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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127479, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688181

RESUMO

Calcium treatment effects on malate metabolism and the GABA pathway in 'Cripps Pink' apple fruit during storage were investigated. Postharvest apple fruit treated with 1% and 4% calcium chloride solutions were stored at 25 ± 1 °C. The 4% calcium treatment suppressed declines in titratable acidity and malate content and increased succinate and oxalate concentrations. Calcium treatment also reduced the respiration rate and decreased ethylene production peak during storage. Moreover, 4% calcium treatment significantly enhanced cyNAD-MDH and PEPC activities and upregulated MdMDH1, MdMDH2, MdPEPC1 and MdPEPC2 expression while inhibiting cyNADP-ME and PEPCK activities and downregulating MdME1, MdME4 and MdPEPCK2 expression. Surprisingly, calcium treatment changed the content of some free amino acids (GABA, proline, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate), two of which (glutamate and GABA) are primary metabolites of the GABA pathway. Furthermore, calcium application enhanced GABA pathway activity by increasing MdGAD1, MdGAD2, MdGABA-T1/2 and MdSSADH transcript levels.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 252: 117162, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183613

RESUMO

In order to overcome treatment difficulty of S. aureus infections, a pH/hyaluronidase dual responsive enrofloxacin-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) inclusion complexes (IC) containing hyaluronic acid/chitosan (HA/CS) self-assemble composite nanosystems covered by poloxamer 188 (F68) was firstly explored for targeted "on-demand" delivery. The FTIR, DSC and PXRD showed that enrofloxacin was embedded into IC and then distributed into F68 coating nanogels formulated by electrostatic interaction between CS and HA. The optimal nanosystems of 118.8 ± 30.7 nm showed excellent stability and responsive release in the acid medium, hyaluronidase containing medium, and LB broth medium where S. aureus present. The nanosystems displayed strong surface adsorption on S. aureus and enhanced activity against S. aureus. It had stronger sustained release than the polymeric nanoparticles formulated by entrapping of IC into F68 and the single HA/CS nanogels. This study provides a promising multi-functionalized nanosystems to overcome the treatment challenge of S. aureus and other bacterial infections.

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; : 112960, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148492

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are well-known in affording clinically useful agents, with rich medicinal values by combining with disease targets through various mechanisms. Plant secondary metabolites as lead compounds lay the foundation for the discovery and development of new drugs in disease treatment. Genus Uncaria from Rubiaceae family is a significant plant source of active alkaloids, with anti-hypertensive, sedative, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-drug addiction and anti-inflammatory effects. This review summarizes and discuss the research progress of Uncaria based on alkaloids in the past 15 years, mainly in the past 5 years, including biosynthesis, phytochemistry, pharmacology and structural chemistry. Among, focusing on representative compounds rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline, the pharmacological activities surrounding the central nervous system and cardiovascular system are described in detail. On the basis of case studies, this article provides a brief overview of the synthesis and analogues of representative compounds types. In summary, this review provides an early basis for further searching for new targets and activities, discussing the mechanisms of pharmacological activity and studying the structure-activity relationships of active molecules.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 107185, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218938

RESUMO

Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most prevalent endocrine tumor, and its incidence is still increasing. The mechanisms of PTC dedifferentiation and malignant progression remain unclear. In this study, we identified AHNAK2 as a key gene in PTC by differential expression analysis among four GEO datasets and validated its overexpression profile by data from the Oncomine, TCGA, and HPA databases and IHC staining analysis. AHNAK2 upregulation significantly correlated with advanced grades, stages, and lymph node events. Survival analysis suggested that AHNAK2 overexpression was coupled with poor overall survival. The immune infiltration analysis by TIMER and CIBERSORT indicated that AHNAK2 expression tightly correlated with the infiltration of diverse immune cell types, especially T cell subtypes. In addition, AHNAK2 is correlated with the expression of other conventional key genes of TC, such as PIK3CA, MAPK1, CTNNB1, and SLC5A5. AHNAK2 may be a novel prognostic marker for PTC.

