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1.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207440

RESUMO

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause a subset of head and neck cancers (HNSCC). HPV16 predominantly signs responsible for approximately 10% of all HNSCC and over 50% of tonsillar (T)SCCs. Prevalence rates depend on several factors, such as the geographical region where patients live, possibly due to different social and sexual habits. Smoking plays an important role, with non-smoking patients being mostly HPV-positive and smokers being mostly HPV-negative. This is of unparalleled clinical relevance, as the outcome of (non-smoking) HPV-positive patients is significantly better, albeit with standard and not with de-escalated therapies. The results of the first prospective de-escalation studies have dampened hopes that similar superior survival can be achieved with de-escalated therapy. In this context, it is important to note that the inclusion of p16INK4A (a surrogate marker for HPV-positivity) in the 8th TMN-classification has only prognostic, not therapeutic, intent. To avoid misclassification, highest precision in determining HPV-status is of utmost importance. Whenever possible, PCR-based methods, still referred to as the "gold standard", should be used. New diagnostic antibodies represent some hope, e.g., to detect primaries and recurrences early. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should lead to a decline in HPV-driven HNSCC as well. This review discusses the above aspects in detail.

2.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(8): 634-643, 2021 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The influence of smoking on survival in patients with HNSCC is well documented in the literature. There is little data on changes in smoking habits after diagnosis. Here, the effect on survival of the reduction of smoking compared to full smoking cessation is investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patient records and tumor documentation of 643 consecutive HNSCC cases of the Head and Neck Tumor Center of the University Hospital Kiel are evaluated retrospectively: smoking habits before and after treatment and survival are evaluated. RESULTS: Change in smoking behavior at the initial diagnosis of HNSCC leads to a significant positive effect on the prognosis compared to continued smoking. There is no difference between smoke reduction and weaning. This effect is based solely on those patients who are treated exclusively by surgery. Lifelong non-smokers have a significant survival advantage over active and ex-smokers, with no difference between the latter two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The positive influence of changed smoking habits on the prognosis runs parallel to the negative direct effect of active smoking on therapy, which is attributed to peritumoral hypoxia with a negative effect on the effectiveness of R(C)T. The positive effect of the change in smoking behaviour during surgery alone is most likely due to reduced peri-operative complications. Patients should be encouraged to at least minimize smoking with the cancer diagnosis. In addition, former smokers should be considered active smokers for survival estimates and therapy planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
3.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(10): 799-810, 2021 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139776

RESUMO

Smoking worsens the prognosis of patients with HNSCC. Furthermore, smoking is associated with the prevalence of co- and multimorbidity, so that it is assumed that not smoking per se, but co-/multimorbidity worsens the prognosis due to lack of compliance to therapy, e. g. by reducing the dose of the planned radio(chemo)therapy (RCT). However, data on this topic are currently sparse and contradictory, especially for HNSCC.Patient records and tumor documentation of 643 consecutive cases of the Head and Neck Tumor Center of the University Hospital Kiel were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics and smoking habits were recorded and correlated with co-/multimorbidity and treatment course.The 643 patient files examined show that 113 (17.6 %) patients did not smoke, 349 (54.3 %) were active and 180 (28 %) patients had previously smoked. 315 (49 %) are treated exclusively by surgery; 121 (18.8 %) by surgery + adjuvant RCT and 72 (11.2 %) by surgery + adjuvant RT. 111 (17.3 %) receive a primary RCT and 24 (3.7 %) a primary RT. 131 (20.4 %) show co-/multimorbidity and 512 (79.6 %) do not. Smoking (> 10 py) is significantly associated with comorbidity (p = 0.002). However, smoking and comorbidity, neither alone nor in combination, are correlated with the achievement of the target dose of RCT (p > 0.05).As expected, smoking is significantly linked to co-/multimorbidity. Dose reduction of R(C)T is just as frequent in active smokers and patients with co-/multimorbidity as in non-smokers and patients without co-/multimorbidity. Thus, smoking and co-/multimorbidity influence the prognosis in other ways than by interfering with planned therapy regimens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Comorbidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The activating Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptor is typically expressed on NK cells, CD8 T lymphocytes, γδ T cells and small subsets of CD4 T lymphocytes. During the course of an extensive flow cytometry phenotyping of immune cells in the peripheral blood of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) we noticed an unexpected expression of NKG2D receptor on granulocytes using the phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated clone 149810 antibody. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 35 patients with GBM and 22 age-matched healthy control (HC) donors were analyzed using flow cytometry, imaging cytometry and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR to validate the observed expression of NKG2D receptor on myeloid cells. RESULTS: Reactivity with PE-149810 was mostly observed on granulocytes from GBM patients on dexamethasone treatment where it correlated with inferior survival rates. Surprisingly, such NKG2D expression on granulocytes was not observed using the allophycocyanin (APC)-conjugate of the same clone 149810 antibody or an indirect staining procedure with unconjugated clone 149810 antibody. Moreover, the PE-conjugate of a different anti-NKG2D clone (1D11) also did not stain granulocytes. Imaging cytometry indicated cell surface and intracellular localization of PE-149810 but not of PE-1D11 in granulocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results uncover an erroneous and false positive reactivity of PE-labeled (but not of APC-labeled or unconjugated) anti-NKG2D antibody 149810 on granulocytes from dexamethasone-treated GBM patients and raise a note of caution for studies of NKG2D expression on non-lymphoid cells.

