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1.
Intern Med J ; 51(10): 1707-1712, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664367

RESUMO

Imaging modalities for multiple myeloma (MM) have evolved to enable earlier detection of disease. Furthermore, the diagnosis of MM requiring therapy has recently changed to include disease prior to bone destruction, specifically the detection of focal bone lesions. Focal lesions are early, abnormal areas in the bone marrow, which may signal the development of subsequent lytic lesions that typically occur within the next 18-24 months. Cross-sectional imaging modalities are more sensitive for the detection and monitoring of bone and bone marrow disease and are now included in the International Myeloma Working Group current consensus criteria for initial diagnosis and treatment response assessment. The aim of this consensus practice statement is to review the evidence supporting these modalities. A more detailed Position Statement can be found on the Myeloma Australia website.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Paraproteinemias , Consenso , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Plasmócitos
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): 1582-1596, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of the phase 3 MAIA trial (median follow-up 28·0 months), a significant improvement in progression-free survival was observed with daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in transplantation-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here, we report the updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. METHODS: MAIA is an ongoing, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients at 176 hospitals in 14 countries across North America, Europe, the Middle East, and the Asia-Pacific region. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2, and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation because of their age (≥65 years) or comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using randomly permuted blocks (block size 4) by an interactive web response system to receive 28-day cycles of intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg, once per week during cycles 1-2, once every 2 weeks in cycles 3-6, and once every 4 weeks thereafter) plus oral lenalidomide (25 mg on days 1-21 of each cycle) and oral dexamethasone (40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle; daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was centrally assessed, and a secondary endpoint was overall survival (both assessed in the intention-to-treat population). The safety population included patients who received at least one dose of the study treatment. The results presented here are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival, for which the prespecified stopping boundary was p=0·0414. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02252172. FINDINGS: Between March 18, 2015, and Jan 15, 2017, 952 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 737 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the daratumumab group (n=368) or the control group (n=369). At a median follow-up of 56·2 months (IQR 52·7-59·9), median progression-free survival was not reached (95% CI 54·8-not reached) in the daratumumab group versus 34·4 months (29·6-39·2) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53 [95% CI 0·43-0·66]; p<0·0001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (daratumumab group, 95% CI not reached-not reached; control group, 95% CI 55·7-not reached; HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0·86]; p=0·0013). The most common (>15%) grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (197 [54%] patients in the daratumumab group vs 135 [37%] patients in the control group), pneumonia (70 [19%] vs 39 [11%]), anaemia (61 [17%] vs 79 [22%]), and lymphopenia (60 [16%] vs 41 [11%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 281 (77%) patients in the daratumumab group and 257 (70%) patients in the control group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 13 (4%) patients in the daratumumab group and ten (3%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone increased overall survival and progression-free survival in patients ineligible for stem-cell transplantation with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. There were no new safety concerns. Our results support the frontline use of daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for transplantation. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(32): 3602-3612, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388020

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venetoclax is an oral BCL-2 inhibitor with single-agent activity in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) with t(11;14) translocation. Venetoclax efficacy in RRMM may be potentiated through combination with agents including bortezomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab. METHODS: This phase I study (NCT03314181) evaluated venetoclax with daratumumab and dexamethasone (VenDd) in patients with t(11;14) RRMM and VenDd with bortezomib (VenDVd) in cytogenetically unselected patients with RRMM. Primary objectives included expansion-phase dosing, safety, and overall response rate. Secondary objectives included further safety analysis, progression-free survival, duration of response, time to progression, and minimal residual disease negativity. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, 24 each in parts 1 (VenDd) and 2 (VenDVd). There was one dose-limiting toxicity in part 1 (grade 3 febrile neutropenia, 800 mg VenDd). Common adverse events with VenDd and VenDVd included diarrhea (63% and 54%) and nausea (50% and 50%); grade ≥ 3 adverse events were observed in 88% in the VenDd group and 71% in the VenDVd group. One treatment-emergent death occurred in part 2 (sepsis) in the context of progressive disease, with no other infection-related deaths on study with medians of 20.9 and 20.4 months of follow-up in parts 1 and 2, respectively. The overall response rate was 96% with VenDd (all very good partial response or better [≥ VGPR]) and 92% with VenDVd (79% ≥ VGPR). The 18-month progression-free survival rate was 90.5% (95% CI, 67.0 to 97.5) with VenDd and 66.7% (95% CI, 42.5 to 82.5) with VenDVd. CONCLUSION: VenDd and VenDVd produced a high rate of deep and durable responses in patients with RRMM. These results support continued evaluation of venetoclax with daratumumab regimens to treat RRMM, particularly in those with t(11;14).

