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1.
Phytomedicine ; 100: 154059, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The synergic action of compound prescriptions is an important feature and core advantage of traditional medicine. Ginseng-Fuzi decoction is a classic compatible phytomedicine in China, of which Ginseng can effectively reduce the toxicity of Fuzi in clinical, but the detoxification chemical mechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE: Develop a novel method for real-time tracking and monitoring of complex substances in the decoction system of traditional Chinese medicine to uncover the detoxification effect Ginseng on Fuzi and explore the possible chemical reaction mechanism of Ginseng-Fuzi co-decoction. METHODS: A novel real-time monitoring system, online filtration electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, was developed for extremely complex substances analysis in the decoction of traditional medicine compounds to uncover the directionally detoxification effect and the mechanism of compatibility interaction. RESULTS: Nine key alkaloids and 7 ginsenosides in Ginseng-Fuzi decoction were simultaneously in-situ monitoring in positive ion mode or negative ion mode respectively. Both types of targeted analytes had satisfactory MS signal response for real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis with high precision (RSD < 14.04%) and low LLODs (0.002 ng/ml-10 ng/ml). Through long-term tracking analysis, the exact detoxification and synergistic effect of Ginseng-Fuzi decoction were confirmed as the concentration of main toxic alkaloids decreased (e.g. the content of mesaconitine has been reduced by about 38%) and the main active monoester alkaloids increased obviously. More importantly, the possible molecular mechanism of the detoxification effect of Ginseng compatibility was revealed for the first time, which was the nucleophilic substitution reaction of diester alkaloids catalyzed by fatty acids. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the exact effect of co-decoction of Ginseng and Fuzi at the molecular level and the chemical reaction mechanism of fatty acid-catalyzed degradation of toxic diester-type alkaloids. The comprehensive multi-component real-time monitoring strategy for complex traditional medicine compounds developed and implemented here has important demonstration significance for revealing the scientific connotation of the compatibility of compound traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax , Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(1): 279-284, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178935

RESUMO

Quality is the guarantee for the clinical safety and effectiveness of Chinese medicine. Accurate quality evaluation is the key to the standardization and modernization of Chinese medicine. Efforts have been made in improving Chinese medicine quality and strengthening the quality and safety supervision in China, but rapid and accurate quality evaluation of complex Chinese medicine samples is still a challenge. On the basis of the development of ambient mass spectrometry and the application in quality evaluation of complex Chinese medicine systems in recent years, the authors developed the multi-scenario Chinese medicine quality evaluation strategies. A systematic methodology was proposed in specific areas such as real-time monitoring of the quality of complex Chinese medicine decoction system, rapid toxicity grading of compound Chinese patent medicine, and evaluation of bulk medicinals of Chinese patent medicine. Allowing multi-scenario analysis of Chinese medicine, it is expected to provide universal research ideas and technical methods for rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Chinese medicine and boost the high-quality development of Chinese medicine industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Padrões de Referência
3.
Phytochemistry ; 194: 113030, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839132

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is a highly valuable and widely used herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The quality and efficacy of Panax notoginseng grown under different conditions can greatly vary due to the differences in chemical composition. The analysis of chemical composition in Panax notoginseng typically involves various experimental steps including extraction, chromatographic separation and characterization, which can be time- and labor-consuming. Therefore, the efficient quality assessment and control of Panax notoginseng requires the development of more rapid methods for the chemical characterization and classification of Panax notoginseng. In this study, a method based on internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS) was developed to characterize chemical components of Panax notoginseng samples under different growth conditions (e.g., place of origin, soil quality, growth season) at the speed of 0.5 min per sample, without sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation. A total of 35 chemical components, including sugars, saponins, organic acids, etc., were identified in Panax notoginseng samples. Clear separation was observed in the multivariate analysis of the iEESI-MS data from Panax notoginseng samples grown under different conditions. The difference in the content of sucrose, fructose, Rg1, Rf, Rb1, Noto-R1, malonyl-Rb1, malonyl-Rg1, malonyl-Rf, Rd, Re, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and malic acid can be used as key characteristic indicators to discriminate origin, commercial specifications, and cultivation conditions of Panax notoginseng samples. The results of our study indicate the high power of iEESI-MS for the rapid molecular characterization and classification of Panax notoginseng under different growth conditions, which can be used for the quality assessment of traditional herbal medicines as well as in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Análise Multivariada , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
4.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(12): e5175, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390018