5.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 26: 100299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387869

RESUMO

Six own studies confirm a correlation between smoking, expression of the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI, an antileukoproteinase) and expression of Annexin A2 (AnxA2), and their influence on human papilloma virus (HPV)-infections. SLPI and HPV are ligands of AnxA2. This correlation was tested on 928 tissue samples from 892 patients in six independent studies [squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), n = 522; non-neoplastic tonsils n = 214; clinically normal mucosa, n = 93 (of these n = 57 were obtained from patients treated for non-malignant diseases and n = 36 were obtained from HNSCC-patients) and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) n = 99]. HPV-DNA-status was determined by GP5+/GP6+-PCR, followed in case of HPV-positivity by Sanger sequencing and RT-PCR using HPV-type specific primers. SLPI- and AnxA2-gene-expression was determined by RT-q-PCR; SLPI-protein-expression was additionally determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC); the data were correlated with each other and with patient characteristics. Smoking results in increased SLPI-gene- and protein- and AnxA2-gene-expression with significantly higher SLPI- than AnxA2-gene-expression. SLPI is decreased in non-smokers with a continuous AnxA2-surplus. HPV-status correlates with smoking habit, with smokers being mostly HPV-negative and non-smokers HPV-positive. We hypothesize that smoking leads to SLPI-overexpression with SLPI-binding to AnxA2. Thus, HPV cannot bind to AnxA2 but this seems pivotal for HPV-cell-entry. Smoking favors SLPI-expression resulting in HPV-negative carcinomas, while HPV-positive carcinomas are more common in non-smokers possibly due to a surplus of unbound AnxA2. In addition, the hypothesis may contribute to understand why smokers show increased oral HPV-prevalence in natural history studies but do not necessarily develop HPV-associated lesions.

