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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314677

RESUMO

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (Tb ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.

2.
Behav Brain Res ; 302: 60-8, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747207

RESUMO

Good sleep is necessary for optimal health, especially for mental health. Insomnia, sleep deprivation will make your ability to learn and memory impaired. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sleep disorders-induced cognitive decline is still largely unknown. In this study, the sleep deprivation of animal model was induced by chronical sleep interruption (CSI), the behavioral tests, biochemical index determinations, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based serum metabolic profiling analysis were performed to explore the effects of CSI on cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. After 14-days CSI, the cognitive function of the mice was evaluated by new objects preference (NOP) task and temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Serum corticosterone (CORT), and brain Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Catalase (CAT) levels were determined by ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares project to latent structures-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Student's t-test. We found that the cognitive function of the mice was significantly affected by CSI. Besides, levels of CORT and MDA were higher, and SOD and CAT were lower in CSI mice than those of control. Obvious body weight loss of CSI mice was also observed. Thirteen potential serum biomarkers including choline, valine, uric acid, allantoic acid, carnitines, and retinoids were identified. Affected metabolic pathways involve metabolism of purine, retinoid, lipids, and amino acid. These results showed that CSI can damage the cognitive performance notably. The cognitive decline may ascribe to excessive oxidative stress and a series of disturbed metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Animais , Peso Corporal , Catalase/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 35(2): 129-36, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24878971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate whether SYG, a Chinese herbal formula, could produce antidepressant-like effects in learned helplessness (LH) model and chronic mild stress (CMS) model in rats. The mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like action was investigated by exploring BDNF signaling way in the hippocampus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SYG was administrated for 5 consecutive days (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) in the learned helplessness model; SYG was administered daily by gastric gavages during both the 5-week stress session and behavior tests periods in the chronic mild stress model (100 and 200 mg/kg). The serum corticosterone level was measured in the learned helplessness model. Levels of BDNF and Tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB), were evaluated in the hippocampus of chronic mild stress model. RESULTS: A deficit in avoidance learning and higher corticosterone level were observed in learned helplessness rats. SYG significantly reduced this deficit and reversed the corticosterone alteration. CMS induced significant reduction of sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and an increased immobility time in the forced swim test as compared to the control. It was also found that BDNF and TrkB levels were decreased in CMS model. Chronic treatment of SYG significantly suppressed the behavioral changes and up-regulated the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SYG alleviates depression induced by LH and CMS model. The antidepressant-like activity of SYG is likely mediated by activation the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Panax , Polygala , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Desamparo Aprendido , Masculino , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygala/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan ; 44(5): 354-8, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475722

RESUMO

The stressors, such as microgravity, noise, radiation, narrow and isolated environment and excessive workload, affect astronauts' physical and mental health. Stress-induced disruption in nervous system, including decreased ability to response and perform physical or mental tasks during medium-term or long-term space flight, which can impact both astronauts' health and accomplishment of the task. This is a crucial space medicine issue to be solved. This paper reviews the progress on the hazard, mechanism, precipitating factors and countermeasure of stress injury in spaceflight and provides theories to develop the prevention and treatment of spaceflight-related stress injury.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Voo Espacial , Estresse Fisiológico , Ausência de Peso , Astronautas , Humanos
5.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 61(5): 445-50, 2009 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19847365

RESUMO

Space flight is known to produce a number of neurological disturbances. The etiology is unknown, but it may involve increased oxidative stress. A line of experimental evidence indicates that space flight may disrupt antioxidant defense system and result in increased oxidative stress. In vitro studies found that abundant of NO was produced in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and protein nitration was increased in PC12 cells within a simulated microgravity rotating wall bioreactor high aspect ratio vessel system or clinostat system. In the present study, we observed the change of redox status in SH-SY5Y cells after parabolic flight, and studied the effects of key redox molecule, thioredoxin (TRX), during the altered gravity. SH-SY5Y cells were divided into four groups: control cells, control cells transfected with TRX, flight cells and flight cells transfected with TRX. The expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TRX and thioredoxin reductase (TRXR) were observed by immunocytochemical method. It was shown that after parabolic flight, the staining of 3-NT and TRX were enhanced, while the expression level of TRXR was down-regulated compared with control. As for flight cells transfected with TRX, the staining of 3-NT and iNOS were weakened compared with flight cells. These results obtained suggest that altered gravity may increase protein nitration, down-regulate TRXR and elicit oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells, while TRX transfection could partly protect cells against oxidative stress induced by parabolic flight.


Assuntos
Hipogravidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Voo Espacial , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/fisiologia , Tiorredoxinas/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/fisiologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transfecção , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/fisiologia
6.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 61(2): 108-14, 2009 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19377820

RESUMO

Microgravity is known to produce a number of neurological disturbances during space flight; however, the underlying mechanism of these disturbances is yet to be elucidated. There have been some reports about the increased oxidative stress under microgravity or simulated microgravity. In the present study, we investigated the process of oxidative stress induced by simulated microgravity in different areas of rat brain, which may shed light on the mechanism of neurological disturbances and further neuroprotective research in spaceflight. After adaption for 7 d, 40 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for body weight and randomly assigned to control groups (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) and tail-suspended simulated microgravity groups (7, 14, 21 and 28 d). The tail-suspended groups were treated with 30 angels of tail suspension and the control groups were treated similarly to the tail-suspended groups but without tail suspension. After the required times, different structures of rat brain, including cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus, were harvested and frozen for the further determination. Griess assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, competitive ELISA and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay were used for the observation of the changes of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine (NT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), respectively. As shown in the results, there were different changes in various brain regions after tail suspension compared with control groups. (1) In cerebellum, NT increased after 7 d tail suspension, decreased after 14 d and increased again after 28 d; MDA increased after 14 d; RNS increased and TAC decreased after tail suspension for 21 d; (2) Increase of NT after14 d tail suspension, increase of MDA and decrease of TAC after 21 d were found in cerebral cortex; (3) In hippocampus, RNS increased after tail suspension for 7 d, decreased after 14 d and increased again after 28 d; MDA increased after 21 d; NT increased after 28 d; TAC increased after 7 d and recovered after 21 d. These results suggest that simulated microgravity induced by tail suspension increases the level of oxidative stress in rat brain; however, there are different features in different areas of rat brain. During the response to simulated microgravity, rat brain tissues present a similar process from adaptive response to irreversible oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Hybridoma (Larchmt) ; 24(4): 197-200, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16120025