6.
Blood ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269818

RESUMO

In patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 44% in MAIA (daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone; D-Rd) and 58% in ALCYONE (daratumumab/bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone; D-VMP). Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a sensitive measure of disease and response to therapy. MRD-negativity status and durability were assessed in MAIA and ALCYONE. MRD assessments using next-generation sequencing (10-5) occurred for patients achieving complete response (CR) or better, and after ≥CR at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months from the first dose. Progression-free survival (PFS) by MRD status and sustained MRD negativity lasting ≥6 and ≥12 months were analyzed in the intent-to-treat population and among patients achieving ≥CR. In MAIA, (D-Rd, n=368; Rd, n=369), and ALCYONE (D-VMP, n=350; VMP, n=356), the median duration of follow-up was 36.4 months and 40.1 months, respectively. MRD-negative status and sustained MRD negativity lasting ≥6 and ≥12 months were associated with improved PFS, regardless of treatment group. However, daratumumab-based therapy improved rates of MRD negativity lasting ≥6 months (D-Rd, 14.9% vs Rd, 4.3%; D-VMP, 15.7% vs VMP, 4.5%) and ≥12 months (D-Rd, 10.9% vs Rd, 2.4%; D-VMP, 14.0% vs VMP, 2.8%), both of which translated to improved PFS versus control groups. In a pooled analysis, patients who were MRD negative had improved PFS versus patients who were MRD positive. Patients with NDMM who achieved MRD-negative status or sustained MRD negativity had deep remission and improved clinical outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02252172 (MAIA); NCT02195479 (ALCYONE).

9.
Am J Hematol ; 96(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062004

RESUMO

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Análise Citogenética , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Intern Med J ; 51(5): 763-768, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047035

RESUMO

Australia and New Zealand have achieved excellent community control of COVID-19 infection. In light of the imminent COVID-19 vaccination roll out in both countries, representatives from the Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand and infectious diseases specialists have collaborated on this consensus position statement regarding COVID-19 vaccination in patients with haematological disorders. It is our recommendation that patients with haematological malignancies, and some benign haematological disorders, should have expedited access to high-efficacy COVID-19 vaccines, given that these patients are at high risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. Vaccination should not replace other public health measures in these patients, given that the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination, specifically in patients with haematological malignancies, is not known. Given the limited available data, prospective collection of safety and efficacy data of COVID-19 vaccination in this patient group is a priority.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hematologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Consenso , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
12.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(10): 2533-2543, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011965

RESUMO

Supported by clinical trial proven survival benefit, clinical guidelines recommend upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for eligible MM patients. However, reported real-world utilisation is lower than expected (40-60%). We reviewed ASCT utilisation, demographics and outcomes for MM patients (≤70 years, ≥12-month follow-up) enroled onto the Australian/New Zealand MRDR from June 2012 to May 2020. In 982 patients (<65 years: 684, 65-70 years: 298), ASCT utilisation was 76% overall (<65 years: 83%, 65-70 years: 61%, front-line therapy: 67%). Non-ASCT recipients were older (median age: 65 years vs 60 years, p < 0.001), had more comorbidities (cardiac disease: 16.9% vs 5.4%, p < 0.001; diabetes: 19.1% vs 7.0%, p < 0.001; renal dysfunction: median eGFR(ml/min): 68 vs 80, p < 0.001), inferior performance status (ECOG ≥ 2: 26% vs 13%, p < 0.001) and higher-risk MM (ISS-3: 37% vs 26%, p = 0.009, R-ISS-3 18.6% vs 11.8%, p = 0.051) than ASCT recipients. ASCT survival benefit (median progression-free survival (PFS): 45.3 months vs 35.2 months, p < 0.001; overall survival (OS): NR vs 64.0 months, p < 0.001) was maintained irrespective of age (<65 years: median PFS: 45.3 months vs 37.7 months, p = 0.04, OS: NR vs 68.2 months, p = 0.002; 65-70 years: median PFS: 46.7 months vs 29.2 months, p < 0.001, OS: 76.9 months vs 55.6 months, p = 0.005). This large, real-world cohort reaffirms ASCT survival benefit, including in 'older' patients necessitating well-designed studies evaluating ASCT in 'older' MM to inform evidence-based patient selection.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Austrália , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Nova Zelândia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 59, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849608

