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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 102562, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A green emission up-conversion carbon-based polymer dots (CPDs) owned excellent photophysical properties and good solubility. While most of the photosensitizers (PS) are hydrophobic thus limits the application of PSs in biomedicine. Herein we synthesized and integrated green emitting CPDs into pyropheophorbide-α (PPa) to improve the overall properties of the PS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The nano-agent was incorporated through amide condensation and electrostatic interaction. The structure, size and morphology of the prepared conjugates were determined by FTIR, TEM, DLS, TGA, 1HNMR, Uv-vis, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The dark and light toxicity, as well as cellular uptake, was also monitored on the human esophageal cancer cell line (Eca-109). RESULTS: Our results illustrate that the conjugation improved the PDT efficacy by increasing the ROS generation. The nano-hybrids showed pH sensitivity as well as good hemocompatibility as the hemolysis ratio was decreased when treated with nano-conjugates. PPa-CPD1 and PPa-CPD2 had the pH response and stronger ability to absorb light and produce fluorescence in an acidic environment (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0) The synthesized nano-hybrids doesnot affect the clotting time. An increase in the absorbance wavelengths was observed. The results of MTT assay showed that dark toxicity was reduced after conjugation. CONCLUSION: Thus, this CPDs-based drug enhanced tumor-inhibition efficiency as well as low dark toxicity in vitro, showing significant application potential in the PDT-based treatment.

2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 174561, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655598

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide, for which there is currently no comprehensive treatment available. Preventing blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is crucial for TBI treatment. N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA)-regulated palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) signaling play an important role in the control of inflammation. However, the role of NAAA in BBB dysfunction following TBI remains unclear. In the present study, we found that TBI induces the increase of PEA levels in the injured cortex, which prevent the disruption of BBB after TBI. TBI also induces the infiltration of NAAA-contained neutrophils, increasing the contribution of NAAA to the PEA degradation. Neutrophil-derived NAAA weakens PEA/PPARα-mediated BBB protective effects after TBI, facilitates the accumulation of immune cells, leading to secondary expansion of tissue injury. Inactivation of NAAA increased PEA levels in injured site, prevents early BBB damage and improves secondary injury, thereby eliciting long-term functional improvements after TBI. This study identified a new role of NAAA in TBI, suggesting that NAAA is a new important target for BBB dysfunction related CNS diseases.

3.
Head Neck ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic value of the dynamic change in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) and absolute monocyte counts (AMCs) and identify patients with N stage and plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who are at risk of treatment failure. METHODS: A total of 1124 eligible patients with Stage II-IVb NPC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. Percentage changes in the ALC (ΔALC%) and AMC (ΔAMC%) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with high ΔALC% were correlated with poorer 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates than those with low ΔALC%. Likewise, high ΔAMC% was significantly associated with worse outcome than low ΔAMC% (OS, p = 0.001; PFS, p = 0.001; DMFS, p = 0.034). Multivariate analyses revealed that ΔALC% (p = 0.046), ΔAMC% (p = 0.019), and EBV DNA level (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for OS. With respect to PFS, ΔALC% (p = 0.036), ΔAMC% (p = 0.011), N classification (p = 0.016), and EBV DNA level (p < 0.001) were also independent prognosticators. Based on the aforementioned independent risk factors (ΔALC% ≥ 83.33%, ΔAMC% ≥ 40.00%, Stage N2-3, EBV DNA ≥ 4000 copies/ml), patients were divided into three different risk groups (low-risk group [with <1 risk factor], intermediate risk group [with 1-3 risk factors], and high-risk group [with 4 risk factors]) that correlated with disparate risks of death (p < 0.001), disease progression (p < 0.001), and distant metastasis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High ΔALC% and ΔAMC% were correlated with poor prognosis in patients with NPC. Risk stratification based on ΔALC%, ΔAMC%, N classification, and plasma EBV DNA levels could provide potential utility for risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for NPC.

