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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414589

RESUMO

A new fused-chrysene electron-donating core is synthesized, where chrysene is condensed with two thiophenes via two dihydrobenzene rings. Based on this building block coupled with two electron-accepting end groups of 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone, a new Z-shaped fused-ring electron acceptor, FCIC, is designed and synthesized. FCIC shows intense absorption in the 500-850 nm region, with a maximum molar absorptivity of 1.5 × 105 M-1 cm-1, a bandgap of 1.50 eV, and a charge mobility of 2.5 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1. The ternary organic photovoltaic cells based on PTB7-Th/F8IC/FCIC yield an efficiency of 12.6%, higher than that of the binary cells of PTB7-Th/F8IC (10.7%) and PTB7-Th/FCIC (7.21%). Relative to the PTB7-Th/F8IC binary blend, the addition of FCIC leads to improvement in the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor.

2.
Cytometry A ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313510

RESUMO

Photosensitizers (PSs) are ideal cancer theranostic drugs that can be administered as both fluorescence imaging reagents and photodynamic therapy (PDT) drugs. To improve the tumoritropic behavior of PSs, nanoliposomes are presently being considered as optimal PSs carriers. Although nanoliposomal PSs have been utilized in clinical therapy, PSs localization and photosensitive processing in nanoliposomal PSs are rarely observed on nanoscale. Investigating changes in the fine structure of nanoliposomes under photosensitive processing will further our understanding of the photosensitive effect on nanoliposomal PSs. In this study, nanoliposomes co-encapsulating the PSs benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid A (BPD) and the photoswitchable probe Cy5-927 were prepared to realize PDT and nanoscale super-resolution optical imaging. The fine structures of nanoliposomal BPD and Cy5-927 (LBC) were visualized by a home-built stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). Our PDT results showed that the photorelease and PDT efficiency of BPD were not decreased by co-encapsulating with Cy5-927 in LBC. Taken together, LBC can be used as a new optical probe and PDT reagent for investigating changes in nanoliposomes fine structure and micro-interaction in the cellular process of PDT. Therefore, our results deepened our understanding of liposome-based PDT for optimizing cancer treatment. © 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 99(6-1): 062403, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330694

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the diversity of tumor invasion dynamics, including single-cell migration, multicellular streaming, and the emergence of various collective migration patterns, is a long-standing problem in cancer research. Here we have designed and fabricated a series of microchips containing high-throughput microscale tracks using protein repelling coating technology, which were then covered with a thin Matrigel layer. By varying the geometrical confinement (track width) and microenvironment factors (Matrigel concentration), we have reproduced a diversity of collective migration patterns in the chips, which were also observed in vivo. We have further classified the collective patterns and quantified the emergence probability of each class of patterns as a function of microtrack width and Matrigel concentration to devise a quantitive "collective pattern diagram." To elucidate the mechanisms behind the emergence of various collective patterns, we employed cellular automaton simulations, incorporating the effects of both direct cell-cell interactions and microenvironment factors (e.g., chemical gradient and extracellular matrix degradation). Our simulations suggest that tumor cell phenotype heterogeneity, and the associated dynamic selection of a favorable phenotype via cell-microenivronment interactions, are key to the emergence of the observed collective patterns in vitro.

4.
Chem Rev ; 119(16): 9559-9656, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287663

RESUMO

Nanocarbons with different dimensions (e.g., 0D fullerenes and carbon nanodots, 1D carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, 2D graphene and graphene oxides, and 3D nanodiamonds) have attracted enormous interest for applications ranging from electronics, optoelectronics, and photovoltaics to sensing, bioimaging, and therapeutics due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Among them, nanocarbon-based theranostics (i.e., therapeutics and diagnostics) is one of the most intensively studied applications, as these nanocarbon materials serve as excellent biosensors, versatile drug/gene carriers for specific targeting in vivo, effective photothermal nanoagents for cancer therapy, and promising fluorescent nanolabels for cell and tissue imaging. This review provides a systematic overview of the latest theranostic applications of nanocarbon materials with a comprehensive comparison of the characteristics of different nanocarbon materials and their influences on theranostic applications. We first introduce the different carbon allotropes that can be used for theranostic applications with their respective preparation and surface functionalization approaches as well as their physical and chemical properties. Theranostic applications are described separately for both in vitro and in vivo systems by highlighting the protocols and the studied biosystems, followed by the toxicity and biodegradability implications. Finally, this review outlines the design considerations for nanocarbon materials as the key unifying themes that will serve as a foundational first principle for researchers to study, investigate, and generate effective, biocompatible, and nontoxic nanocarbon materials-based models for cancer theranostics applications. Finally, we summarize the review with an outlook on the challenges and novel theranostic protocols using nanocarbon materials for hard-to-treat cancers and other diseases. This review intends to present a comprehensive guideline for researchers in nanotechnology and biomedicine on the selection strategy of nanocarbon materials according to their specific requirements.