RESUMO

Viscum articulatum Burm. f. is a parasitic plant rich in flavonoids, triterpenoids, and catechins and has a high nutritional value. It has been reported that consuming V. articulatum can prevent cardiac diseases. In this study, six bioactive compounds, including catechins, triterpenoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides, were determined in alcohol extracts of the plant using HPLC. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of three catechins, two triterpenoids, and three combination drugs were measured in cardiomyocytes, and the results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity was significantly enhanced while retaining strong antioxidant activity when epicatechin and ursolic acid were used in combination. The main quality markers epicatechin and ursolic acid were screened based on the specificity of the genuine herb and a potent synergistic effect, and the lowest limitation contents of V. articulatum which could discriminate it from some other taxonomically similar materials were accordingly determined. This self-built lowest limitation content of the two screened quality markers could quickly and accurately reflect the efficacy in terms of chemical composition and reverse the disorderly market use of nongenuine herbs or confusing species for adulteration. This study is of some significance for market regulation, drug development, and clinical medication.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Viscum , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Catequina/análise , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triterpenos/análise , Viscum/química , Viscum/classificação
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 114216, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044076

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, a famous traditional medicinal herb for collapse, rheumatic fever, and painful joints, always raises global concerns about its fatal toxicity from toxic alkaloids when improperly processed. Therefore, it is urgent to clarify the internal molecular mechanism of processing detoxification on Aconitum and develop simple and reliable approaches for clinical application, which is also of great significance to the rational medicinal use of Aconitum. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed at developing a complete molecular mechanism exploration strategy in complex medicinal herb decocting system, clarifying the internal molecular mechanism of processing detoxification on Aconitum, and exploring valid approaches for detoxification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) was selected as the model for exploring the complex Aconitum detoxification mechanism using an advanced online real-time platform based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The methods realized the sensitive capture of dynamic trace intermediates, accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis, and real-time and long-term monitoring of multi-components with satisfactory accuracy and resistance to complex matrices. RESULTS: Components in the complex Aconitum decocting system were real-timely characterized and fat meat was discovered and verified to directionally detoxify Aconitum while reserving the therapy effect. More importantly, the dynamic detoxification mechanism in the chemically complex Aconitum decoction was molecularly profiled. A novel reaction pathway based on nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism was proposed. As confirmed by the theoretic calculations at DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d) levels, fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid) acted as a green, cheap, and high-performance catalyst and promote the decomposition of toxic diester alkaloids to non-toxic and active benzoyl-monoester alkaloids through the discovered mechanism. CONCLUSION: The study exposed a novel detoxification molecular mechanism of Aconitum and provided an effective method for the safe use of Aconitum, which could effectively guide the development of traditional processing technology and compatibility regulation of the toxic herb and had great value to the modernization and standardization development of traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Diterpenos/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 114233, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044077

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Viscum comprises approximately 100 species that are mainly distributed across Africa, Asia and Europe. The extracts and preparations of Viscum species are widely used as common complementary and alternative medicines in the treatment of rheumatism and cancer. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to explore the medicinal properties of twelve species belonging to the genus Viscum for potential therapeutic applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected online information (including PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) from January 1915 to April 2021 and knowledge from classical books on Chinese herbal medicines available for 12 species of the genus Viscum, including Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai, Viscum album L., Viscum articulatum Burm. f., Viscum liquidambaricola Hayata, Viscum ovalifolium DC., Viscum capitellatum Sm., Viscum cruciatum Sieber ex Boiss., Viscum nudum Danser, Viscum angulatum B.Heyne ex DC., Viscum tuberculatum A.Rich., Viscum multinerve Hayata, and Viscum diospyrosicola Hayata. RESULTS: At least 250 different compounds have been reported across twelve Viscum species, including amino acid and peptides, alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, lipids, and other types of compounds. In particular, for Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai and Viscum album L., the plants, preparations, and bioactive components have been thoroughly reviewed. This has allowed to elucidate the role of active components, including lectins, viscotoxins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, in multiple bioactivities, such as anti-cancer, anti-rheumatism arthralgia, anti-inflammation, anti-cardiovascular diseases, enhancing immunity, and anti-chemotherapy side effects. We also evaluated quality control methods based on active compounds, in vivo exposure compounds, and discriminated chemical markers. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to systematically review the pharmaceutical development history, chemical composition, clinical evidence, pharmacological activity, discriminated chemical markers, in vivo exposure, and quality control on twelve distinct species of Viscum plants with medicinal properties. The significant safety and efficacy, along with the minor side effects are constantly confirmed in clinics. The genus Viscum is thus an important medicinal resource that is worth exploring and developing in future pharmacological and chemical studies.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viscum/química , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1357-1367, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787132