5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 409: 115332, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171190

RESUMO

Mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA) are the main bioactive/toxic alkaloids of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx, and MDR1, BCRP and MRP2 are involved in their efflux in vitro. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mdr1a, Bcrp and Mrp2 on the efficacy/toxicity of MA and HA by using efflux transporter gene knockout mouse models. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, neurotoxicity/cardiotoxicity, and pharmacokinetic profiles of MA and HA were studied. Compared to wild-type mice, the analgesic effects of MA or HA were significantly enhanced in Mdr1a--/-, Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice, and the anti-inflammatory effects notably increased in Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice. Compared to wild-type mice, Mdr1a-/-, Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice suffered from severe karyopyknosis and edema in the brain after MA or HA treatment. Meanwhile, significant arrhythmia appeared, and the heart rate and RR-interval were greatly altered in Mdr1a-/-, Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice. Additionally, obvious disorder of cardiomyocytes were observed, and the CK and cTnT (indicators of heart injury) levels were greatly enhanced in efflux transporter gene knockout mice. The brain levels of MA and HA were markedly increased in Mdr1a-/-, Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice, and the heart levels of MA and HA enhanced greatly in Mdr1a-/- mice. The MRT0-t values of MA and HA were remarkably enhanced in most efflux transporter gene knockout mice. In conclusion, Mdr1a, Bcrp and Mrp2 were all involved in regulating the efficacy/toxicity of MA and HA by altering their tissue accumulation and in vivo residence. Among the three efflux transporters, Mdr1a had a superior regulatory effect.

6.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13843, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatments and outcomes of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in pediatric liver transplant recipients. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of records from nine pediatric liver transplant recipients with PTLD who were treated at our Liver Transplant Center over the period from Jun 2013 to Aug 2018. RESULT: Of these nine patients, seven received liver transplantation in our center and the remaining two patients at other hospitals. The overall incidence of PTLD in pediatric liver transplant recipients in our center was 1.4% (7/485). The median onset of PTLD after liver transplantation was 11 months. Three cases were classified as infectious mononucleosis PTLD, one case was plasmacytic hyperplasia PTLD, one case was polymorphic PTLD and two cases were Burkitt lymphoma. One case showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma and one was classical Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLD. These patients presented with different clinical manifestations including fever, anemia, diarrhea, hypoproteinemia,enlargement of lymph nodes, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, bowel obstruction and even intestinal perforation. Nine patients were positive for EBV-DNA in serum. After diagnosis, immunosuppressants were reduced or discontinued in all cases. Eight patients received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) therapy, four cases were treated with a combination of chemotherapy (R-CHOP, ABVD, COPP/ABV) and one case was combined with radiotherapy. Two cases received surgical treatment due to bowel obstruction. Eight of these patients achieved a complete remission and remained healthy when assessed at the time of final follow-up. One patient died as a result of PTLD progression. CONCLUSION: PTLD is one of the most serious and fatal complications after liver transplantation. The definitive diagnosis requires histopathology. Treatment varies and basically includes immunosuppression reduction, anti-CD20 antibody, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

7.
Curr Drug Metab ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leonurine (Leo), a promising antilipemic agent that has been approved for clinical trials, is extensively metabolized into bioactive Leonurine-10-O-ß-glucuronide (L-10-G) in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) on the disposition of L-10-G. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and intestinal perfusion of Leo were studied by using efflux transporter gene knockout mouse models. The enzyme kinetics via liver and intestinal microsomes were also examined. RESULTS: After intravenous injection with Leo, the AUC0-∞ values of L-10-G in Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice were 1.55-fold and 16.80-fold higher, respectively, than those in wild-type FVB mice (P < 0.05). After oral administration, the AUC0-∞ value of L-10-G showed a 2.82-fold increase in Mrp2-/- mice compared with that in wild-type FVB mice (P < 0.05). After gavage with Leo for 10 and 25 min, the bile accumulation of L-10-G in Mrp2-/- mice was 3-fold and 22-fold lower, respectively, than that in wild-type FVB mice (P < 0.05). Besides, the intestinal excreted amount of L-10-G showed 2.22-fold and 2.68- fold decrease in Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice, respectively, compared with that in wild-type FVB mice (P < 0.05). The clearance of L-10-G decreased in liver microsomes and increased in intestinal microsomes of Bcrp1-/- and Mrp2-/- mice compared to the wild-type FVB mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both Bcrp and Mrp2 are involved in the disposition of L-10-G, and Mrp2 exhibits a superior influence.