5.
Anal Chem ; 91(16): 10640-10647, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314502

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of malignant skin lesions is critical for prompt treatment and a clinical prognosis of skin cancers. However, it is difficult to precisely evaluate the development stage of nonmelanoma skin cancers because they are derived from the same tissues as a result of the uncontrolled growth of abnormal squamous keratinocytes in the epidermis layer of the skin. In the present study, we developed a linear-kernel support vector machine (LSVM) model to distinguish basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD). The input parameters of the LSVM model consist of appropriate lifetime components and entropy values, which were extracted from two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained biopsy sections. Different features used as inputs for SVM training were compared and evaluated. In constructing the SVM models, features obtained from the lifetime (τ2) of the second component were found to be significantly more predictive than the average fluorescence lifetime (τm) in terms of diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The above findings were confirmed on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of diagnostic models. Shannon entropy was added to the SVM models as an independent feature to further improve the diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, fluorescence lifetime analysis and entropy calculations can provide highly informative features for the accurate detection of skin neoplasm disorders. In summary, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) combined with the SVM classification exhibited great potential for developing an effective computer-aided diagnostic criterion and accurate cancer detection in dermatology.

6.
J Biophotonics ; : e201900179, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339662

RESUMO

Photobiomodulation (PBM) involves light to activate cellular signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation or death. In this work, fluorescence and Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) imaging techniques were applied to assess apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) induced by near infrared (NIR) laser light (808 nm). Using the Caspase 3/7 fluorescent probe to identify apoptotic cells, we found that the pro-apoptotic effect is significantly dependent of irradiation dose. The highest apoptosis rate was noted for the lower irradiation doses, that is, 0.3 J/cm2 (~58%) and 3 J/cm2 (~28%). The impact of light doses on proteins/lipids intracellular metabolism and distribution was evaluated using CARS imaging, which revealed apoptosis-associated reorganization of nuclear proteins and cytoplasmic lipids after irradiation with 0.3 J/cm2 . Doses of NIR light causing apoptosis (0.3, 3 and 30 J/cm2 ) induced a gradual increase in the nuclear protein level over time, in contrast to proteins in cells non-irradiated and irradiated with 10 J/cm2 . Furthermore, irradiation of the cells with the 0.3 J/cm2 dose resulted in lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation, which was apparently caused by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We suggest that PBM induced apoptosis could be caused by the ability of NIR light to trigger excessive LDs formation which, in turn, induces cellular cytotoxicity.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 30(46): 465704, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323655

RESUMO

Indium selenide (In2Se3) has attracted tremendous attention due to its favorable electronic features, broad tunable bandgap, high stability and other attractive properties. However, its further applications for nonlinear optics have not yet been fully explored. In this work, we demonstrate that few-layer α-In2Se3 nanosheets exhibit strong saturable absorption properties over a wide wavelength range covering 800, 1064 and 1550 nm. The few-layer α-In2Se3 nanosheets used for this experiment are fabricated via a simple ultrasonic exfoliation in liquid. Stable ultrafast mode-locking laser pulses are obtained from both ytterbium-doped and erbium-doped fiber laser systems operating at 1064 and 1550 nm, respectively. A pulse duration as short as 215 fs was achieved in the Er-doped fiber laser system. Stable output pulses over 6 h of operation were obtained in both laser systems. The pulse energy and peak power of the laser output pulses were increased by reducing the In2Se3 thickness. These results indicate that α-In2Se3 nanosheets with low layer numbers are promising candidates for broad ultrafast photonics devices, such as optical switchers, Q-switchers and mode lockers.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(57): 8266-8269, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245800

RESUMO

A facile solution-phase synthesis of black γ-phase CsPbI3 nanowire clusters was developed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as surfactant. PMMA was found to efficiently retard the crystal growth, thereby inducing anisotropic growth for formation of the nanowire structure, while the intermolecular hydrogen bonds of PMMA act as a driving force for self-assembly of the nanowires.

