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1.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039929

RESUMO

The relationship between hypertension and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to explore the association between them. Six databases were searched for studies published before August 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between the hypertension and CRC risk. A total of 2841 potentially relevant articles were obtained, and 25 studies with a pooled 1.95 million participants were finally included in the meta-analysis. These results suggested a positive association between hypertension and risk of CRC with a pooled RR of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.23). Male patients with hypertension had a 13% (95% CI: 1.06, 1.20) increased risk of CRC. The risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in male patients was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.36) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.74), respectively, while no association between hypertension and the risk of CRC in females was elucidated. This meta-analysis demonstrated that a positive association between hypertension and CRC exists, with male patients having a higher risk of developing CRC than female patients.

2.
Chem Rev ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971371

RESUMO

As a novel member of the two-dimensional nanomaterial family, mono- or few-layer black phosphorus (BP) with direct bandgap and high charge carrier mobility is promising in many applications such as microelectronic devices, photoelectronic devices, energy technologies, and catalysis agents. Due to its benign elemental composition (phosphorus), large surface area, electronic/photonic performances, and chemical/biological activities, BP has also demonstrated a great potential in biomedical applications including biosensing, photothermal/photodynamic therapies, controlled drug releases, and antibacterial uses. The nature of the BP-bio interface is comprised of dynamic contacts between nanomaterials (NMs) and biological systems, where BP and the biological system interact. The physicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface play a critical role in the biological effects of NMs. In this review, we discuss the interface in the context of BP as a nanomaterial and its unique physicochemical properties that may affect its biological effects. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed the recent studies on the interactions between BP and biomolecules, cells, and animals and summarized various cellular responses, inflammatory/immunological effects, as well as other biological outcomes of BP depending on its own physical properties, exposure routes, and biodistribution. In addition, we also discussed the environmental behaviors and potential risks on environmental organisms of BP. Based on accumulating knowledge on the BP-bio interfaces, this review also summarizes various safer-by-design strategies to change the physicochemical properties including chemical stability and nano-bio interactions, which are critical in tuning the biological behaviors of BP. The better understanding of the biological activity of BP at BP-bio interfaces and corresponding methods to overcome the challenges would promote its future exploration in terms of bringing this new nanomaterial to practical applications.

3.
Neurol Sci ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common type of dementia, which has caused heavy global economic and health burden, and the using of statins to treat AD has caused widely debated. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to explore the effect of statins in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, OvisdSP, Web of Science, Chinese Nation Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) databases before March 31, 2019. We extracted the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale score, and other information. The pooled Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with random effect model or fixed random effect model. RESULTS: A total of nine randomized controlled trials were included that contained 1489 patients; of them, 742 patients in the statins group, 747 patients in the control group. There were nine studies used the MMSE scale, five studies used the ADAS-Cog scale, four studies used the NPI scale, and six studies used the ADL scale. Meta-analysis of the nine studies that reported the MMSE scale scores indicated that there is no significant effect of statins as compared with control group (the pooled WMD = 1.09, 95% CI, - 0.00, 2.18, p = 0.05, I2 = 87.9%). Meta-analysis of the five studies that reported the ADAS-Cog scale scores also indicated that there is no significant effect of statins as compared with control group (the pooled WMD = - 0.16, 95% CI, - 2.67, 2.36, p = 0.90, I2 = 80.1%). Meta-analysis of the four studies that reported the NPI scale scores indicated that treatment with statins could slow the rise in the NPI scale scores (the pooled WMD = - 1.16, 95% CI, - 1.88, - 0.44, p = 0.002, I2 = 45.4%). Meta-analysis of the six studies that reported the ADL scale scores indicated that treatment with statins could improve patients' daily living ability (the pooled WMD = - 4.06, 95% CI, - 6.88, - 1.24, p = 0.005, I2 = 86.7%). Results of subgroup analysis indicated that the use of statins in the short term (≤ 12 months) associated with the change of the MMSE scale scores (the pooled WMD = 1.78, 95% CI, 0.53, 3.04, p = 0.005, I2 = 79.6%). Sensitivity analysis and publication bias test were both negative, and the results were relatively reliable and stable. CONCLUSION: Statins used in AD patients had beneficial effects on the scores of MMSE scale in the short term (≤ 12 months), and statins could slow the deterioration of neuropsychiatric status and significantly improve activities of daily living ability in AD patients, but statins did not show an advantage in the change of the ADAS-Cog scale scores.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825640