6.
Transl Oncol ; 14(2): 101002, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352503

RESUMO

Previous studies describe a correlation between HPV-positivity and non-smoking in TSCC; p16INK4A-expression as surrogate-marker for HPV-DNA/RNA-positivity is discussed controversially. In the present study, these parameters are assessed prospectively. HPV-status of sputum and tonsillar-swabs was analyzed to determine their validity as surrogate-marker for tissue-HPV-status. TSCC- (n = 52) and non-neoplastic tonsillar tissue (n = 163) were analyzed. HPV-DNA- and HPV-RNA-status of total sputum, cellular fraction and supernatants, tonsillar-swabs and -tissue was determined by (RT)-PCR. Immunohistochemistry determined p16INK4A-expression. 23/163 (14.2%) non-neoplastic tonsils were HPV-DNA-positive; five patients (3 HPV16, 2 HPV11) had active HPV-infections (HPV-RNA-positive), in all biomaterials. 140/163 (85.9%) patients were either HPV-DNA-positive or HPV-DNA-negative in all samples. 21/52 (40.4%) TSCC-tonsils were HPV-DNA-positive; 17 patients were HPV-RNA-positive (14 HPV16; 4 HPV18). 40/52 (76.9%) TSCC-patients were congruent in all biomaterials. p16INK4A-expression alone would have misclassified the HPV-status of 14/52 (26.2%) TSCC-patients. This prospective study confirms the discrepancy between HPV-status and p16INK4A-expression and the significant correlation between non-smoking and HPV-DNA-positivity. HPV-sputum- and/or swab-results do not consistently match tissue-results, possibly having (detrimental) consequences if those were used to assess tissue-HPV-status. In the 5 patients with active HPV infection in the non-neoplasitic tonsils, tonsillectomy likely prevented subsequent development of TSCC.

7.
Papillomavirus Res ; 10: 100207, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971320

RESUMO

HPV-infection in patients with HNSCC is reportedly correlated with sexual behavior, age, and tobacco/alcohol-consumption. HPV-infections of the oral cavity are regarded as sexually transmitted. Comparable data of patient populations outside the U.S. are sparse or missing. Questionnaires regarding sexual behavior, education tobacco- and alcohol-consumption, were given to 28 patients with tonsillar hyperplasia (H) and 128 patients with tonsillar carcinomas (CA), all with tissue-typed HPV-DNA-status performing PCR. Answers were correlated among groups and HPV-status. 106 questionnaires were analyzed. Comparisons between H- (n = 25) and CA- (n = 81) patients showed that CA-patients were older (61.1yrs ± 9.3) than H-patients (45.2yrs ± 11.9; p < 0.0001; Student's t-test); had a lower educational level (p = 0.0095); and lower number of sexual partners (p = 0.0222; Fisher's exact test). All groups showed a significant correlation between smoking and lack of HPV-DNA-positivity (p = 0.001). Further Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analysis revealed in all 106 patients no significant correlations between tissue-HPV-status and the analyzed parameters. Despite the limited sample size, we were able to confirm the established correlation between smoking and tissue-HPV-status. The correlation between sexual behavior and HPV-infection was not confirmed. No consensus exists in the literature about the latter. Our data does not support the strict classification of oral HPV-infections and HPV-driven HNSCCs as STDs.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Tonsilares/epidemiologia , Idoso , DNA Viral/análise , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/virologia , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias Tonsilares/patologia , Neoplasias Tonsilares/virologia
8.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 13(5): 50, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874580

RESUMO

The impact of smoking on survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is well established, despite some conflicting data in the literature. However, data on alterations of smoking habit following cancer diagnosis is sparse. In the present study, the effect of reduction of smoking compared with cessation on the course of disease was studied. Data from 643 patients with HNSCC from the tumor documentation registry of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel were collected and statistically analyzed, looking at pre- and post-treatment smoking habit and survival. Alteration of smoking at the first diagnosis of HNSCC led to a significantly beneficial effect on survival outcomes compared with continued smoking, without significant differences between reduction and cessation of smoking. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was solely dependent on patients treated by surgery only. Lifelong non-smokers exhibited a significant survival advantage compared with active and former smokers, with no difference in survival between these last two groups. The positive influence of altered smoking habit following first time diagnosis on disease-specific survival paralleled the negative direct effect of active smoking on therapy, which is predominantly attributed to peritumoral tissue hypoxia leading to impaired efficacy of radiochemotherapy (RCT). In the present study cohort, the positive effect of smoking habit alterations were primarily observed in patients treated by surgery only instead of RCT, possibly due to fewer perioperative complications. These findings indicated that patients should be encouraged to at least minimize smoking following cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, for survival estimates and therapy planning, former smokers should be considered as active smokers.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266158