RESUMO

Therapeutic regimens for previously treated multiple myeloma (MM) may not provide prolonged disease control and are often complicated by significant adverse events, including peripheral neuropathy. In patients with previously treated MM in the Phase 3 BOSTON study, once weekly selinexor, once weekly bortezomib, and 40 mg dexamethasone (XVd) demonstrated a significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS), higher response rates, deeper responses, a trend to improved survival, and reduced incidence and severity of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared with standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg dexamethasone (Vd). The pre-specified analyses described here evaluated the influence of the number of prior lines of therapy, prior treatment with lenalidomide, prior proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy, prior immunomodulatory drug therapy, and prior autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) on the efficacy and safety of XVd compared with Vd. In this 1:1 randomized study, enrolled patients were assigned to receive once weekly oral selinexor (100 mg) with once weekly subcutaneous bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2) and 40 mg per week dexamethasone (XVd) versus standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg per week dexamethasone (Vd). XVd significantly improved PFS, overall response rate, time-to-next-treatment, and showed reduced all grade and grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy compared with Vd regardless of prior treatments, but the benefits of XVd over Vd were more pronounced in patients treated earlier in their disease course who had either received only one prior therapy, had never been treated with a PI, or had prior ASCT. Treatment with XVd improved outcomes as compared to Vd regardless of prior therapies as well as manageable and generally reversible adverse events. XVd was associated with clinical benefit and reduced peripheral neuropathy compared to standard Vd in previously treated MM. These results suggest that the once weekly XVd regimen may be optimally administered to patients earlier in their course of disease, as their first bortezomib-containing regimen, and in those relapsing after ASCT.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03110562). Registered 12 April 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03110562 .


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Triazóis/farmacologia
15.
Am J Hematol ; 96(6): 708-718, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755235

RESUMO

Elderly and frail patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are more vulnerable to the toxicity of combination therapies, often resulting in treatment modifications and suboptimal outcomes. The phase 3 BOSTON study showed that once-weekly selinexor and bortezomib with low-dose dexamethasone (XVd) improved PFS and ORR compared with standard twice-weekly bortezomib and moderate-dose dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized BOSTON trial. Post hoc analyses were performed to compare XVd versus Vd safety and efficacy according to age and frailty status (<65 and ≥65 years, nonfrail and frail). Patients ≥65 years with XVd had higher ORR (OR 1.77, p = .024), ≥VGPR (OR, 1.68, p = .027), PFS (HR 0.55, p = .002), and improved OS (HR 0.63, p = .030), compared with Vd. In frail patients, XVd was associated with a trend towards better PFS (HR 0.69, p = .08) and OS (HR 0.62, p = .062). Significant improvements were also observed in patients <65 (ORR and TTNT) and nonfrail patients (PFS, ORR, ≥VGPR, and TTNT). Patients treated with XVd had a lower incidence of grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy in ≥65 year-old (22% vs. 37%; p = .0060) and frail patients (15% vs. 44%; p = .0002). Grade ≥3 TEAEs were not observed more often in older compared to younger patients, nor in frail compared to nonfrail patients. XVd is safe and effective in patients <65 and ≥65 and in nonfrail and frail patients with previously treated MM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/complicações , Hidrazinas/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hidrazinas/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triazóis/administração & dosagem
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(3): e105-e118, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662288

RESUMO

This Policy Review presents the International Myeloma Working Group's clinical practice recommendations for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Based on the results of phase 2 and phase 3 trials, these recommendations are proposed for the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory disease who have received one previous line of therapy, and for patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who have received two or more previous lines of therapy. These recommendations integrate the issue of drug access in both low-income and middle-income countries and in high-income countries to help guide real-world practice and thus improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Terapia de Salvação , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia
17.
Future Oncol ; 17(16): 1987-2003, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682447

RESUMO

Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) is a BCMA-targeted antibody-drug conjugate recently approved as monotherapy for adults with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who have received ≥4 prior therapies. Belamaf binds to BCMA and eliminates myeloma cells by multimodal mechanisms of action. The cytotoxic and potential immunomodulatory properties of belamaf have led to novel combination studies with other anticancer therapies. Here, we describe the rationale and design of DREAMM-5, an ongoing Phase I/II platform study evaluating the safety and efficacy of belamaf combined with novel agents, including GSK3174998 (OX40 agonist), feladilimab (an ICOS; GSK3359609), nirogacestat (a gamma-secretase inhibitor; PF-03084014) and dostarlimab (a PD-1 blocker) versus belamaf monotherapy for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Clinical trial registration: NCT04126200 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