RESUMO

With the potential continuous application of mono- or few-layered black phosphorus (BP) in electronic, photonic, therapeutic, and environmental fields, the possible side effects of BP on aquatic organisms after release into natural water are of great concern. We investigated the potential toxicity of BP on the unicellular organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. After the exposure for 8 h at 10 µg/mL, the reproduction of T. thermophila significantly decreased by 46.3%. Severe cell membrane and cilium damage were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) upon treatment with BP. Based on bright-field microscopy and three-dimensional Raman imaging, we investigated the cellular uptake and translocation of BP within T. thermophila. It was observed that the engulfment of BP by T. thermophila was oral apparatus dependent, through which intracellular BP was then transported to the posterior end of T. thermophila by food vacuole packaging. Our study also revealed that BP induced the increase of intracellular reactive oxidant species and formed oxidative stress-dependent toxicity to T. thermophila. Our findings paved a way for better understanding the BP toxicityon aquatic organisms and its potential ecological risks.

5.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 622-627, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739662

RESUMO

As a kind of unicellular eukaryotic protozoa, Tetrahymena is located at the bottom of the aquatic food webs and plays an essential role in the bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg). To track Hg in individual Tetrahymena, a capillary single-cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) online system was developed. The experimental and instrumental conditions were optimized to ensure the signal detected was the Hg uptake in individual Tetrahymena. Moreover, a quantitative method was established and validated by detecting Hg2+ standard solutions. The limit of quantity was calculated to be approximately 3.8 × 10-15 g Hg/cell, and the detection limit for Hg2+ exposure of Tetrahymena was 0.05 µg/L. By using the proposed method, we found the peak became wider with increasing of exposure concentrations, indicating the accumulated Hg by different Tetrahymena varied greatly, and the difference was more significant at higher exposure concentration. This novel method has the advantages of high sensitivity and real-time detection in individual Tetrahymena, and it could be widely used for further tracking the accumulation of mercury and other metals at the single cell level.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109896, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704329

RESUMO

Blood is the transmission medium for metal contaminants to and from bodily organs; as such, it can provide useful and reliable information about their bio-kinetics as they're distributed throughout the body. Metals can interact with endogenous proteins present in the blood, and these metal-protein complexes often dictate the fates of the introduced metals. The aim of this study was to investigate cadmium-binding protein characteristics in normal human plasma. Cadmium-binding plasma proteins in two different groups: normal human plasma (n = 29), and normal paired maternal and fetal umbilical cord plasmas (n = 3), were analyzed. In order to detect cadmium-binding plasma proteins present in low concentrations, blood plasma samples were first depleted of their two most abundant proteins - albumin and immunoglobulin G. Both the crude and depleted plasma samples were analyzed using column gel electrophoresis in conjunction with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). One cadmium-binding protein was detected in 11 of 29 normal plasma samples and all three paired maternal and cord plasma samples. This protein was further identified as apolipoprotein A-I by high-resolution mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal cadmium-binding proteins in real human blood plasma, which is extremely critical to our understanding of cadmium transportation and accumulation in human blood.

7.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 98, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have focused on the relationship between ambient apparent temperature (AT) and admission of mental and behaviour disorders (MDs). Therefore, a time-series study was conducted in Yancheng, China, to explore the effects of AT on the daily emergency admissions of patients with MDs over the period of 2014-17. METHODS: A quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was adopted to explore the associations after adjusting for time trend, day of the week, humidity, sunshine duration, rainfall, holidays and air pollutants. In the subgroup analysis, the modification effects of age and sex were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, 8438 cases of MDs emergency admissions were identified. With the apparent temperature with the minimum number of admissions (- 3.4 °C) serving as a reference, a positive correlation emerged between high AT and daily emergency admissions of patients with MDs in Yancheng, China, with the lagged effect of 1 to 5 days. The subgroup analysis demonstrated a positive relationship between AT and MDs emergency admissions among males and individuals younger than 45 years old, with no lagged effect. CONCLUSIONS: The results will provide important scientific evidence for mental health policy-makers and practitioners for possible intervention, especially among the vulnerable populations.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13551-13569, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682424

RESUMO

Use of legacy brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), has been reduced due to adverse effects of these chemicals. Several novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), such decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), have been developed as replacements for PBDEs. NBFRs are used in various industrial and consumer products, which leads to their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. This article reviews occurrence and fate of a select group of NBFRs in the environment, as well as their human exposure and toxicity. Occurrence of NBFRs in both abiotic, including air, water, dust, soil, sediment and sludge, and biotic matrices, including bird, fish, and human serum, have been documented. Evidence regarding the degradation, including photodegradation, thermal degradation and biodegradation, and bioaccumulation and biomagnification of NBFRs is summarized. The toxicity data of NBFRs show that several NBFRs can cause adverse effects through different modes of action, such as hormone disruption, endocrine disruption, genotoxicity, and behavioral modification. The primary ecological risk assessment shows that most NBFRs exert no significant environmental risk, but it is worth noting that the result should be carefully used owing to the limited toxicity data.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Animais , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Esgotos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109742, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593826