RESUMO

Introduction: Smoking has a negative impact on survival of HNSCC patients. In addition, smoking is associated with the prevalence of co-morbidities and, thus, it may be assumed that not smoking per se but co-morbidities impact the course of therapy in terms of lower compliance and dose-reduction. However, data addressing this issue is sparse and conflicting at present, specifically for HNSCCs. Patients and methods: Patient files and tumor documentation from 643 consecutive cases of the University Head and Neck Cancer Centre Kiel were analyzed retrospectively. Patient characteristics and smoking habits were assessed and correlated with co-morbidities and course of treatment. Results: The examined 643 patient files showed that 113 (17.6%), 349 (54.3%), and 180 (28%) patients were never, active, and former smokers, respectively. Three hundred fifteen (49%) were treated by surgery only; 121 (18.8%) received surgery + adjuvant RCT and 72 (11.2%) surgery + adjuvant RT. 111 (17.3%) received primary RCT and 24 (3.7%) primary RT. 131 (20.4%) and 512 (79.6%) had no or had co-morbidities, respectively. Smoking (>10 py) was significantly associated with co-morbidities (p = 0.002). However, smoking and co-morbidities, neither alone nor in combination, were correlated with failure in reaching target doses of radio(chemo)therapy (p > 0.05). Applying (verified) Carlson-Comorbidity-Index (CCI) did not change the results. Conclusions: As expected, smoking is significantly associated with co-morbidities. Dose-reduction of radio(chemo)therapy is as common among active smokers and patients with co-morbidities as among never smokers and patients without co-morbidities. Thus, smoking and co-morbidity seems to impact survival by other means than impairing planned therapy regimens.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972064

RESUMO

The functional plasticity and anti-tumor potential of human γδ T cells have been widely studied. However, the epigenetic regulation of γδ T-cell/tumor cell interactions has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we show that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Valproic acid (VPA) significantly enhanced the expression and/or release of the NKG2D ligands MICA, MICB and ULBP-2, but not ULBP-1 in the pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc89 and the prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3. Under in vitro tumor co-culture conditions, the expression of full length and the truncated form of the NKG2D receptor in γδ T cells was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, using a newly established flow cytometry-based method to analyze histone acetylation (H3K9ac) in γδ T cells, we showed constitutive H3K9aclow and inducible H3K9achigh expression in Vδ2 T cells. The detailed analysis of H3K9aclow Vδ2 T cells revealed a significant reversion of TEMRA to TEM phenotype during in vitro co-culture with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Our study uncovers novel mechanisms of how epigenetic modifiers modulate γδ T-cell differentiation during interaction with tumor cells. This information is important when considering combination therapy of VPA with the γδ T-cell-based immunotherapy for the treatment of certain types of cancer.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/biossíntese , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Acetilação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia
11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(10): 3731-3738, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess changes in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood after contact with titanium implant surfaces conditioned by UV light. To this end, expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed in vitro in human whole blood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental implants made of grade 4 titanium were conditioned by UV light in a UV device and submerged in human whole blood. Unconditioned implants served as controls, and blood samples without implants served as the negative control group. Sampling was performed at 1, 8, and 24 h. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin-1ß (IL1B) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) were assessed using RT-qPCR at the mRNA level. RESULTS: The gene expression of IL1B was significantly suppressed in the test group over the observation period compared to the control group during the 1-8 h after having contact between the implant surface and the blood. The gene expression of TNF was not significantly altered by UV conditioning after 1 and 8 h of observation, but both cytokine expression levels were increased significantly after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines after insertion of UV-conditioned titanium implants can be assessed using a human whole blood test. UV-conditioned implant surfaces apparently suppress the release of IL1B in vitro. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results of our publication demonstrate that modulation of the early inflammatory response in human whole blood is possible by surface treatment with UV light. In particular, the suppression of IL1B expression, especially after the initial contact of blood cells, may be beneficial in the osseointegration of titanium implants by positively influence the balance between rejection and acceptance of an implant.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Inflamação , Titânio , Raios Ultravioleta , Sangue , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Osseointegração , Propriedades de Superfície , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
12.
Cancer Lett ; 413: 59-68, 2018 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100961