9.
Opt Express ; 27(9): 12360-12372, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052777

RESUMO

Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) plays an important role in bioimaging, the longer excitation wavelength improves its imaging depths, which gives us deeper biological information. Here, we reported the two-photon absorption of a small squaraine dye (SD), and we found that the TPEF of the small SD can be enhanced significantly using albumin, the TPEF of SD in water was enhanced 17.7 times by adding bull serum albumin (BSA) in the solution. Meanwhile, the cell imaging results indicated that the SD can enter cell effectively in less than 30 min and emit bright TPEF. Furthermore, the SD showed excellent stability against photobleaching in near-infrared II (1200 nm). The cytotoxicity experiment showed that the cytotoxicity of SD is relatively low. Our work demonstrates the excellent two-photon effect of SD in cells, potential application value of SD in two-photon bioimaging, protein detection and near infrared sensing.

10.
Biomaterials ; 211: 25-47, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078050

RESUMO

Lysosomes, an important organelle of eukaryotic cells, are covered with the cell membrane and contain an array of degradative enzymes. The disrupt in lysosomal functions may lead to the development of severe diseases. In nanotechnology, nanomaterials working mechanism and its biomedical output are highly dependent on the lysosomes as it plays a crucial role in intracellular transport. Several nanomaterials specifically designed for lysosome-related actions are highly advantageous in trafficking and delivering the loaded imaging/therapeutic agents. But for other applications, especially gene-based therapeutic delivery into the sub-organelles such as mitochondria and nucleus, lysosomal related degradation could be an obstacle to achieve a maximal therapeutic index. In order to understand the relationship between lysosomes and designed nanomaterials for kind of desired application in biomedical research, complete knowledge of their various designing strategies, size dependent or ligand supportive cellular uptake mechanisms, trafficking, and localizations in eukaryotic cells is highly desired. In this review, we intended to discuss various nanomaterial types that have been applied in biomedical applications based on lysosomal internalization and escape from endo/lysosomes and explored their related advantages/disadvantages. Additionally, we also deliberated nanomaterials direct translocation mechanism, their autophagic accumulation and the underlying mechanism to induced autophagy. Finally, some challenges and critical issues in current research from clinical application perspective has also been addressed. Great understanding of these factors will help in understanding and facilitating the development of safe and effective lysosomal related nanomaterial-based imaging/therapeutic systems for future applications.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(60): 8695-8704, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073568

RESUMO

Light microscopy can offer certain advantages over electron microscopy in terms of acquiring detailed insights into the biological/intra-cellular milieu. In recent years, with the development of new fluorescence imaging technologies, it has become extremely important to assess the role of designing appropriate fluorophores in acquiring desired biological information without encountering any untoward hitches. Over the years, external fluorophores have been prevalently used in fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy-based studies. Photostable fluorogenic probes with high extinction coefficients and quantum yields, exhibiting minimum autofluorescence and photobleaching properties, are preferred in single-molecule microscopy as they can tolerate long-term laser exposure. Therefore, the development of triplet state quenchers and/or any other suitable new strategy to ensure the photo-stability of the fluorophores during long-term live cell imaging exercises is highly anticipated. In this feature article, various strategies for stabilizing fluorophores, including the mechanisms of TSQ-induced stabilization, have been thoroughly reviewed considering contemporary literature reports and applications.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(31): 10666-10670, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099105

RESUMO

LaTaON2 is a photocatalyst with intense visible light absorption up to 650 nm, but exhibits low H2 evolution activity owing to uncontrolled facets and high defect densities. In this work, core-shell-structured plate-like LaKNaTaO5 /LaTaON2 was synthesized by nitriding a layered perovskite-type LaKNaTaO5 . The volatilization of K and Na species during the nitridation promoted the rapid transformation of LaKNaTaO5 into LaTaON2 along [010] direction with the plate-like shape retained. This yielded high-quality LaTaON2 shells exposing (010) facets on the lattice-matched LaKNaTaO5 cores. After loading with a Rh co-catalyst, LaKNaTaO5 /LaTaON2 showed photocatalytic H2 evolution activity four times greater than that obtained from conventional irregular-shaped LaTaON2 powders and utilized visible light up to 620 nm. This work provides a novel strategy yielding oxynitrides with well-defined facets and low defect densities by selecting lattice-matched oxide precursors containing volatile components.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(29): 9891-9896, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074101