RESUMO

Safety concerns have been raised with regard to silver nanowires (AgNWs) because of their extensive applications. Recently, ultralong AgNWs have shown physical properties superior to those of short AgNWs. However, little is known about their toxicity and potential risks. In this study, we demonstrated a series of ultralong AgNWs-induced biological effects in human lung cancer epithelial cells (A549). Ultralong AgNWs treatments induced ROS generation, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and self-protective autophagy at nonlethal concentrations. In contrast to some previous reports, apoptosis was found not to correlate with the reduction of intracellular ROS. Measuring the processing of ROS generation, apoptosis and autophagy, we demonstrated that ROS not only enhance mitochondrial damage, but also raise protective autophagic flux in ultralong AgNW-treated cells. Moreover, ultralong AgNWs were found to be internalized into the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. This study not only investigates ultralong AgNWs-induced cytotoxicity but also pinpoints ROS as a key signal in mechanisms of their toxicity.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanofios/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Prata/toxicidade , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Nanofios/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Prata/química
10.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623456

RESUMO

The present study attempted to investigate dynamics and predictors of resilience amongst Chinese children using prospective data. Totally 816 children completed the resilience measurement at baseline and one-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between high resilience and predictor variables. Mean resilience scores increased during the one-year follow-up (t = -2.35, P = 0.019). Although the proportions of high and low resilience were relatively stable, whereas 28% of children had inconsistent resilience level during the follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that participants' parents having secondary school (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.14-2.44) or higher (aOR = 2.53, 95%CI = 1.51-4.24) education level, and high quality of life (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.20-2.73) were positively associated with high resilience, whereas moderate family function obstacles (aOR = 0.47, 95%CI = 0.34-0.67), abuse experience (aOR = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.50-0.92), and significant depression symptoms (aOR = 0.47, 95%CI = 0.28-0.77) were negatively associated with high resilience. Results highlight that resilience levels were not merely static trait and improved over one year among Chinese children. Findings would deepen understanding of resilience change and provide potential targets of resilience-focused intervention in children.

11.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445779

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between famine exposure and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the relation of famine exposure to T2DM risk in detail. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Sinomed (CBM), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform and China Science and Technology Journal VIP Database. The articles were limited to be available in English or Chinese before 10 April 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the effect of famine exposure on T2DM. The I square value (I2) was used to assess heterogeneity, and the random effects model (REM) was adopted as the pooling method. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 24 published articles with 1,660,385 subjects. A significant association of famine exposure with increased risk of T2DM was observed (RR = 1.433, 95% CI: 1.101-1.865). The pooled RRs were different in terms of publication year, location, study design, sample size, famine duration and definition of diabetes (criteria). Longer the famine exposure experienced, greater the effect of famine exposure on T2DM would be. Compared to WHO criteria, studies of which diabetes diagnosed by ADA criteria and other criteria might more likely to find this association. Compared to moderate famine exposure, the pooled RR in severe famine was statistically significant. Furthermore, the pooled RR adjusted for the most confounders in females was 1.517 (95% CI: 1.018-2.261). In terms of period of famine exposure, compared to adult exposure, people who exposure famine in fetal, childhood, and adolescent were likely to be diabetes. CONCLUSION: Famine exposure may increase the risk of T2DM. The risk may vary with famine duration, definition of diabetes, gender and period of famine exposure.