RESUMO

The positive prognostic value of HPV-infections in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) patients has led to the initiation of prospective clinical trials testing the value of treatment de-escalation. It is unclear how to define patients potentially benefiting from de-escalated treatment, whether a positive smoking history impacts survival data and what kind of de-escalation might be best. Here, we investigate the effect of HPV-status, smoking habit and treatment design on overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) of 126 patients with tonsillar SCC (TSCC) who underwent CO2-laser-surgery and risk adapted adjuvant treatment. HPV-DNA-, HPV-mRNA-, and p16INK4A-expression were analysed and results were correlated to OS and PFS. Factors tested for prognostic value included HPV-status, p16INK4A-protein expression, therapy and smoking habit. Log rank test and p-values ≤0.05 defined significant differences between groups. The highest accuracy of data with highest significance in this study is given when the HPV-RNA-status is considered. Using p16INK4A-expression alone or in combination with HPV-DNA-status, would have misclassified 23 and 7 patients, respectively. Smoking fully abrogates the positive impact of HPV-infection in TSCC on survival. Non-smoking HPV-positive TSCC patients show 10-year OS of 100% and 90.9% PFS when treated with adjuvant RCT. The presented data show that high-precision HPV-detection methods are needed, specifically when treatment decisions are based on the results. Furthermore, smoking habit should be included in all studies and clinical trials testing HPV-associated survival. Adjuvant RCT especially for HPV-positive non-smokers may help to avoid distant failure.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Tonsilares/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/química , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Testes de DNA para Papilomavírus Humano , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/mortalidade , Lasers de Gás/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esvaziamento Cervical , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Tonsilares/química , Neoplasias Tonsilares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Tonsilares/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Papillomavirus Res ; 4: 26-34, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179866

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if micro-(mi-)RNAs are involved in the previously reported inverse correlation between the antileukoproteinase SLPI, HPV, and smoking habit of head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. HPV-status and SLPI-protein expression were determined in tonsillar SCC (TSCC; n=126). Differentially expressed miRNAs dependent on HPV-status and SLPI-expression were detected by microarray; possible binding-sites in SLPI- and HPVE6-mRNAs were determined in silico. Survival rates were estimated testing prognostic values of HPV-status, SLPI- and miRNA-expression. miRNA-array identified 24 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs in HPV-positive versus HPV-negative TSCC (p<0.01; HPV-positivity: 42.1%). HPV-positivity resulted in two up-regulated miRNAs in SLPI-positive TSCC. Of 16 further miRNAs, eight miRNAs were up- and eight were down-regulated in SLPI-negative TSCC. RT-q-PCR-validation of the four most differentially expressed miRNAs showed that miR-363 is expressed strongest in SLPI-negative/HPV-positive TSSC. In silico-analysis of all differentially expressed miRNAs identified miR-363, miR-210, miR-130a, and miR-181a with possible binding sites in the HPV16-E6-mRNA, but none were predicted in the SLPI-mRNA. HPV-positivity, low SLPI-levels and high miR-363-levels are significantly associated with better survival rates. The data presented here show that miR-363 is associated with HPV-positive/SPLI-negative TSCC. The prognostic value of miR-363 suggests a role in the assumed inverse correlation of smoking and SPLI-expression in the mode of HPV-infections in tonsillar but possibly also other HNSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/genética , Neoplasias Tonsilares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Simulação por Computador , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Tonsilares/virologia , Regulação para Cima
14.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(11): e1358839, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147621