RESUMO

Antimonene, an emerging two-dimensional material, has garnered tremendous interest due to its intriguing structure and fascinating electronic properties. However, the synthesis of high-quality few-layer antimonene nanosheets, which can only be produced by exfoliation or epitaxial growth on exotic substrates, has greatly hindered the development of this new field. Herein, few-layer hexagonal and functionalized antimonene nanosheets were successfully prepared from SbCl3 solutions for the first time by exclusively promoting their anisotropic growth in a colloidal solution. Oleylamine was selected as the reducing agent, rather than oleic acid, and dodecylthiol was key to preventing the formation of antimony oxide. Additionally, halide ions adsorbed on the surface also influenced the anisotropic growth of hexagonal antimonene nanosheets. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the sheets were ≈5 nm thick; Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a rhombohedral atomic structure (ß-Sb) with excellent stability.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 30(30): 305701, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974421

RESUMO

Metamorphic InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As and InAs/In0.31Ga0.69As quantum dot (QD) arrays are known to be photosensitive in the telecommunication ranges at 1.3 and 1.55 µm, respectively; however, for photonic applications of these nanostructures, the effect of levels related to defects still needs in-depth investigation. We have focused on the influence of electron traps of defects on photocurrent (PC) in the plane of the QD array, studying by PC and deep level thermally stimulated current spectroscopy together with HRTEM and theoretical modeling. In the structures, a rich spectrum of electron trap levels of point defects EL6 (E c - 0.37 eV), EL7 (0.29-0.30 eV), EL8 (0.27 eV), EL9/M2 (0.22-0.23 eV), EL10/M1 (0.16 eV), M0 (∼0.11 eV) and three extended defects ED1/EL3 (0.52-0.54), ED2/EL4 (0.47-0.48 eV), ED3/EL5 (0.42-0.43 eV) has been identified. Among them, new defect levels undiscovered earlier in InAs/InGaAs nanostructures has been detected, in particular, EL8 and M0. The found electron traps are shown to affect a time-dependent PC at low temperatures. Besides a long-term kinetics due to trap charging, a prolonged PC decrement versus time is measured under constant illumination. The decrement is interpreted to be related to a Coulomb screening of the conductivity channel by the electrons captured in the QD interface traps. The decrement is well fitted by allometric exponents, which means many types of traps involved in electron capturing. This study provides new findings into the mechanism of in-plane PC of QD arrays, showing a crucial importance of growth-related defects on photoresponsivity at low temperatures.

15.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 2985-2992, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983358

RESUMO

As a newly noninvasive emerging modality, NIR-II fluorescence imaging (1000-1700 nm) has many advantages over conventional visible and NIR-I imaging (700-900 nm). Unfortunately, only a few NIR-II fluorophores are suitable for bone imaging. Here, we report an NIR-II fluorophore based on DSPE-mPEG encapsulated rare earth doped nanoparticles (RENPs@DSPE-mPEG), which shows inherent affinity to bone without linking any targeting ligands, and thus, it provides an alternative noninvasive and nonradiation strategy for skeletal system mapping and bone disease diagnoses. Interestingly, within the NIR-II window, imaging at a longer wavelength (1345 nm) provides a higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio than imaging at 1064 nm, even though the quantum yield at 1064 nm is 2-fold higher than that at 1345 nm. Besides bone imaging, RENPs@DSPE-mPEG show an imaging application in blood vessels and lymph nodes. Importantly, RENPs@DSPE-mPEG can be internalized by circulating white blood cells. This finding may open a window to increase efficient nanoparticle delivery in the fields such as immunotherapy and improve the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of cancer-targeted nanoparticles in clinical applications.

16.
Theranostics ; 9(5): 1323-1335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867833

RESUMO

Fluorescence (FL) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) can provide a powerful theranostic tool to visualize, monitor, and treat cancer and other diseases with enhanced accuracy and efficacy. Methods: In this study, clinically approved iodinated CT imaging contrast agent (CTIA) iodixanol and commercially available photosensitizer (PS) meso-tetrakis (4-sulphonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS4) were co-encapsulated in biocompatible PEGylated nanoliposomes (NL) for enhanced anticancer PDT guided by bimodal (FL and CT) imaging. Results: The NL co-encapsulation of iodixanol and TPPS4 (LIT) lead to an increase in singlet oxygen generation by PS via the intraparticle heavy-atom (iodine) effect on PS molecules, as it was confirmed by both direct and indirect measurements of singlet oxygen production. The confocal imaging and PDT of cancer cells were performed in vitro, exhibiting the cellular uptake of TPPS4 formulations and enhanced PDT efficacy of LIT. Meanwhile, bimodal (FL and CT) imaging was also conducted with tumor-bearing mice and the imaging results manifested high-efficient accumulation and retention of LIT in tumors. Moreover, PDT of tumor in vivo was shown to be drastically more efficient with LIT than with other formulations of TPPS4. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that LIT can serve as a highly efficient theranostic nanoplatform for enhanced anticancer PDT guided by bimodal (FL and CT) imaging.