RESUMO

The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, which directly affects the efficacy and safety of clinical medication. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish an identification method for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. In this review, the identification methods for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were summarized systematically, and were divided into four types according to the identification principles and methods: traditional identification, molecular identification, physical/chemical identification, and integrated identification. Relying on rich experience, objective molecular markers, various physical/chemical methods and integrated identification techniques(including infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, bionic identification technology and their tandem technologies, etc.), the differences of characters or chemical fingerprints were compared in depth. The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were quickly identified or predicted by the appearance and characters, the whole fingerprint information or the content of specific chemical markers, and their content ratios. Through the case analysis of mature varieties, we intend to promote the establishment of a perfect technology system for the identification of the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, and to provide a reference for other perennial herbal materials, finally resulting in the accurate and precise quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 192: 113654, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120312

RESUMO

The proprietary Chinese medicine (PCM) has become a significant supplement of modern medicine. Nevertheless, the absence of quality control standard of compatible materials in PCM has led to serious adulteration, which has an extremely bad effect on safety of drug use and clinical efficacy. Here, a quality tracing evaluation strategy of compatible materials in 32 Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs) was established, including data normalization, model development, model verification, and unknown prescription cracking. The model was delimited based on the weighted content of total 9 key alkaloids in 24 APCMs, which were 5.65-57.10 µg/g for extract medicines and 42.62-380.61 µg/g for powder medicines. Three newly published commercial APCMs, including Wangbi Tablet, Wangbi Granule, and Fengshigutong Capsule, were used to verify its reliability and the results proved to be positive. Moreover, a novel prescription cracking approach was proposed to decode the content of each material in five unknown prescriptions including Yaoxitong Capsule, Tongrendahuoluo Pill, Xinbao Pill, Dahuoluo Capsule, and Mugua Pill. Ultimately, the single or two compatible Aconitum materials in APCMs was successfully decoded and the processed level of the materials were effectively judged. This study for the first time established a practical strategy for supervision and cracking of compatible materials in PCMs and is of great significance to improve the quality control of PCMs.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Aconitina , China , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(8): 1511-1520, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963946

RESUMO

Development of rapid analytical methods and establishment of toxic component limitation standards are of great importance in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. Herein, an on-line extraction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (oEESI-MS) coupled with a novel whole process integral quantification strategy was developed and applied to direct determination of nine key aconitine-type alkaloids in 20 Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs). Multi-type dosage forms (e.g., tablets, capsules, pills, granules, and liquid preparation) of APCM could be determined directly with excellent versatility. The strategy has the characteristics of high throughput, good tolerance of matrix interference, small amount of sample (∼0.5 mg) and reagent (∼240 µL) consumption, and short analysis time for single sample (<15 min). The results were proved to be credible by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, respectively. Moreover, the limitation standard for the toxic aconitines in 20 APCMs was established based on the holistic weight toxicity (HWT) evaluation and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia severally, and turned out that HWT-based toxicity evaluation results were closer to the real clinical applications. Hence, a more accurate and reliable APCM toxicity limitation was established and expected to play an important guiding role in clinics. The current study extended the power of ambient MS as a method for the direct quantification of molecules in complex samples, which is commonly required in pharmaceutical analysis, food safety control, public security, and many other disciplines.

10.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(5): 903-912, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528836

RESUMO

Due to numerous obstacles such as complex matrices, real-time monitoring of complex reaction systems (e.g., medicinal herb stewing system) has always been a challenge though great values for safe and rational use of drugs. Herein, facilitated by the potential ability on the tolerance of complex matrices of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, a device was established to realize continuous sampling and real-time quantitative analysis of herb stewing system for the first time. A complete analytical strategy, including data acquisition, data mining, and data evaluation was proposed and implemented with overcoming the usual difficulties in real-time mass spectrometry quantification. The complex Fuzi (the lateral root of Aconitum)-meat stewing systems were real-timely monitored in 150 min by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nine key alkaloids accurately. The results showed that the strategy worked perfectly and the toxicity of the systems were evaluated and predicated accordingly. Stewing with trotters effectively accelerated the detoxification of Fuzi soup and reduced the overall toxicity to 68%, which was recommended to be used practically for treating rheumatic arthritis and enhancing immunity. The established strategy was versatile, simple, and accurate, which would have a wide application prospect in real-time analysis and evaluation of various complex reaction systems.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(24): 6072-6080, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496149