RESUMO

Despite aggressive treatment regimens based on surgery and radiochemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains extremely poor, calling for alternative options such as immunotherapy. Immunological mechanisms including the Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand system play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and targeting the NKG2D system might be beneficial. However, before considering any kind of immunotherapy, a precise characterization of the immune system is important, particularly in GBM patients where conventional therapies with impact on the immune system are frequently co-administered. Here we performed an in-depth immunophenotyping of GBM patients and age-matched healthy controls and analyzed NKG2D ligand expression on primary GBM cells ex vivo. We report that GBM patients have a compromised innate immune system irrespective of steroid (dexamethasone) medication. However, dexamethasone drastically reduced the number of immune cells in the blood of GBM patients. Moreover, higher counts of immune cells influenced by dexamethasone like CD45+ lymphocytes and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells were associated with better overall survival. Higher levels of NKG2D ligands on primary GBM tumor cells were observed in patients who received radiochemotherapy, pointing towards increased immunogenic potential of GBM cells following standard radiochemotherapy. This study sheds light on how steroids and radiochemotherapy affect immune cell parameters of GBM patients, a pre-requisite for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the immune system in these patients.

15.
J Immunol ; 197(8): 3059-3068, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619996

RESUMO

Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize in a butyrophilin 3A/CD277-dependent way microbial (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) or endogenous pyrophosphates (isopentenyl pyrophosphate [IPP]). Nitrogen-bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) trigger selective γδ T cell activation because they stimulate IPP production in monocytes by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway downstream of IPP synthesis. We performed a comparative analysis of the capacity of purified monocytes, neutrophils, and CD4 T cells to serve as accessory cells for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation in response to three selective but mechanistically distinct stimuli (ZOL, HMBPP, agonistic anti-CD277 mAb). Only monocytes supported γδ T cell expansion in response to all three stimuli, whereas both neutrophils and CD4 T cells presented HMBPP but failed to induce γδ T cell expansion in the presence of ZOL or anti-CD277 mAb. Preincubation of accessory cells with the respective stimuli revealed potent γδ T cell-stimulating activity of ZOL- or anti-CD277 mAb-pretreated monocytes, but not neutrophils. In comparison with monocytes, ZOL-pretreated neutrophils produced little, if any, IPP and expressed much lower levels of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. Exogenous IL-18 enhanced the γδ T cell expansion with all three stimuli, remarkably also in response to CD4 T cells and neutrophils preincubated with anti-CD277 mAb or HMBPP. Our study uncovers unexpected differences between monocytes and neutrophils in their accessory function for human γδ T cells and underscores the important role of IL-18 in driving γδ T cell expansion. These results may have implications for the design of γδ T cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Butirofilinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Butirofilinas/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Difosfonatos/imunologia , Geraniltranstransferase/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/imunologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/imunologia , Compostos Organofosforados/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Ácido Zoledrônico
16.
Oncotarget ; 7(40): 64743-64756, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27556516

RESUMO

Previously, the expression of a non-secreted IL-4 variant (IL-4δ13) has been described in association with apoptosis and age-dependent Th2 T-cell polarization. Signaling pathways involved in this process have so far not been studied. Here we report the induction of IL-4δ13 expression in human γδ T-cells upon treatment with a sublethal dose of histone deacetylase (HDACi) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). Induction of IL-4δ13 was associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-4Rα and decreased IL-4 expression, while mRNA for mature IL-4 was concomitantly down-regulated. Importantly, only the simultaneous combination of apoptosis and necroptosis inhibitors prevented IL-4δ13 expression and completely abrogated VPA-induced global histone H3K9 acetylation mark. Further, our work reveals a novel involvement of transcription factor c-Jun in the signaling network of IL-4, HDAC1, caspase-3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). This study provides novel insights into the effects of epigenetic modulator VPA on human γδ T-cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Células Th2/fisiologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Células Cultivadas , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-4/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Mutação/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima , Ácido Valproico/metabolismo
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 59: 10-18, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26652343