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113645, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571483

RESUMO

Various sensing platforms based on molecular or nanosystems are widely exploited through molecular diversity and specific recognition. However, it is extremely challenging to develop systems with tunable sensing ability and utilize the systems as information carriers/covers for communication and safety. Herein, DNA nanosensing systems based on cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) nanosheets were constructed for tunable detection and valence distinction of metal ions, molecular crypto-steganography, and information coding. CoOOH nanosheets absorb fluorescence-labeled single-stranded DNA with different bases and lengths, resulting in fluorescence quenching. The binding priority of bases with CoOOH nanosheets was guanine (G) > cytosine (C) > adenine (A) ≈ thymine (T) and the short chain excelled long chain. Due to the differences in the interaction among CoOOH, DNA, metal ions and variability of DNA bases, various DNA-CoOOH nanosystems have significantly different selective response patterns (that is selectivity) to metal ions and tunable linear ranges to Fe3+, Hg2+, Cr3+. Interestingly, by utilizing their molecular diversity, recognition, selective patterns, DNA-CoOOH sensing systems can be served as doubly cryptographic and steganographic systems to implement information encoding, encryption, and hiding and to reversely improve the selectivity of metal ions. This study provides an idea and platform for adjustable detection and valence distinction of metal ions, and gives a set of "molecular programming languages" for designing intelligent programmable sensing and molecular information communication and safety systems.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105539, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the benefits of S-1/capecitabine as maintenance therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with different risks of treatment failure. METHODS: A total of 2205 eligible, locoregionally advanced NPC patients were recruited for this retrospective study. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify optimal predictors of overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for constructing the nomograms. Patients were stratified into high-risk or low-risk groups based on the total score of the nomograms. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to match the maintenance and non-maintenance cohorts in different risk groups. A log-rank test was performed to evaluate correlations between maintenance therapy and survival. RESULTS: A nomogram for OS was established (C-index, 0.664; 95% confidence interval, 0.635-0.693). The 5-year OS rate was significantly higher in the low-risk group than in the high-risk group (83.5% vs. 67.2%, P < 0.001). Patients in the high-risk group who received S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy achieved significant improvement in the 5-year OS rate (82.8% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.034), whereas patients in the low-risk group did not (86.7% vs. 80.9%, P = 0.081). There was no significant difference in OS, DMFS, progression-free survival (PFS), or toxicities between the S-1 and capecitabine groups (all P > 0.05), and overall treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were not severe (grade 1-2). CONCLUSION: S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy could prolong OS for locoregionally advanced NPC patients in the high-risk group. The toxicities of S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy were mild and tolerable. Our findings can help guide maintenance therapy in locoregionally advanced NPC.

6.
J Med Food ; 24(9): 997-1009, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524027

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be associated with numerous aging-related diseases. Ethyl acetate fraction of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic (EA) had been reported to possess strong radical-scavenging activity due to its rich content of flavonoids. This work aimed to determine the protective effects of EA against oxidative injuries in vivo and in vitro, as well as to explore the relevant mechanisms behind these effects. Pretreatment with EA significantly elevated cell viability of H2O2-induced HepG2 cells, reduced the reactive oxygen species level, decreased apoptotic cells, and inhibited activities of caspase 3/9. Meanwhile, EA pretreatment elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), while reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) generation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release dose-dependently. In addition, EA modulated key marker genes expression of antioxidation and apoptosis-related signaling pathways at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In the animal studies, EA also significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity and reduced MDA generation in serum, liver, and brain of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mice. Furthermore, the histological analysis indicated that EA effectively alleviated liver and brain injury of mice induced by D-gal, dose-dependently. EA as a potential antioxidant agent promoted health and reduced the risk of aging-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Abelmoschus/química , Acetatos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores/química , Galactose , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , Camundongos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 578: 7-14, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520980

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S), an important E2 enzyme in the process of ubiquitination, has exhibited oncogenic activities in various malignant tumors. However, it remains unknown whether UBE2S plays a role in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) development. In the current study, our data confirmed UBE2S upregulation in UBC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that UBE2S knockdown resulted in attenuated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, which was inverse to the phenotypes with UBE2S overexpression. Gain and loss of function assays confirmed that UBE2S exerts oncogenic activities in UBC by mediating the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. Furthermore, we discovered that this UBE2S-modulated carcinogenic mechanism was in the consequence of directly targeting tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), which is the upstream inhibitor of mTOR signaling for ubiquitous degradation. Taken together, this study demonstrated that UBE2S is a carcinogen in UBC and promotes UBC progression by ubiquitously degrading TSC1. This consequently mediates the activation of the mTOR pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic regimen for UBC by targeting the newly identified UBE2S/TSC1/mTOR axis.