12.
J Hum Hypertens ; 33(9): 648-657, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363149

RESUMO

We performed this meta-analysis to assess the association between intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering strategies and heart failure (HF). A comprehensive literature review was conducted using English and Chinese databases from their origination through April 2018. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Nine randomized controlled trials including a total of 39,936 hypertensive patients were ultimately included in our meta-analysis. Pooled analysis of these nine trials showed that a treatment target of SBP ≤140 mmHg was associated with a significant reduction in HF risk (RR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.62-0.87). Furthermore, the pooled analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials indicated a significant association between intensive lowering of SBP and HF risk (RR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.62-0.90) and showed that intensive lowering of SBP could decrease risk of HF in patients without diabetes mellitus (RR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.52-0.91) and in those ≥65 years old (RR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.56-0.93), but this finding was not shown for patients with diabetes mellitus (RR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.56-1.19) or in those <65 years old (RR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.56-1.19). When intensive lowering of SBP achieved an SBP ≤ 120 mmHg, a pooled analysis indicated a positive association between SBP and HF risk (RR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.63-0.89), and a pooled analyses showed that intensive lowering of SBP could decrease risk of HF in patients without diabetes mellitus (RR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.51-0.98) and in those ≥65 years old (RR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.58-0.98); however, this result was not found for patients with diabetes mellitus (RR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.56-1.19) or those <65 years old (RR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.56-1.19). The existing data support the results of a positive association between intensive SBP-lowering treatment and HF risk, especially for those patients without diabetes and those older than 65 years. However, additional prospective studies are still needed to confirm these associations.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1030-1041, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between meteorological variables and risk of fractures has attracted increasing attentions but remain controversial. Therefore, our main aim is to clarify the association, and also to identify possible susceptible groups. METHODS: Relevant literature was obtained through standard MeSH literature searching seven electronic databases. Because some studies expressed the association as the rate of incidence (IRR) of fractures associated with each 1 °C rise in temperature and 1% increase in relative humidity (RH), some expressed as IRR of fractures for the day with specific climatic variable versus control days, and also the association was expressed as correlations coefficients (COR) in some studies, separated meta-analyses were undertaken, with one based on IRR and another based on COR. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included. Results showed that each 1 °C increase was significantly associated with a 3.0% decrease in fracture risk (IRR = 0.970, 95%CI: 0.952-0.988). The day with freezing rain and snow were associated with increased risk for both the lower extremity fracture (freezing rain: IRR = 1.174, 95%CI: 1.022-1.348; snow: IRR = 1.245, 95%CI: 1.050-1.477) and the upper extremity fracture (freezing rain: IRR = 1.376, 95%CI: 1.192-1.588; snow: IRR = 1.548, 95%CI: 1.361-1.761). No significant association was detected between RH, dew, frost, fog, storm and high wind, and fracture. The COR meta-analysis showed that mean temperature (moderately), maximum temperature (moderately), rainfall (weakly) and sunlight duration (weakly) were correlated with fracture occurrence. CONCLUSION: The incidence of fractures was increased in lower temperature, the day with freezing rain, and snow. Other meteorological factors may have some effects on the incidence of fracture. The association maybe stronger for males, lower extremity fracture, and people living in Asia, subtropical zone, low-latitude, and northern hemisphere. Further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Humanos
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(5): 2840-2851, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742439

RESUMO

Particulate air pollution caused by human activities has drawn global attention due to its potential health risks. Considering the inevitable contact of inhaled airborne fine particulate matter (PM) with plasma, the hematological effects of PM are worthy of study. In this study, the potential effect of PM on hematological homeostasis through triggering the crosstalk of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), complement, and coagulation systems in plasma was investigated. The ex vivo, in vitro, and in vivo KKS activation assays confirmed that PM samples could efficiently cause the cascade activation of key zymogens in the KKS, wherein the particles coupled with lipopolysaccharide attachment provided substantial contribution. The binding of Hageman factor XII (FXII) with PM samples and its subsequent autoactivation initiated this process. The crucial elements in the complement cascade, including complement 3 (C3) and complement 5 (C5), and coagulation system (prothrombin) were also found to be actively induced by PM exposure, which was regulated by the interplay of KKS activation. The data provided solid evidence on hematological effects of airborne PM through inducing the activation of the KKS, complement, and coagulation systems, which would be valuable in the risk assessment on air-pollution-related cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Calicreínas , Cininas , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fator XII , Humanos , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina
16.
Nanotoxicology ; 13(4): 543-557, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776941

RESUMO

Asbestos fiber has been associated with mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the carcinogenic risks of other fiber nanomaterials with morphological similarities to asbestos have not been fully studied. Ultra-long silver nanowires (AgNWs) are increasingly used fiber-shaped nanomaterials with a high aspect ratio, but very few studies have investigated their health risks. Here, proliferation abnormalities of lung epithelial cells induced by ultra-long AgNWs were investigated. Ultra-long AgNW treatment induced dose- and diameter-dependent increase in the ratio of multinucleated cells. Further, proteins involved in mitosis and cytokinesis, including Aurora A, p-Histone 3 (ser10), RhoA, p-MLC, and myosin IIb, were significantly upregulated after an ultra-long AgNW treatment, leading to mitotic abnormalities and cytokinetic failure. Meanwhile, exposure to ultra-long AgNWs induced cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, a series of experiments demonstrated that ROS generation and Ag+ release were not responsible for the multinucleation induced by ultra-long AgNWs, but ultra-long AgNWs in the intercellular bridge might obstruct the contractile ring and inhibit abscission of the cytokinetic furrow by direct physical contact. Altogether, our findings indicate that ultra-long AgNWs can induce chromosomal instability, which has important consequences for the safety of ultra-long AgNWs to human health.