RESUMO

Following a myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue, which decreases ventricular contractile function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to regenerate such damaged cardiomyocyte tissue. Engineered cardiac patches can be fabricated by seeding a high density of cardiac cells onto a synthetic or natural porous polymer. In this study, nanocomposite scaffolds made of gold nanotubes/nanowires incorporated into biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethane were employed to make micro-porous scaffolds. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells were cultured on the scaffolds for one day, and electrical stimulation was applied to improve cell communication and interaction in neighboring pores. Cells on scaffolds were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the combination of scaffold design and electrical stimulation significantly increased cell confluency of H9C2 cells on the scaffolds. Furthermore, we showed that the gene expression levels of Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB), which are functional genes of the myocardium, were up-regulated by the incorporation of gold nanotubes/nanowires into the polyurethane scaffolds, in particular after electrical stimulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ouro , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Nanocompostos/química , Poliuretanos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Estimulação Elétrica , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/química , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Ratos
18.
J Transl Med ; 13: 212, 2015 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare but serious adverse drug effect linked to long-term and/or high-dose exposure to nitrogen-bisphosphonates (N-BP), the standard of care for the treatment of bone fragility disorders. The mechanism leading to bisphosphonate-associated ONJ (BAONJ) is unclear and optimal treatment strategies are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that BAONJ may be linked to drug-induced immune dysfunction, possibly associated with increased susceptibility to infections in the oral cavity. The objective of this investigation was to comprehensively assess the relationship linking immune function, N-BP exposure, the oral microbiome and ONJ susceptibility. METHODS: Leukocyte gene expression of factors important for immunity, wound healing and barrier function were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and the oral microbiome was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in 93 subjects stratified by N-BP exposure and a history of ONJ. RESULTS: There were marked differences in the systemic expression of genes regulating immune and barrier functions including RANK (p = 0.007), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, p < 0.001), and FGF9 (p < 0.001), which were collectively up-regulated in individuals exposed to N-BP without ONJ relative to treatment controls. In contrast, the expression levels of these same genes were significantly down-regulated in those who had experienced BAONJ. Surprisingly, the oral microbiome composition was not directly linked to either BAONJ or N-BP exposure, rather the systemic leukocyte expression levels of RANK, TNFA and AHR each explained 9% (p = 0.04), 12% (p = 0.01), and 7% (p = 0.03) of the oral bacterial beta diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The oral microbiome is unlikely causative of ONJ, rather individuals with BAONJ lacked immune resiliency which impaired their capacity to respond adequately to the immunological stress of N-BP treatment. This may be the common factor linking N-BP and anti-RANK agents to ONJ in at-risk individuals. Preventive and/or therapeutic strategies should target the wound healing deficits present in those with ONJ.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/imunologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/microbiologia , Imunidade , Microbiota/imunologia , Boca/microbiologia , Idoso , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/genética , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Cicatrização/genética
19.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 272(5): 1251-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24792014

RESUMO

Seven squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were disintegrated from biopsies of patients with head and neck cancer. Genotyping tests verified the authenticity and the human origin of all seven lines. The cell lines designated as University of Kiel, Head and Neck (UKHN) -1 to -3 and UKHN-6 to -9 were subjected to flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence to assess aberrant DNA content. To confirm the squamous epithelial origin of the cells, the cytokeratin profile was immunocytologically analysed. The cell lines showed individual differences in mitotic frequency. UKHN-1, -6, -7 and -9 grew as monolayers, whereas UKHN-2, -3, and -8 tend to multilayer stratification. Overexpression of LOXL4 and Pim-1 proteins as distinctive features of head and neck carcinomas were shown in all seven cell lines. Inoculating SCID mice with these cell lines resulted in tumour formation, hence corroborating the tumourigenicity of all seven cell lines. The cell lines were also tested for high-risk HPV types using different DNA-based assays and found to be negative.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citometria de Fluxo , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Animais , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Transcriptoma
20.
N Biotechnol ; 32(1): 229-35, 2015 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24816460

RESUMO

Availability of high quality synthetic mRNAs (syn-mRNAs) has enabled progress in their applications. Important structural features and quality requirements are discussed. Developments in the application of mRNA-mediated manipulation of cells are presented (i) mRNA-directed expression of antigens in dendritic cells for vaccination projects in oncogenesis, infectious disease and allergy prevention; (ii) reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells with their subsequent differentiation to the desired cell type; (iii) applications in gene therapy.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Inata , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/química
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