18.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(7): 444-450.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) has continued to evolve with second generation immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitors (PIs), and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology and risks of infection in patients with MM managed with these therapies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and microbiological records were reviewed to capture patient demographics, disease characteristics, treatment received, episodes of infection, and outcomes. Infections were classified as microbiologically defined (MDI), clinically defined (CDI), and fever of unknown focus (FUF). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors for infection, with a P value < .05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 148 patients with MM with 345 infection episodes were identified. Of these, 29.0% (100/345), 58.0% (200/345), and 13.0% (45/345) were defined as MDI, CDI, and FUF, respectively. Of 100 MDIs, 50.0% were owing to viruses, whereas 45.0% were owing to bacterial infection. The most common infection site was the respiratory tract (56.8%). Hospital admission occurred in 41.7% of infection episodes, and the 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 5.4%. On multivariate regression, receipt of a PI (odds ratio [OR], 16.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-114.52), combination of IMiD and PI (OR, 13.44; 95% CI, 2.39-75.76), mAb-combination (OR, 10.44; 95% CI, 1.99-54.51), and lines of therapy (> 4) (OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.25-47.81) were associated with increased risk of infection (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: Viral infections now constitute the majority of infections in patients with MM treated with newer agents. Receipt of a PI and lines of therapy (> 4) were associated with higher risk for infection.

19.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(6): e510-e520, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world multiple myeloma (MM) data are scarce, with most data originating from clinical trials. The Myeloma and Related Diseases Registry (MRDR) is a prospective clinical-quality registry of newly diagnosed cases of plasma cell disorders established in 2012 and operating at 44 sites in Australia and New Zealand as of April 2020. METHODS: We reviewed all patients enrolled onto the MRDR between June 2012 and April 2020. Baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcome data were reviewed for MM patients with comparisons made by chi-square tests (categorical variables) and rank sum tests (continuous variables). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: As of April 2020, a total of 2405 MM patients were enrolled (median age, 67 years, with 40% aged > 70 years). High-risk features were present in 13% to 31% of patients: fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) ≥ 1 of t(4;14), t(14;16), or del(17p) 18%, International Staging System (ISS)-3 31%, and Revised ISS (R-ISS)-3 13%. Cytogenetic/FISH analyses were performed in 50% and 68% of patients, respectively, with an abnormal karyotype result in 34%. Bortezomib-containing therapy was the most common first-line therapy (79.3%, n = 1706). Patients not receiving bortezomib were older (median age, 76 vs 65 years, P < .001) with inferior performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2, 41% vs 18%, P < .001). Median progression-free survival and OS were 30.8 and 65.8 months, respectively. Younger patients had superior OS (76.3 vs 46.7 months, P < .001, < 70 and ≥ 70 years, respectively). R-ISS score was available in 50.7% (n = 1220) of patients, and higher R-ISS was associated with inferior OS (R-ISS-1 vs R-ISS-2 vs R-ISS-3: not reached vs 68.1 months vs 33.2 months, respectively, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Clinical registries provide a more complete picture of MM diagnosis and treatment, and highlight the challenges of adhering to best practices in a real-world context.

20.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(1): e1235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437482

RESUMO

Objectives: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk for infection. Clinical assessment of infection risk is increasingly challenging in the era of immune-based therapy. A pilot systems-level immune analysis study to identify predictive markers for infection was conducted. Methods: Patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM (RRMM) who participated in a treatment trial of lenalidomide and dexamethasone were evaluated. Data on patient demographics, disease and episodes of infection were extracted from clinical records. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected at defined intervals were analysed, with or without mitogen re-stimulation, using RNA sequencing and mass cytometry (CyTOF). CyTOF-derived cell subsets and RNAseq gene expression profiles were compared between patients that did and did not develop infection to identify immune signatures that predict infection over a 3-month period. Results: Twenty-three patients participated in the original treatment trial, and we were able to access samples from 17 RRMM patients for further evaluation in our study. Nearly half the patients developed an infection (8/17) within 3 months of sample collection. Infections were mostly clinically diagnosed (62.5%), and the majority involved the respiratory tract (87.5%). We did not detect phenotypic or numerical differences in immune cell populations between patients that did and did not develop infections. Transcriptional profiling of stimulated PBMCs revealed distinct Th2 immune pathway signatures in patients that developed infection. Conclusion: Immune cell counts were not useful predictors of infection risk. Functional assessment of stimulated PBMCs has identified potential immune profiles that may predict future infection risk in patients with RRMM.

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