8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140169

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Anatomical changes in and hormone roles of the exserted stigma were investigated, and localization and functional analysis of SlLst for the exserted stigma were performed using SLAF-BSA-seq, parental resequencing and overexpression of SlLst in tomato. Tomato accession T431 produces stigmas under relatively high temperatures (> 27 °C, the average temperature in Harbin, China, in June-August), so pollen can rarely reach the stigma properly. This allows the percentage of male sterility exceed 95%, making the use of this accession practical for hybrid seed production. To investigate the mechanism underlying the exserted stigma male sterility, the morphological changes of, anatomical changes of, and comparative endogenous hormone (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, SA) changes in flowers during flower development of tomato accessions DL5 and T431 were measured. The location and function of genes controlling exserted stigma sterility were analyzed using super SLAF-BSA-seq, parental resequencing, comparative genomics and the overexpression of SlLst in tomato. The results showed that an increase in cell number mainly caused stigma exsertion. IAA played a major role, while ABA had an opposite effect on stigma exertion. Moreover, 26 candidate genes related to the exserted stigma were found, located on chromosome 12. The Solyc12g027610.1 (SlLst) gene was identified as the key candidate gene by functional analysis. A subcellular localization assay revealed that SlLst is targeted to the nucleus and cell membrane. Phenotypic analysis of SlLst-overexpressing tomato showed that SlLst plays a crucial role during stigma exsertion.

9.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Zao Ren An Shen capsule (ZRASC) which is composed of three kinds of traditional Chinese herbs is a popular Chinese medicine for the treatment of insomnia. This study investigated the hypnotic effect of ZRASC in an anxiety-like mouse model. METHODS: We determined the role of ZRASC in anxiety and co-morbid insomnia using electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings. Anxiety-like behaviors were tested by using the open-field, light/dark box, or elevated plus-maze in mice. Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to reveal the mechanism by which ZRASC regulated anxiety and insomnia. RESULTS: ZRASC at 680 mg/kg prolonged the time spent in the central area, open arms area, and light box by 1.9, 2.3, and 1.7-fold respectively, compared with the vehicle control group in immobilization stress (IMS) mice. ZRASC at 680 mg/kg given at 08:00 h increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 1.4-fold in a 2-h period after dosing in IMS mice. However, it did not alter the sleep-wake behaviors in normal mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that IMS increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of the stria terminalis and tuberomammillary nucleus by 1.8 and 1.6-fold, respectively. In addition, ZRASC (680 mg/kg) reversed the IMS-induced c-Fos expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ZRASC is an effective therapeutic strategy for both anxiety disorder and sleep disturbances in an anxiety-like mouse model.

10.
Phytochemistry ; 181: 112577, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190100

RESUMO

The new concept that Na/K-ATPase acts as a receptor prompted us to look for new ligands from Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. Using column chromatography, an undescribed phenethyl alcohol glycoside, callicarpanoside A, and an undescribed benzyl alcohol glycoside, callicarpanoside B, along with twelve known polyphenols were isolated from Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their Na/K-ATPase (NKA) inhibitory activities. Using our NKA technology platform-based screening assay protocols, callicarpanoside B was identified as an undescribed Na/K-ATPase agonist. In particular, the newly identified benzyl alcohol glycoside was found to bind NKA and activate the receptor NKA/Src complex, resulting in the activation of protein kinase cascades. These cascades included extracellular signal-regulated kinases and protein kinase C epsilon, as well as NKA α1 endocytosis at nanomolar concentrations. Unlike the class of cardiotonic steroids, callicarpanoside B showed less inhibition of NKA activity and caused less cellular toxicity. Moreover, callicarpanoside B was found to bind NKA at a different site other than the cardiotonic steroids binding site. Thus, we have identified an undescribed NKA α1 agonist that may be used to enhance the physiological processes of NKA α1 signaling.