RESUMO

PA 1b (pea albumin 1b), extracted from pea seeds, is thermostable and is multifunctional. It has an attractive peros toxicity, and is also involved in the regulation of callus growth and cell proliferation. Here we report the preparation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this peptide for further investigation of peptide distribution and functions. PA 1b was coupled to carrier protein using the two-step glutaraldehyde method as an immunal antigen. Five stable cell lines producing anti-PA 1b MAbs were obtained. We analyzed their isotypes, titer, and affinity and found that those MAbs belong to the G(1) and G(2b) subclasses with kappa light chain, respectively. Using these antibodies, a competitive inhibition ELISA was developed, and approximately 15 nmol/L of antigen was detected.


Assuntos
Albuminas/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Ervilhas/química , Albuminas/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Hybrid Hybridomics ; 23(1): 69-72, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15000851

RESUMO

A new competitive inhibition immunoassay (group-selective immunoassay; GSI) has been developed to detect free morphine in urine with the Fab' fragments of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (1B(12)F(9)B(4), IgG(1), kappa, K(aff) = 9.66 x 10(10)M(-1)). At the first assay step, microtiter plates were coated with morphine-ovalbumin (M-6-S-OVA), in which free amino acids were protected by a glutaraldehyde cross-linking modification. The modification did not essentially influence the antibody-binding capacity of the immunosorbent. At the second assay step, anti-morphine MAbs' Fab' fragments, in which free amino groups were biotinylated by N-hydrosuccinimide-biotin ester, were bound to chemically modified immunosorbent. The biotin residues were then detected by the streptavidin-peroxide conjugate. This method has a sensitivity of 3.50 x 10(-15) mol/L using very little volume of sample, covering up to almost 1.20 x 10(-11) mol/L of standard concentration of morphine with good reproducibility. Standard curve prepared in urine indicated a good correlation between the concentration of morphine and the value of OD (y = 1/ax + b; r = 0.99939257, S = 0.01138127). Coefficients of variation for this immunoassay were 1.41 approximately 6.61% within-a-day assay and 2.31 approximately 8.99% between days assay. The recoveries were 94 approximately 101.4% from negative urine and 95.2 approximately 107.5% from positive urine samples, respectively. This method has application as a specific screen for morphine in drug abusers, to study the metabolism of the drug in the body, or to screen the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against morphine.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Morfina/urina , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Hybrid Hybridomics ; 22(6): 401-6, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14683602

RESUMO

3-Nitro-L-tyrosine (nitrotyrosine) has recently been considered to be useful as a biomarker of endogenous production of several reactive nitrogen species including peroxynitrite. In the present study, nitrotyrosine was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) using a two-step glutaraldehyde method and immunized mouse with multifocal intradermal injections. Using a conventional immunization protocol, 12 stable monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) producing cell lines recognizing nitrotyrosine were obtained. Six MAbs were selected for further characterization. A study of cross-reactions with nitrotyrosine-like compounds showed that the antibodies had a high specificity for nitrotyrosine, but no detectable reactivity with L-tyrosine, p-nitro-L-phenylalanine, o-phospho-L-tyrosine or 3-amino-L-tyrosine. Using these high titer and affinity antibodies, a competitive inhibition ELISA was developed with a lower detection limit of approximately 20 nmol/L to detect both free and protein-bound nitrotyrosine in biological systems.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/química , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Ligação Competitiva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutaral/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Ácido Peroxinitroso/química , Fenilalanina/química , Fosfotirosina/química , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Tirosina/metabolismo
10.
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing) ; 16(6): 455-8, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15008196

RESUMO

Space flight is associated with an increase of peroxidative damage after returning to 1 g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight and can even last for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduced blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha, and 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha and 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes are attributed to a combination of energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleted muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by studies in rodents, which showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity afterflight. The changes in rodents were attributed to the stress associated with re-entry into Earth's gravity. Reducing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply antioxidants in diet may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Oxidantes
11.
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing) ; 15(6): 460-4, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12622100

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibody techniques are very important tools in modern life science research. Despite extensive research efforts paid in recent years, and promising results yielded in the study on the structure and function of genes and proteins, there is still a great need for further researches on the definition, principle and applicability of some immunological methods. This review gives an overview of the advances in immunological researches, including DNA immunization, cellular immunization and preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Using methods of modem molecular immunology, such as genetic immunization, cellular immunization, subtractive immunization and repetitive immunization multiple sites (RIMMS), to construct eukaryotic expression vector and to prepare high-affinity monoclonal antibodies in short time, the conventional method which is time-consuming and laborious could be improved. It is meaningful to the field of basic research and application, such as proteomics, biochip, clinical medicine and diagnosis and therapy of diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunidade Celular , Pesquisa , Medicina Aeroespacial , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências
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