spontaneous preterm delivery only, also no association with first trimester progesterone was found. CONCLUSION: Lower first trimester serum progesterone concentration is not associated with reduction of length of gestation or increased risk of preterm delivery.

9.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 344, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of child growth is important in detecting under- and over-growth. We aimed to examine the growth patterns of healthy Chinese infants from birth to 24 months. METHODS: This study was based on six recent birth cohorts across China, which provided data (from 2015) on 4251 children (2174 boys, 2077 girls) who were born at term to mothers without gestational or preexisting diabetes, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, or eclampsia. Analyses were performed using 28,298 longitudinal anthropometric measures in 4251 children and the LMS method to generate smoothed Z-score growth curves, which were compared to the WHO growth standards (which are based on data from 2003) and current Chinese growth references (which are based on data from 2005). RESULTS: Most (80.3%) of mother had college education or more, and maternal smoking was rare (0.4%). Compared to the WHO longitudinal growth standards for children aged 0 to 2 years, the growth references from this longitudinal study (length-, weight-, head circumference-, BMI-for-age, and weight-for-length) were significantly higher, for boys and girls; Specifically, the median length-, weight-, head circumference-, BMI-for-age, and weight-for-length was on average 0.9 (range 0.2-1.3) cm, 0.51 (range 0.09-0.74) kg, 0.17 (range - 0.24 to 0.37) cm, 0.70 (range 0.01 to 0.92) kg/m2, and 0.43 (range 0.01 to 1.07) kg higher in Chinese boys, and 1.3 (range 0.5-1.9) cm, 0.73 (range 0.10-0.91) kg, 0.45 (range 0.15-0.62) cm, 0.7 (range 0.0 to 1.0) kg/m2, and 0.42 (range 0.00 to 0.64) kg greater in Chinese girls, respectively. Compared to the current China cross-sectional growth references (based on data from a decade ago), growth references from this study were also higher, but the difference was less than that between growth references of this study and WHO growth standards. CONCLUSIONS: This recent multicenter prospective birth cohort study examined early growth patterns in China. The new growth curves represent the growth patterns of healthy Chinese infants evaluated longitudinally from 0 to 24 months of age, and provide references for monitoring growth in early life in modern China that are more recent than WHO longitudinal growth standards from other countries and previous cross-sectional growth references for China.

10.
J Clin Med ; 7(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060450

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) is the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Early risk prediction for PTB would enable early monitoring and intervention. However, such prediction models have been rarely reported, especially in low- and middle-income areas. We used data on a number of easily accessible predictors during early pregnancy from 9044 women in Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China to generate prediction models for overall PTB and spontaneous, iatrogenic, late (34⁻36 weeks), and early (<34 weeks) PTB. Models were constructed using the Cox proportional hazard model, and their performance was evaluated by Harrell's c and D statistics and calibration plot. We further performed a systematic review to identify published models and validated them in our population. Our new prediction models had moderate discrimination, with Harrell's c statistics ranging from 0.60⁻0.66 for overall and subtypes of PTB. Significant predictors included maternal age, height, history of preterm delivery, amount of vaginal bleeding, folic acid intake before pregnancy, and passive smoking during pregnancy. Calibration plots showed good fit for all models except for early PTB. We validated three published models, all of which were from studies conducted in high-income countries; the area under receiver operating characteristic for these models ranged from 0.50 to 0.56. Based on early pregnancy characteristics, our models have moderate predictive ability for PTB. Future studies should consider inclusion of laboratory markers for the prediction of PTB.