17.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741423

RESUMO

Red and near-infrared (NIR) light effect on Ca2+ ions flux through the influence on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and their functioning in HeLa cells was studied in vitro. Cells were irradiated by 650 and 808 nm laser light at different power densities and doses and the obtained effect was compared with that caused by the pharmacological agents. The laser light was found to elevate Ca2+ influx into cell cytoplasm in a dose-dependent manner without changes of the NMDAR functioning. Furthermore, the light of both wavelengths demonstrated the ability to elevate Ca2+ influx under the pharmacological blockade of NMDARs and also might partially abolish the blockade enhancing Ca2+ influx after selective stimulation of the receptors with NMDA. Simultaneously, the light at moderate doses demonstrated a photobiostimulating effect on cells. Based on our experiments and data reported in the literature, we suggest that the low-power visible and NIR light can instigate a cell membrane depolarization via nonthermal activation, resulting in the fast induction of Ca2+ influx into cells. The obtained results also demonstrate that NIR light can be used for nonthermal and nonpharmacological stimulation of NMDARs in cancer cells.

18.
Nanoscale ; 11(10): 4601-4613, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810128

RESUMO

The ever-increasing demand for faster speed, broader bandwidth, and lower energy consumption of on-chip processing has motivated the use of light instead of electrons in functional communication components. However, considerable scattering loss severely affects the performance of nanoscale photonic devices when their physical sizes are smaller than the wavelength of light. Due to the tight localization of electromagnetic energy, plasmonic waveguides that work at visible and infrared wavebands have provided a solution for the optical diffraction limit problem and thus enable downscaling of optical circuits and chips at the nanoscale. However, due to the fundamental trade-off between propagation distance and light confinement, plasmonic waveguides, including conventional hybrid plasmonic waveguides (HPWGs), cannot be used as high performance integratable optical devices all the time. To solve this problem, a novel hybrid plasmonic waveguide is proposed where a hybrid metal-ridge-slot structure based on a two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide is embedded into two identical cylindrical dielectric waveguides. Benefiting from both the loss-less slot region and the high-index difference between the ultra-thin 2D material and the slot region, a 10 times longer propagation length and 100 times smaller mode area than the traditional HPWG are achieved at the telecommunication band. By removing the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide, our designed waveguide shows a higher propagation length that is at least two orders of magnitude larger than its traditional HPWG counterpart. Therefore, the proposed hybridization waveguiding approach paves the way toward truly high-performance and deep-subwavelength integratable optical circuits and chips in the future.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(17): 2453-2456, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734806

RESUMO

The microviscosity change associated with reticulophagy is an important component for studying endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress disorders. Here, a BODIPY-arsenicate conjugate 1-based fluorescent molecular rotor was designed to covalently bind vicinal dithiol-containing proteins in the ER, exhibiting a bifunction of reticulophagy initiation and microviscosity evaluation. Therefore, we could quantify the local viscosity changes during reticulophagy based on the fluorescence lifetime changes of probe 1.

20.
Small ; 15(6): e1803866, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645025

RESUMO

The detection of Cu2+ in living plants and animals is of great importance for environment monitoring and disease diagnosis. Here, a near-infrared (NIR) turn-on photoacoustic (PA) probe (denoted as LET-2) is developed for Cu2+ detection in living subjects, such as soybean sprouts and mice. The absorbance band of LET-2 shifts from 625 to 715 nm after the interaction with Cu2+ , thus producing strong PA signal output at 715 nm (PA715 ) as an indicator. The PA715 value is increased as a function of the concentration of Cu2+ (0 × 10-6 -20 × 10-6 m), with a calculated limit of detection of 10.8 × 10-9 m. More importantly, both in vitro and in vivo studies in soybean sprouts and mice indicate that the as-prepared LET-2 PA probe is highly sensitive and selective for Cu2+ detection. These findings provide a solution for in vivo detection of metal ions by using chemoselective PA probes.

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