RESUMO

Dao-di herbs, which are widely recognized as medicinal materials with a high quality and good efficacy in clinic, are now facing the dilemma of absence of standard. This study focused on a pivotal scientific problem of design and application of quality standard of Dao-di herbs, and systematically illustrated the general rules for the quality standard of Dao-di herbs involving "four rules, six core contents, and three key methods". The quality standard of Dao-di herbs shall be fully based on literatures as well as habitat, planting/breeding, processing, characters, chemical-pharmacological/toxic data. The common requirements for the quality standard of Dao-di herbs contain "clear source, explicit origin, rational indicator, gradable quality, and multiple detection methods". Notably, traditional experiences and modern techniques, quality tracing management system, "quality determination by distinguishing characters" method, rapid detection technology, effective/toxic substances control method, were comprehensively applied in this standard to purse the objectification, automation, and intellectualization of detection technology. Appearance characters, chemical components, and bioactive parameters, unified effective/toxic indicators, quality markers, and pharmacopeial control indicators and reasonable ranges were included in rigorous quality standards for Dao-di herbs. Besides, simple grading method shall be developed to guide the implementation of "high quality-high price" policy. Eventually, the new quality standards for Dao-di herbs will lead international standards and promote the high-quality development of Dao-di herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Padrões de Referência , Tecnologia
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3695-3704, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602941

RESUMO

Aconitums,represented by Aconite Radix,Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Aconiti Kusnezoffh Folium,is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history in China. They possess the significant toxicity and therapeutic effects simultaneously. Their potent effects of rescuing from dying,curing rheumatism,anti-inflammation,and analgesia make Aconitums highly regarded by physicians and pharmacists of various dynasties. However,countless poisoning cases caused by an irrational use of Aconitums were reported. In case of improper application and exceeding the therapeutic window,the acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity would be caused,seriously threatening health and even life of the users. Therefore,the clinical application of Aconitums is limited to some extent. To avoid its toxicity and ensure the safety of medicinal use,Aconitums is usually used in a form of its processed products instead of the crude herbs,or combined with some other traditional Chinese medicines in a normal prescription. A proper processing and compatibility method can detoxicate its severe toxicity,reduce the adverse reactions,and also significantly broaden the indications and application range of Aconitums. This provides a guarantee for the secondary exploitation and utilization of Aconitums. In this paper,the traditional processing methods of Aconitums,along with the modern advancement were reviewed,and the mechanisms of detoxification by processing and compatibility were also illuminated. The physical detoxification mode and chemical detoxification mode were found as two main detoxification ways for Aconitums. In particular,the detoxification by hydrolysis,ion-pair,and saponification were three main means. The mechanisms illustrated in this paper can be a reference to the development of modern processing method and a guidance for appropriate use of Aconitums in clinical application.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Aconitum/toxicidade , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
J Pharm Anal ; 8(5): 312-317, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345145

RESUMO

Soxhlet extraction is a common method of sample preparation. However, there has been no discussion about the efficiency of Soxhlet extraction from different batches and the factors that cause content fluctuation. In this study, Panax ginseng was selected as a model sample. Soxhlet extraction by means of a water bath, which has always been neglected, was identified as a novel key factor in the poor repeatability in different batches of Soxhlet extraction, as it can affect the siphon times and reflux time, which have been positively correlated with the ginsenoside contents. By substituting round bottom flasks in the same column, the relative standard deviation of the most fluctuated compound, ginsenoside Rb1, was decreased from 24.6% to 5.02%. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the breakdown of the surface of the ginseng powder in the Soxhlet extraction led to a better dissolution of ginsenosides, indicating that chloroform may promote the extraction of ginsenosides by disrupting the cell structure. Moreover, 70% methanol was regarded as the better solvent for extracting the ginsenosides. Overall, this work offers a practical and effective protocol for improving the accuracy and repeatability of Soxhlet extraction methodology for ginsenosides and other analytes.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(16): 3243-3248, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200725

RESUMO

Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was used to distinguish Ganoderma lucidum samples collected from different origins, and a prediction model was established for rapid determine polysaccharides contents in these samples. The classification accuracy for training dataset was 96.87%, while for independent dataset was 93.33%; as for the prediction model, 5-fold cross-validation was used to optimize the parameters, and different signal processing methods were also optimized to improve the prediction ability of the model. The best square of correlation coefficients for training dataset was 0.965 4, and 0.851 6 for validation dataset; while the root-mean-square deviation values for training dataset and validation dataset were 0.018 5 and 0.023 6, respectively. These results showed that combining near infrared spectroscopy with suitable chemometrics approaches could accuracy distinguish different origins of G. lucidum samples; the established prediction model could precious predict polysaccharides contents, the proposed method can help determine the activity compounds and quality evaluation of G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/análise , Geografia , Reishi/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
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