11.
Nutr J ; 17(1): 71, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence about the associations between maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery is scarce in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 7352 mothers were included in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, a prospective study in China. A validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal diet at 24-27 weeks of gestation. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Gestational age was obtained from routine medical records. Preterm delivery was defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation, and was further classified into spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm delivery, and also early/moderate and late preterm delivery. Associations between dietary patterns and preterm delivery outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Six dietary patterns were identified, including 'Milk', 'Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups', 'Meats', 'Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts', 'Vegetables', and 'Varied'. There were 351 (4.8%) preterm deliveries in this study population. Among those of preterm delivery, 16.2 and 83.8% were early/moderate and late preterm delivery, respectively. Compared with women of 'Vegetables' pattern, those of 'Milk' pattern had greater odds of overall preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 2.29, p < 0.05), spontaneous preterm delivery (adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.14, 2.62, p < 0.05) and late preterm delivery (adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08, 2.62, p < 0.05); those of 'Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups' and 'Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts' patterns had greater odds of late preterm delivery (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01, 2.35 for 'Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups', adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.04, 2.50 for 'Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts', respectively). CONCLUSION: Maternal diet with frequent consumption of milk and less frequent consumption of vegetables during pregnancy might be associated with increased odds of preterm delivery. Future interventions should investigate whether increasing vegetable intake reduces preterm deliveries.

12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 143(2): 164-171, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess potential risk factors in identifying women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: The present study included data collected as part of a prospective cohort study, and included women with singleton pregnancies who underwent initial prenatal examination at a tertiary women and children's hospital in Guangzhou, China between February 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Maternal characteristics and medical history were investigated to evaluate associations with GDM. A risk factor scoring system for the prediction of GDM was generated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 1129 (13.5%) of 8381 women were diagnosed with GDM. Women older than 35 years had a 3.95-fold increased risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 2.80-5.58) compared with women aged 16-25 years; obese women had a 6.54-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 3.50-12.23) compared with underweight women. A risk scoring system was established based on age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, weight gain, and history of GDM. Screening for women with a score of 12 or more would have reduced the number undergoing oral glucose tolerance testing by 2131 (25.4%) patients with a sensitivity of 87% for GDM detection. CONCLUSION: The assessment of risk factors for GDM could provide a foundation for improving risk-based screening strategies in this and similar populations.

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 120, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma. This study aimed to quantify the effect of early life vitamin D status on asthma and wheeze later in life. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CNKI databases, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were searched up to July 2017. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies with vitamin D level in blood (maternal or cord or infant) or intake (maternal intake during pregnancy or infant intake) and asthma and/or wheeze. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to summarize the risk estimates of comparisons between highest vs. lowest vitamin D categories. RESULTS: Of the 1485 studies identified, three RCTs and 33 cohort studies were included. We did not include the RCTs (1619 participants) in the meta-analysis as the comparators and outcome definitions were heterogenous. Three RCTs reported a non-statistically significant effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on offspring wheeze/asthma at 3 years of age. Pooled estimates of cohort studies suggest no association between antenatal blood vitamin D levels or vitamin D intake and offspring asthma assessed either > 5 years or ≤ 5 years. The estimate for blood vitamin D remained unchanged when two studies assessing asthma in adulthood were excluded, but a significant inverse association emerged between vitamin D intake and childhood asthma. We found no association between antenatal vitamin D level and wheeze. On the other hand, vitamin D intake during pregnancy may have a protective effect against wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled estimates from cohort studies show no association between antenatal blood vitamin D level and asthma/wheeze in later life. Whereas, the pooled estimates from cohort studies suggest that antenatal vitamin D intake may have an effect on childhood asthma > 5 years or childhood wheeze. The inconsistent results from studies assessing vitamin D either in blood or intake may be explained by previously reported non-linear association between blood vitamin D3 and childhood asthma. Further trials with enough power and longer follow-up time should be conducted to confirm the results.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 238: 418-423, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between a composite measure of family socio-economic position (SEP)2 and depressive symptoms among Chinese pregnant women, nor any potential underlying mechanisms which may be amenable to preventative interventions. METHODS: We investigated the association between a composite SEP measure and depressive symptoms during early pregnancy, and tested for mediation by social support and moderation by parity in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (n = 12,382) using adjusted logistic regression and causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: In this population, 18.4% of women experienced depressive symptoms before the 20th gestational week. Compared with the highest quartile, the lowest SEP score quartile was associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.31-1.71), which was more pronounced among multiparous women than nulliparous women (P for interaction <0.001). Social support mediated the association between SEP and depressive symptoms, with greater proportion mediated in nulliparous women (73.4% for the lowest SEP score quartile) than multiparous women (30.5%). LIMITATIONS: Depressive symptoms were measured by Self-rated Depression Scale, which is not designed as a clinical diagnosis tool for depression. We only had information on perceived social support but not actual social support, although these two parameters were modestly correlated. CONCLUSION: Lower SEP was associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in pregnant women, driven by social support. And the association between SEP and depressive symptoms and mediation by social support were modified by parity. Whether this association extends to the post pregnancy period or is amenable to cost-effective interventions should be investigated in further studies.

