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Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184740


The objective of this study was to assess the contamination levels of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in raw milk and the subsequent potential health risk to local consumers close to leather-processing plants in China. The As and Pb concentrations in milk from contaminated areas were 0.43 ± 0.21 and 2.86 ± 0.96 µg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.20 ± 0.05 and 2.32 ± 0.78 µg/L, respectively. The Cr and Cd levels in milk from contaminated areas were 1.21 ± 1.57 and 0.15 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, which were slightly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.87 ± 0.61 and 0.13 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) values for As, Pb, Cr, and Cd from milk consumption were calculated for individuals aged 3 to 69. The THQ followed a descending order of As > Pb > Cr > Cd, with values of 0.0066-0.0441, 0.0033-0.0220, 0.0019-0.0124, and 0.0007-0.0046, respectively. The HI values (0.0124-0.0832) were far below the threshold of 1.

Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 3054-3061, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373082


This large scale study investigated the spatial variability of Pb, As, and Cd contents in raw milk within and between the 10 main milk producing areas in China. A total of 997 raw milk samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean values of Pb, As, and Cd in milk were 1.75 µg/L, 0.31 µg/L, and 0.05 µg/L, respectively. The highest level of Pb and As was present in area C, and Cd was highest in area J. The standard deviation suggested a higher heterogeneity of milk heavy metal contamination within area than between areas. Levels of Pb, As, and Cd showed significant differences between studied areas. The estimated root mean squared standardised error obtained by the cross-validation suggested a differentiated quality of Pb, As, and Cd modelling between areas: the predictions obtained were sometimes overestimated or underestimated. These results can be used to define a more appropriate sampling procedure for heavy metal contaminate distribution in raw milk for improved future control of milk contamination by heavy metals in the studied areas. The significant positive correlations between concentrations of Pb-Cd, As-Cd, and Pb-As were observed in nine, six and five areas, respectively. No significant negative correlations were observed. The observed variability of correlation values suggested a different pollution source for Pb, As, and Cd in milk between areas. Further studies are required to clarify the relationships between the contamination of raw milk by heavy metals and the herd environment.

Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , China , Geografia , Análise Espacial
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 183(1): 92-101, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825229


The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.

Análise de Alimentos , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Medição de Risco
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278385


In recent years, high levels of hormone residue in food, capable of damaging the health of consumers, have been recorded frequently. In this study, 195 raw milk samples were obtained from Tangshan City, China, and the concentrations of 22 steroid hormones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Cortisol was detected in 12.5% of raw milk samples (mean 0.61 µg/kg; range:

Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 176(1): 120-129, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550154


The objectives of this study were to measure the concentrations of elements in raw milk by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and evaluate differences in element concentrations among animal species and regions of China. Furthermore, drinking water and feed samples were analyzed to investigate whether the element concentrations in raw milk are correlated with those in water and feed. All samples were analyzed by ICP-MS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. The mean recovery of the elements was 98.7 % from milk, 103.7 % from water, and 93.3 % from a certified reference material (cabbage). Principal component analysis results revealed that element concentrations differed among animal species and regions. Correlation analysis showed that trace elements Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Se, Sr, Cs, U in water and Co, Ni, Cu, Se, U in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Toxic and potential toxic elements Cr, As, Cd, Tl, Pb in water and Al, Cr, As, Hg, Tl in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Results of correlation analysis revealed that elements in water and feed might contribute to the elements in milk.

Ração Animal/análise , Leite/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , China , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779871


In the present study, 199 raw milk samples were analysed for beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones. They were obtained from collection tanks of milk routes in 10 provinces of China. The occurrence and concentration range of the four antibiotics were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. At the detectable level, 0.5%, 47.2% and 20.1% of samples were positive for beta-lactams, quinolones and sulfonamides, respectively. No sample was positive for tetracyclines. Beta-lactams were positive only in Beijing while quinolones and sulfonamides were positive in all provinces. One (0.5%) sample for beta-lactams was above the maximum residue limits (MRLs, regulated by EU, CAC and China). The maximum concentrations for sulfonamides and quinolones were 16.28 µg kg⁻¹ and 23.25 µg kg⁻¹ which were under their maximum residue limits. More precaution should be taken on antibiotic controls because of the high detection rate of some antibiotics.

Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Quinolonas/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Animais , Bovinos , China , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Limite de Detecção , Leite/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tetraciclinas/análise , beta-Lactamas/análise