8.
Ocul Surf ; 22: 230-241, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474170

RESUMO

High expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in meibomian glands produces monounsaturated fatty acids that allow the biosynthesis of glycerolipids and other wax-esters but only the low production of sphingolipids. Here, we found that SCD1 deficiency in mice induces the spill of free fatty acids into a parallel pathway for ceramide biosynthesis, resulting in severe meibomian gland dysfunction associated with meibum accumulation in duct lumen and orifices and subsequent atrophy and loss of acinar cells. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 in mice resulted in meibomian gland pathological phenotypes, including local lipid microenvironment alterations, reduced normal cellular differentiation, increased keratinization, inflammatory cell infiltration, cell apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase, the initial enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis, improved meibomian gland metabolism and morphology in SCD1-deficient mice, resulting in normal cell differentiation and reduced inflammation infiltration, cell apoptosis, and keratinization. These results indicate that elevated levels of endogenous ceramides are a sign of MGD and suggest that inhibition of ceramide de novo biosynthesis could be a new clinical approach to treating MGD.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552217

RESUMO

Emerging evidence shows that chronic inflammation mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) contributes to diabetic nephropathy. Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88) is an essential adapter protein of all TLRs except TLR3 in innate immunity. It is unclear whether MyD88 could be a therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy. Here, we used a new small-molecule MyD88 inhibitor, LM8, to examine the pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 in protecting kidneys from inflammatory injury in diabetes. We showed that MyD88 was significantly activated in the kidney of STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice in tubular epithelial cells as well as in high glucose-treated rat tubular epithelial cells NRK-52E. In cultured tubular epithelial cells, we show that LM8 (2.5-10 µM) or MyD88 siRNA attenuated high-concentration glucose-induced inflammatory and fibrogenic responses through inhibition of MyD88-TLR4 interaction and downstream NF-κB activation. Treatment with LM8 (5, 10 mg/kg, i.g.) significantly reduced renal inflammation and fibrosis and preserved renal function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice. These renoprotective effects were associated with reduced MyD88-TLR4 complex formation, suppressed NF-κB signaling, and prevention of inflammatory factor expression. Collectively, our results show that hyperglycemia activates MyD88 signaling cascade to induce renal inflammation, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 may be a therapeutic approach to mitigate diabetic nephropathy and the inhibitor LM8 could be a potential candidate for such therapy.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 173-182, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-19 survivors one year after recovery, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal patterns in chest imaging manifestations or impaired lung function. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed up with symptoms, health-related quality of life, psychological questionnaires, 6-minute walking test, chest computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and blood tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the clinical characteristics and chest CT abnormalities or pulmonary function. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 were recruited between January 16 and February 6, 2021. Muscle fatigue and insomnia were the most common symptoms. Chest CT scans were abnormal in 71.28% of participants. The results of multivariable regression showed an increased odds in age. Ten patients had diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) impairment. Urea nitrogen concentration on admission was significantly associated with impaired DLCO. IgG levels and neutralizing activity were significantly lower compared with those in the early phase. CONCLUSIONS: One year after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of survivors were mainly troubled with muscle fatigue and insomnia. Pulmonary structural abnormalities and pulmonary diffusion capacities were highly prevalent in surviving COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to intervene in the main target population for long-term recovery.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 627935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512316