15.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(2): 131-140, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In January 2016, a universal two-child policy was introduced in China. The association of interpregnancy interval (IPI) with perinatal outcomes has not previously been assessed among Chinese population. We investigated the effect of IPI after live birth on the risks of preterm delivery, and small, and large for gestational age births in China. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 227 352 Chinese women with their first and second delivery during 2000 to 2015. IPI was calculated as months from first live delivery to conception of the second pregnancy. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to evaluate associations of IPI with risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Compared to IPI of 24- <30 months, IPI <18 months was associated with higher risks of preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA). For IPI <6 months, the adjusted relative risks (RR) for PTB and SGA were 2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83, 2.27) and 1.43 (95% CI 1.31, 1.57), respectively. Women with IPI ≥60 months had higher risks of PTB and large for gestational age (LGA). For IPI ≥120 months, the adjusted RRs for PTB and LGA were 1.67 (95% CI 1.43, 1.94) and 1.10 (95% CI 0.97, 1.26). CONCLUSIONS: Women with IPI <18 months after live birth had higher risk of PTB and SGA, and IPI ≥60 months was associated with higher risk of PTB and LGA. These findings may provide information to Chinese couples about the appropriate interpregnancy interval for a second pregnancy.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Paridade , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 1421-1427, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859274

RESUMO

Incense burning is a popular practice in Asian and Arabic countries. Previous studies show that incense burning was associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes among non-pregnant population. However, very few studies explored its health effects among pregnant women, who are more susceptible to environmental stressor. We aimed to examine the association between incense burning at home and hypertensive disorders as well as blood pressure levels during pregnancy, using data from 10,563 pregnant women recruited in Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China between January 2013 and December 2015. Information on frequency and duration of exposure to incense burning were collected at early and late pregnancy using questionnaire. Data on outcome variables, including hypertensive disorders diagnosis and blood pressure levels at the final antenatal visit before delivery, were extracted from medical records. We used Poisson regression model and general linear model to examine the associations between incense exposure and the outcomes. We found incense use at early pregnancy was not significantly associated with outcomes. Pregnant women who frequently smelled the incense burning at late pregnancy was associated with higher risk of hypertensive disorders (relative risk, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.98) and higher levels of blood pressure (1.6mmHg increase of systolic blood pressure; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-2.8mmHg) before delivery, compared to those did not burn incense. These associations tended to more evident among women without active and passive smoking. We did not observe significant dose-response relationship between exposure duration and the risk of hypertensive disorders. We firstly reported exposure to incense burning was associated with the risk of hypertensive disorders and blood pressure levels during pregnancy. Given hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are well-established risk factors for a variety of adverse outcomes and the incense burning is a modifiable factor, our finding may have important public health significance.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumaça/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatrics ; 140(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interventions to prevent childhood obesity targeting school age children have mostly reported limited effectiveness, suggesting such prevention programs may need to start at an earlier age, but evidence has been scarce. We reported a pilot study aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a multifaceted intervention for preschool children and to provide a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness. METHODS: This nonrandomized controlled trial recruited children aged 3 to 6 years from 6 kindergartens in Guangzhou, China. Based on the preference of the School and Parents Committees, 4 kindergartens (648 children) received a 3-component intervention (training of kindergarten staff, initiating healthy curriculum for children, and close collaboration between families and kindergartens) over 12 months, while the other 2 kindergartens (336 children), serving as controls, received routine health care provision. Outcome measures were the changes in BMI z score between baseline and the end of 12 months, and the prevalence of postintervention children who were overweight or obese. RESULTS: By 12 months, children within the intervention group had a smaller BMI z score increase (0.24) compared to the control (0.41), with a difference of -0.31 (95% CI -0.47 to -0.15). The prevalence of overweight or obesity was also lower among the intervention group at the end of the study (OR: 0.43, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.96), adjusted for baseline status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a multicomponent health behavior intervention might be effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity, but the longer term effects will need confirmation from randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Antiviral Res ; 148: 5-14, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074218