11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(40): 6295-6303, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by impaired mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Due to poor therapeutic effect of current conventional treatments, progressive psychomotor regression and neurological impairment usually contribute to early death in the first decade of life. Liver transplantation (LT) is emerging as a novel therapeutic option for EE; however, worldwide experience is still limited. CASE SUMMARY: An 18-mo-old patient with the diagnosis of EE received a living donor liver transplant in our institution, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in Asian-Pacific countries. During 20 mo of follow-up, the longitudinal metabolic evaluations revealed a wild fluctuation in urinary EMA levels, still far beyond the normal range. Urinary 2-methylsuccinic acid levels gradually restored to normal, whereas the concentrations of urinary isobutyrylglycine and plasma C4- and C5-acylcarnitines fluctuated markedly and still remained above the reference limits. Only mild amelioration of petechiae and ecchymosis was observed, and no dramatic reversion of chronic mucoid diarrhea and orthostatic acrocyanosis occurred. Although brain magnetic resonance imaging suggested a certain improvement in basal ganglia lesions, the patient still presented developmental delay and neurologic disability. CONCLUSION: LT may bring about a partial but not complete cure to EE. Given its definite role in defending against the devastating natural progression of EE, LT should still be considered for patients with EE in the absence of other superior therapeutic options. Early establishment of diagnosis and initiation of conventional treatment pre-transplant, timely LT, and continuous administration of metabolism-correcting medications post-transplant may be helpful in minimizing the neurologic impairment and maximizing the therapeutic value of LT in EE.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057171

RESUMO

The ventral pallidum (VP) regulates motivation, drug addiction, and several behaviors that rely on heightened arousal. However, the role and underlying neural circuits of the VP in the control of wakefulness remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the specific role of VP GABAergic neurons in controlling sleep-wake behaviors in mice. Fiber photometry revealed that the population activity of VP GABAergic neurons was increased during physiological transitions from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep to either wakefulness or REM sleep. Moreover, chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations were leveraged to investigate a potential causal role of VP GABAergic neurons in initiating and/or maintaining arousal. In vivo optogenetic stimulation of VP GABAergic neurons innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) strongly promoted arousal via disinhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons. Functional in vitro mapping revealed that VP GABAergic neurons, in principle, inhibited VTA GABAergic neurons but also inhibited VTA dopaminergic neurons. In addition, optogenetic stimulation of terminals of VP GABAergic neurons revealed that they promoted arousal by innervating the lateral hypothalamus, but not the mediodorsal thalamus or lateral habenula. The increased wakefulness chemogenetically evoked by VP GABAergic neuronal activation was completely abolished by pretreatment with dopaminergic D1 and D2/D3 receptor antagonists. Furthermore, activation of VP GABAergic neurons increased exploration time in both the open-field and light-dark box tests but did not modulate depression-like behaviors or food intake. Finally, chemogenetic inhibition of VP GABAergic neurons decreased arousal. Taken together, our findings indicate that VP GABAergic neurons are essential for arousal related to motivation.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 60% of patients with de novo neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are presumed to have mosaic NF2, the actual diagnostic rate of this condition remains low at around 20% because of the existing difficulties in detecting NF2 variants with low variant allele frequency (VAF). Here, we examined the correlation between the genotype and phenotype of mosaic NF2 after improving the diagnostic rate of mosaic NF2. METHODS: We performed targeted deep sequencing of 36 genes including NF2 using DNA samples from multiple tissues (blood, buccal mucosa, hair follicle and tumour) of 53 patients with de novo NF2 and elucidated their genotype-phenotype correlation. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (45.2%) had the NF2 germline variant, and 20 patients with NF2 (37.7%) had mosaic NF2. The mosaic NF2 phenotype was significantly different from that in patients with NF2 germline variant in terms of distribution of NF2-related disease, tumour growth rate and hearing outcome. The behaviour of schwannoma correlated to the extent of VAF with NF2 variant in normal tissues unlike meningioma. CONCLUSION: We have improved the diagnostic rate of mosaic NF2 compared with that of previous studies by targeted deep sequencing of DNA from multiple tissues. Many atypical patients with NF2 diagnosed with 'unilateral vestibular schwannoma' or 'multiple meningiomas' presumably have mosaic NF2. Finally, we suggest that the highly diverse phenotype of NF2 could result not only from the type and location of NF2 variant but also the extent of VAF in the NF2 variant within normal tissue DNA.