RESUMO

Background: Despite the development of such multiple therapeutic approaches, approximately 20% patients experience recurrence. Identification of molecular markers for stratifying the different risks of tumour recurrence and progression is considered imperative. Methods: We used a RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array that simultaneously detected the levels of 297 proteins and profiled the conditioned medium of HONE1 cells and the radioresistant NPC cells HONE1-IR. We found Angiogenin(ANG) expression to be significantly increased in HONE1-IR and HONE1-IR cells exposed to 4-Gy X-ray radiation. Results: We investigated the expression of ANG in NPC tissues and explored its prognostic significance in patients with NPC. We found that ANG expression was increased in recurrent NPC tissues. Elevated expression of ANG induced radio-resistance in NPC cells, in addition to being significantly associated with shorter PFS, OS, and LRFS in patients with NPC. Multivariate analysis results revealed that ANG was an independent prognostic factor that predicted PFS, OS, and LRFS. Furthermore, a nomogram model was generated to predict OS in terms of ANG expression. Conclusion: Our results found the radioresistant function of ANG and proved the clinical prognostic significance of ANG, and the results could help predict radio-sensitivity and stratify high-risk patients or tumour recurrence.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 431-437, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 1% the world's population with high recurrence rates and a series of comorbidities. Cognitive dysfunction is an endophenotype of BD, but sex influences in cognitive impairment remains unclear. METHOD: We evaluated the performance of 139 patients with first-diagnosed, drug-naïve BD (44 males and 95 females) and 92 healthy controls (24 males and 68 females) using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) scale and the Stroop color-word test. RESULT: Immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional ability, language, attention, delayed memory, total RBANS score, and Stroop color-word scores were significantly lower in patients with first-diagnosed, drug-naïve BD than healthy participants. Thus, male patients had worse attention and delayed memory scores compared with female patients with BD. Importantly, a worse performance in visuospatial/constructional ability was negatively associated with the Young Mania Rating Scale score in male patients only. CONCLUSION: Male patients with first-diagnosed, drug-naïve bipolar disorder had worse cognitive dysfunction than female patients in attention and delayed memory. Cognitive deficits were correlated with mania severity only in male patients. These findings reveal the sexual dimorphism in the cognitive deficits of early BD patients with mild and moderated symptoms for further pathophysiological exploration.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475825

RESUMO

Background: Administration of aspirin has the potential for significant side effects of gastrointestinal (GI) injury mainly caused by gastric acid stimulation, especially in long-term users or users with original gastrointestinal diseases. The debate on the optimal treatment of aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury is ongoing. We aimed to compare and rank the different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury based on current evidence. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Chinese databases for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury from inception to 1 May 2021. All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. Results: A total of 10 RCTs, which comprised 503 participants, were included in the analysis. The overall quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high. Eleven different treatments, including omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, famotidine, geranylgeranylacetone, misoprostol, ranitidine bismuth citrate, chili, phosphatidylcholine complex, omeprazole plus rebamipide, and placebo, were evaluated in terms of preventing gastrointestinal injury. It was suggested that omeprazole plus rebamipide outperformed other treatments, whereas geranylgeranylacetone and placebo were among the least treatments. Conclusion: This is the first systematic review and network meta-analysis of different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. Our study suggested that omeprazole plus rebamipide might be considered the best option to treat aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. More multicenter, high quality, large sample size randomized controlled trials will confirm the advantages of these medicines in the treatment of aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury in the future.

14.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1536-1543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341578

RESUMO

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
15.
Radiother Oncol ; 163: 185-191, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsatisfactory tumor response to induction chemotherapy (IC) is an adverse prognostic factor of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). A re-induction strategy which applies additional cycles of an alternative IC regimen prior to radiotherapy (RT) has been adopted. METHODS: A total of 419 LANPC patients who attained suboptimal response (stable disease or disease progression) according to the Response Evaluation in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline after initial IC were retrospectively included. They were divided into those who received additional cycles of re-induction regimen prior to RT (re-induction group, n = 87) and those who had no additional chemotherapy (direct to RT group, n = 332). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to adjust for potential confounders. Tumor response and long-term survival were compared between two groups. RESULTS: After receiving a second IC regimen, 39.1% of the patients in re-induction group attained partial response; however, the tumor control of subsequent RT was not significantly improved when compared with direct to RT group (patients attaining complete response after RT 55.2% vs. 52.5%, P = 0.757). Patients who received re-induction therapy showed worse locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those proceeded directly to RT (3-year LRFS 75.7% vs. 83.1%, P = 0.005; 3-year PFS 62.4% vs. 68.3%, P = 0.037). The increased hematological toxicities were observed in re-induction group that included grade 3-4 anemia, thrombocytopenia and liver enzyme increase. CONCLUSION: Re-induction therapy decreased LRFS and PFS and increased toxicities among patients who attain suboptimal response to initial IC regimen, as compared with direct to RT strategy.

16.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(9): e14108, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351689

RESUMO

The genus Flavivirus comprises numerous emerging and re-emerging arboviruses causing human illness. Vaccines are the best approach to prevent flavivirus diseases. But pathogen diversities are always one of the major hindrances for timely development of new vaccines when confronting unpredicted flavivirus outbreaks. We used West Nile virus (WNV) as a model to develop a new live-attenuated vaccine (LAV), WNV-poly(A), by replacing 5' portion (corresponding to SL and DB domains in WNV) of 3'-UTR with internal poly(A) tract. WNV-poly(A) not only propagated efficiently in Vero cells, but also was highly attenuated in mouse model. A single-dose vaccination elicited robust and long-lasting immune responses, conferring full protection against WNV challenge. Such "poly(A)" vaccine strategy may be promising for wide application in the development of flavivirus LAVs because of its general target regions in flaviviruses.