RESUMO

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins, have exhibited impressive efficacy in the management of chronic hepatitis C. However, the concerns regarding high costs, drug resistance mutations and subsequent unexpected side effects still call for the development of host-targeting agents (HTAs) that target host factors involved in the viral life cycle and exhibit pan-genotypic antiviral activity. Given the close relationship between lipid metabolism and the HCV life cycle, we investigated the anti-HCV activity of a series of lipid-lowering drugs that have been approved by government administrations or proven safety in clinical trials. Our results showed that avasimibe, an inhibitor of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), exhibited marked pan-genotypic inhibitory activity and superior inhibition against HCV when combined with DAAs. Moreover, avasimibe significantly impaired the assembly of infectious HCV virions. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that avasimibe induced downregulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression, resulting in reduced apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein B secretion. Therefore, the pan-genotypic antiviral activity and clinically proven safety endow avasimibe exceptional potential as a candidate for combination therapy with DAAs. In addition, the discovery of the antiviral properties of ACAT inhibitors also suggests that inhibiting the synthesis of cholesteryl esters might be an additional target for the therapeutic intervention for chronic HCV infection.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Montagem de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores do Metabolismo de Lipídeos/farmacologia , Reguladores do Metabolismo de Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Sulfônicos/uso terapêutico
19.
Gigascience ; 6(8): 1-12, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873967

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome can modulate metabolic health and affect insulin resistance, and it may play an important role in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 43 GDM patients and 81 healthy pregnant women via whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of their fecal samples, collected at 21-29 weeks, to explore associations between GDM and the composition of microbial taxonomic units and functional genes. A metagenome-wide association study identified 154 837 genes, which clustered into 129 metagenome linkage groups (MLGs) for species description, with significant relative abundance differences between the 2 cohorts. Parabacteroides distasonis, Klebsiella variicola, etc., were enriched in GDM patients, whereas Methanobrevibacter smithii, Alistipes spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium spp. were enriched in controls. The ratios of the gross abundances of GDM-enriched MLGs to control-enriched MLGs were positively correlated with blood glucose levels. A random forest model shows that fecal MLGs have excellent discriminatory power to predict GDM status. Our study discovered novel relationships between the gut microbiome and GDM status and suggests that changes in microbial composition may potentially be used to identify individuals at risk for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Curva ROC
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1031, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28432291

RESUMO

Estimates of trends in birth weight may be useful in evaluating population health. We aimed to determine whether temporal changes in birth weight have occurred amongst 2.3 million neonates born in Guangzhou, China, during 2001-2015 and investigate the socioeconomic determinants of any changes. Trends in mean birth weight and annualized changes with the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA), defined as birth weight <10th or >90th centile respectively for gestational age and sex, were examined using linear and Poisson regression models. We found that mean birth weight declined by 1.07 grams/year from 2001 to 2015. After adjustment for gestational length, the decline in birth weight was attenuated (0.37 grams/year). The incidence of both SGA and LGA significantly decreased during the study period (annual decrease of 1.6% [95% CI, 1.5% to 1.7%] for SGA, 1.6% [95% CI, 1.5% to 1.8%] for LGA). We found a narrowing of disparities in SGA and LGA incidence across different maternal educational levels and residence location. Our results demonstrate that there has been an increase in the proportion of neonates born in the healthy birth weight range in Guangzhou.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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