17.
Pancreas ; 48(2): 142-150, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between statin use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published until January 2018. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also conducted. Cochran Q test and I(2) statistic were used to evaluate the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included that contained more than 3 million participants and 170,000 pancreatic cancer patients. The overall result demonstrated a significant decrease in pancreatic cancer risk with statin use (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = 0.000; I(2) = 84.4%). In subgroup analyses, nonsignificant association was detected between long-term statin use and the risk of pancreatic cancer (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.86-1.11; P = 0.718; I(2) = 0.0%). Meanwhile, there was nonsignificant association between the use of lipophilic statins and the risk of pancreatic cancer (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.15; P = 0.853; I(2) = 27.2%). No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The overall result of this meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that statins have a protective effect on pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, high-quality randomized clinical trials and cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 55(3): 260-270, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604503

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to systematically evaluate and comparatively analyse the mental health status of left-behind children (LBC) in China and to provide a scientific basis for mental intervention and healthy education for LBC. Six electronic databases were searched for studies (published from 1 January 2010 to 5 March 2018) of the mental health of LBC using the Mental Health Test scale. We only selected original articles that either reported the incidence of serious mental health status or the means and standard deviations of each factor score of the scale. The pooled rates and weighted mean difference were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of serious mental health status of LBC is nearly 2.7 times higher than that of non-LBC. The scores for most of the factors analysed by the Mental Health Test of LBC were higher than those of non-LBC. In addition, the mental health status of left-behind girls is worse than that of left-behind boys. Except for impulsive tendency, there was no significant difference in the mental health status of LBC in primary and junior high schools. In terms of the different types of guardianship, the mental health status of LBC under a grandparent's guardianship and parental peer' guardianship is more serious than that of LBC under a single-parent guardianship. The mental health status of LBC is poor, particularly for left-behind girls. The primary mental problems faced by LBC are learning anxiety, social anxiety and physical symptoms. It is necessary to develop more targeted measures to prevent and manage LBC.

19.
Psychol Health Med ; 24(5): 519-529, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453764

RESUMO

Our study aims to explore child neglect among preschool children in rural China and examine its association with social living ability. Furthermore, another purpose is to examine whether there is a mediated effect of resilience on this association. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2397 children aged 6-72 months in rural area of Anhui province. Social living ability, neglect and resilience were measured by Infant-Junior Middle School Student's Ability of Social Life Scale, Child Neglect Evaluation Scales and Devereux Center for Resilient Children (DCRC) Assessment Tools (DECA), respectively. Binary logistic analysis was performed to explore the relationship. The results showed that overall prevalence of child neglect was 59.4% among children aged 6-72 months. Children aged 36-72 months who suffered physical neglect, educational neglect and medical neglect were more likely to express lower social living ability. After adjusting resilience, the association between lower social living ability and child neglect was slightly attenuated but remained significant. In conclusion, neglect would exert the adverse effect on children in 36-72 months group. Children experiencing physical, educational and medical neglect have more chance to express lower social living ability. High resilient subjects may be partly protected against the detrimental effects of child neglect.

20.
Psychol Health Med ; 24(3): 253-268, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373375

RESUMO

Left-behind children (LBC) account for more than one in five Chinese children and more frequently exhibit some personality deviations as a result of being separated from their parents. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the personality traits of LBC using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Relevant studies were identified by searching various electronic databases, and 39 articles that contained 12,494 LBC and 10,381 non-LBC were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses by grades and sex were conducted to study the personality deviation rate and personality factor scores in LBC. The results indicated that the personality deviation rates of LBC were higher than those of non-LBC. LBC in middle school had higher personality deviation rates than LBC in elementary school. LBC in elementary school had higher neuroticism scores and psychoticism scores than non-LBC. In addition, the analysis of LBC in elementary school showed that boys had higher neuroticism scores but lower psychoticism scores than girls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that LBC, particularly those in middle school, exhibit higher rates of personality deviation. Meanwhile, regarding to LBC in elementary school, boys are more likely to exhibit emotional instability whereas girls are more likely to show a tendency toward psychoticism.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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