17.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112905, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392008

RESUMO

(+)-(2S,3S)- and (-)-(2R,3R)-Oxybaphuslactam A glucosides are two undescribed benzofuran ε-caprolactams featuring a unique 7/6/5 fused tricyclic framework with p-glucosyl-O-phenyl unit. They were isolated from the root of Tibetan medicinal plant Oxybaphus himalaicus along with an undescribed sucrose ester, 3-O-feruloyl sucrose, an undescribed lignan glucoside, (7'R,8R,8'S)-3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-7',9-epoxylignan-9'-ol-7-one 4,4'-di-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside and ten known amides and phenylpropanoid derivatives. Based on the spectral analyses, X-ray crystallography and comparison of experimental and TD-DFT calculated ECD spectra, the structures of these compounds were determined. The anti-inflammatory assay showed the undescribed compounds had significant inhibitory effects on the formation of NO, TNF-α and IL-6, which were evaluated by LPS induced RAW 264.7 cell model.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Caprolactama , Lignanas , Amidas , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular
18.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409490

RESUMO

Deletion of the neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) gene is common, but NF1 rearrangement or fusion has rarely been reported in peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Here, we present a case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in a 36-year-old Chinese female. Histologically, the lesion was composed of spindle cells with moderate atypia, immature bone, and atypical cartilage elements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for USP6 revealed green-orange split signals, strongly suggesting the presence of USP6 rearrangement. Subsequent next-generation sequencing-based technology analyses revealed t(17,17) (p13.2, q11.2) intrachromosomal translocation resulting in a novel NF1-SCIMP fusion gene along with NF1 deletion. However, USP6 fusion was not identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case with a confirmed NF1 gene fusion partner in a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Notably, rearrangement of the SCIMP may cause a pitfall in the interpretation of USP6 FISH results.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 699292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434127

RESUMO

Default mode network (DMN) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the homogeneity of this network in BD is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in the NH of the DMN at rest and the correlation between the NH of DMN and clinical variables in patients with BD. Forty drug-naive patients with BD and thirty-seven healthy control subjects participated in the study. Network homogeneity (NH) and independent component analysis (ICA) methods were used for data analysis. Support vector machines (SVM) method was used to analyze NH in different brain regions. Compared with healthy controls, significantly increased NH in the left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and decreased NH in the right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral precuneus were found in patients with BD. NH in the right PCC was positively correlated with the verbal fluency test and verbal function total scores. NH in the left superior MPFC was negatively correlated with triglyceride (TG). NH in the right PCC was positively correlated with TG but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). NH in the bilateral precuneus was positively correlated with cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, NH in the left superior MPFC showed high sensitivity (80.00%), specificity (71.43%), and accuracy (75.61%) in the SVM results. These findings contribute new evidence of the participation of the altered NH of the DMN in the pathophysiology of BD.

20.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(4): 827-831, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The characteristics of oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in Chinese patients were investigated to provide a reference for patients treated with oxaliplatin. METHODS: The study reviewed the records of patients who developed oxaliplatin-induced HSRs in 17 hospitals from May 2016 to May 2017. We collected and analyzed the basic information, history of oxaliplatin administration and premedication treatments, chemotherapy cycles, HSR symptoms, and the management and outcomes of these patients. RESULTS: Oxaliplatin-induced HSRs were recorded in 137 patients who had been treated with oxaliplatin-containing regimens. Five different chemotherapy regimens were applied. The median infusion cycle when oxaliplatin-induced HSRs occurred was 7, and HSRs occurred during or shortly after oxaliplatin infusion. Most of the patients experienced grade 1 or grade 2 HSRs with mild symptoms of pruritis (49.64%), flushing (46.72%), chest discomfort (26.28%), and urticaria (25.55%). The majority of the patients completely recovered from HSRs following treatment with antihistamines and dexamethasone. Seven patients completed chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after the symptoms resolved with proper management. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced HSRs remain an important issue in safely and successfully fulfilling oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to analyze the risk factors and establish prophylaxis for such reactions.

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