14.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 284: 102261, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942181

RESUMO

As one of the most promising and effective delivery systems for targeted controlled-release drugs, nanocarriers (NCs) have been widely studied. Although the development of nanoparticle preparations is very prosperous, the safety and effectiveness of NCs are not guaranteed and cannot be precisely controlled due to the unclear processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), as well as the drug release mechanism of NCs in the body. Thus, the approval of NCs for clinical use is extremely rare. This paper reviews the research progress and challenges of using NCs in vivo based on a review of several hundred closely related publications. First, the ADME of NCs under different administration routes is summarized; second, the influences of the physical, chemical, and biosensitive properties, as well as targeted modifications of NCs on their disposal process, are systematically analyzed; third, the tracer technology related to the in vivo study of NCs is elaborated; and finally, the challenges and perspectives of nanoparticle research in vivo are introduced. This review may help readers to understand the current research progress and challenges of nanoparticles in vivo, as well as of tracing technology in nanoparticle research, to help researchers to design safer and more efficient NCs. Furthermore, this review may aid researchers in choosing or exploring more suitable tracing technologies to further advance the development of nanotechnology.

15.
Neuropharmacology ; 181: 108249, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931816

RESUMO

Despite persistent clinical use for over 170 years, the neuronal mechanisms by which general anesthetics produce hypnosis remain unclear. Previous studies suggest that anesthetics exert hypnotic effects by acting on endogenous arousal circuits. Recently, it has been shown that the medial parabrachial nucleus (MPB) is a novel wake-promoting component in the dorsolateral pons. However, it is not known whether and how the MPB contributes to anesthetic-induced hypnosis. Here, we investigated the action of sevoflurane, a widely used volatile anesthetic agent that best represents the drug class of halogenated ethers, on MPB neurons in mice. Using in vivo fiber photometry, we found that the population activities of MPB neurons were inhibited during sevoflurane-induced loss of consciousness. Using in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we revealed that sevoflurane suppressed the firing rate of MPB neurons in concentration-dependent and reversible manners. At a concentration equal to MAC of hypnosis, sevoflurane potentiated synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs), and the inhibitory effect of sevoflurane on the firing rate of MPB neurons was completely abolished by picrotoxin, which is a selective GABAA-R antagonist. At a concentration equivalent to MAC of immobility, sevoflurane directly hyperpolarized MPB neurons and induced a significant decrease in membrane input resistance by increasing a basal potassium conductance. Moreover, pharmacological blockade of GABAA-Rs in the MPB prolongs induction and shortens emergence under sevoflurane inhalation at MAC of hypnosis. These results indicate that sevoflurane inhibits MPB neurons through postsynaptic GABAA-Rs and background potassium channels, which contributes to sevoflurane-induced hypnosis.

16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 207: 112751, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950908

RESUMO

A key factor in the success of the MTDLs drug discovery approach is the selection of suitable target proteins. Based on the results of our previous research regarding dual-target inhibitors of AChE/GSK-3ß and analysis of target proteins, in the current study, 28 hybrids were designed and synthesized. Docking studies allowed us to rationalize the binding mode of the synthesized compounds in both targets. In vitro enzyme inhibition studies identified compound GT15 as a lead molecule with preferential AChE/GSK-3ß inhibition (hAChE IC50 = 1.2 ± 0.1 nM; hGSK-3ß IC50 = 22.2 ± 1.4 nM). In addition, GT15 showed high kinase selectivity for GSK-3, except for DYRK1, with inhibition rate of 83.69% and 67.94% against DYRK1α and DYRK1ß at a concentration of 20 µM. The compound also exhibited good permeability across the blood-brain-barrier and ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of tau protein. Upon oral administration, GT15 exhibited promising cognitive improvement in the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice in the Morris water maze model. These results suggest that AChE and GSK-3 based multitargeted approach have therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3603-3607, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis fracture with high disability and mortality is a difficult problem that seriously affects the life quality of individuals. At present, there is still a lack of anti-osteoporosis drugs with clear target and significant efficacy in the clinical practice. Rehmanniae Radix and its prescriptions have significant clinical effects. In this regard, more and more studies have reported the effects and mechanisms of Rehmanniae Radix and its active components, and the certain research outputs have been achieved. In this article, the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database were searched to collect and organize the latest research progress of Rehmanniae Radix treatment of osteoporosis in the recent 10 years. We summarized the research dynamics as well as the function indexes and mechanisms of the raw and processed Rehmanniae Radix, active ingredients such as catalpol, aucubin, acteoside and Rehmanniae Radix polysaccharide, and their formulating prescriptions, and then excavated the potential active ingredients, targets and signaling pathways, including the effect on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, promoting the osteoblast proliferation and promoting osteogenesis differentiation(increasing alkaline phosphatase, typeⅠ collagen, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin and promoting calcium deposits), increasing the bone density, inhibiting the osteoclast quantity and differentiation, promoting the osteoclast apoptosis, and reducing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and bone resorption pit area to provide the reference and develop new ideas for developing Rehmanniae Radix prescriptions for treatment of osteoporosis and exploring its mechanism.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Rehmannia , China , Humanos , Osteogênese
18.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 635, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein kinases (PKs) play an important role in signaling cascades and are one of the largest and most conserved protein super families in plants. Despite their importance, the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) kinome and expression patterns of PK genes remain to be characterized. RESULTS: Here, we report on the identification and classification of 954 Fragaria vesca PK genes, which were classified into nine groups and 124 gene families. These genes were distributed unevenly among the seven chromosomes, and the number of introns per gene varied from 0 to 47. Almost half of the putative PKs were predicted to localize to the nucleus and 24.6% were predicted to localize to the cell membrane. The expansion of the woodland strawberry PK gene family occurred via different duplication mechanisms and tandem duplicates occurred relatively late as compared to other duplication types. Moreover, we found that tandem and transposed duplicated PK gene pairs had undergone stronger diversifying selection and evolved relatively faster than WGD genes. The GO enrichment and transcriptome analysis implicates the involvement of strawberry PK genes in multiple biological processes and molecular functions in differential tissues, especially in pollens. Finally, 109 PKs, mostly the receptor-like kinases (RLKs), were found transcriptionally responsive to Botrytis cinerea infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research expand the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of PK genes in plant species and provide a potential link between cell signaling pathways and pathogen attack.

19.
Biomaterials ; 257: 120228, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736257

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy of cancer both meet respective challenges. Tumor hypoxia, low penetration and high glutathione (GSH) level bear the brunt. Herein, a core-shell nanoparticle, with multi-function of hypoxia-responsiveness, specific oxygen supply and deep tumor penetration, was constructed for smart mutual-promotion between the both to overcome the respective restrictions. The nano platform (GC@MCS NPs) was composed of hypoxia-responsive hyaluronic acid-nitroimidazole (HA-NI) as shells, MnO2 NPs as oxygen modulators and reduction-responsive functionalized poly (l-glutamic acid) derivatives (γ-PFGA) as cores to deliver gambogic acid (GA) and Chlorine6 (Ce6). After endocytosis, the approximately 100 nm of GC@MCS NPs achieved hypoxia-responsive shell degradation and MnO2 release, followed by reduction-activated charge conversion to form positively charged cores. With the damage effect of superficial tumor cells by the partially released GA, GA&Ce6-loadedγ-PFGA penetrated deep inside through electronic interaction step by step. Upon irradiated with 638 nm of laser, widely permeated Ce6 was activated for enhanced PDT under the high oxygenation by MnO2 NPs. The generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in return facilitated the GA-induced paraptosis by clearing high level of GSH. As a result, this mutual promotion strategy contributed to 92.41% of 4T1 tumor inhibition rate, exhibiting outstanding advantages. Our GC@MCS NPs provided a smart combination of chemo-photodynamic therapy and focused on addressing the tumor hypoxia and low penetration issues.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11942, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686731

RESUMO

Intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. RNF213 single nucleotide variant c.14429G > A (p.Arg4810Lys, rs112735431) was recently reported to be associated with ICAS in East Asians. However, the disease susceptibility of other RNF213 variants has not been clarified. This study comprehensively investigated ICAS-associated RNF213 variants in a pool of 168 Japanese ICAS patients and 1,194 control subjects. We found 138 nonsynonymous germline variants by target resequencing of all coding exons in RNF213. Association study between ICAS patients and control subjects revealed that only p.Arg4810Lys had significant association with ICAS (P = 1.5 × 10-28, odds ratio = 29.3, 95% confidence interval 15.31-56.2 [dominant model]). Fourteen of 138 variants were rare variants detected in ICAS patients not harboring p.Arg4810Lys variant. Two of these rare variants (p.Cys118Arg and p.Leu2356Phe) consistent with variants previously reported in moyamoya disease patients characterized by stenosis of intracranial artery and association with RNF213, and three rare variants (p.Ser193Gly, p.Val1817Leu, and p.Asp3329Tyr) were found neither in control subjects and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. The present findings may improve our understanding of the genetic background of intracranial artery stenosis.

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