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1.
Phys Rev E ; 105(2-1): 024101, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35291061

RESUMO

We study the universality of work statistics of a system quenched through a quantum critical surface. By using the adiabatic perturbation theory, we obtain the general scaling behavior for all cumulants of work. These results extend the studies of Kibble-Zurek mechanism scaling of work statistics from an isolated quantum critical point to a critical surface. As an example, we study the scaling behavior of work statistics in the two-dimensional (2D) Kitaev honeycomb model featured with a critical line. By utilizing the trace formula for quadratic fermionic Hamiltonian, we obtain the exact characteristic function of work of the 2D Kitaev model at zero temperature. The results confirm our prediction.

2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666439

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical application of supraclavicular fasciocutaneous island flap (SIF) in the repair of tracheal defect. Methods: From May 2016 to March 2021, the clinical data of 10 patients (8 males,2 females,aged 27-73 years old) were retrospectively analyzed who underwent repair surgery with SIF for trachea defects after resection of cervical or thoracic tumors, including 2 cases of laryngotracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma, 2 cases of laryngeal carcinoma, 3 cases of esophageal carcinoma, 2 cases of thyroid carcinoma and one case of parathyroid carcinoma. All of the primary tumors were at T4. The outcomes of 10 cases with tracheal defect repaired by SIF were evaluated. Results: The areas of the SIF were (3-7) cm × (6-10) cm, the thicknesses of the flaps were 8-11 mm, and the lengths of the pedicles were 10-15 cm. The blood supply of the SIF came from the transverse carotid artery. The skin defects of the donor areas of the shoulders were directly closed. After 1-60 months of follow-up, all the flaps survived. The flaps, tracheas as well as shoulder wounds healed well. Conclusion: The SIF is suitable for the repair of tracheal defects. It has perfect thickness compatible with the trachea. The technique is simple and microsurgical technique is not needed, with a good application prospect.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Traqueia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Pele , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Phys Rev E ; 103(3-1): 032143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862821

RESUMO

Exchange fluctuation theorems (XFTs) describe a fundamental symmetry relation for particle and energy exchange between several systems. Here we study the XFTs of a Kitaev chain connected to two reservoirs at the same temperature but different bias. By varying the parameters in the Kitaev chain model, we calculate analytically the full counting statistics of the transport current and formulate the corresponding XFTs for multiple current components. We also demonstrate the XFTs with numerical results. We find that due to the presence of the U(1) symmetry breaking terms in the Hamiltonian of the Kitaev chain, various forms of the XFTs emerge, and they can be interpreted in terms of various well-known transport processes.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(24): 240603, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639826

RESUMO

The calculation of work distributions in a quantum many-body system is of significant importance and also of formidable difficulty in the field of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. To solve this problem, inspired by the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, we propose the contour-integral formulation for work statistics. Based on this contour integral, we show how to do the perturbation expansion of the characteristic function of work (CFW) and obtain the approximate expression of the CFW to the second order of the work parameter for an arbitrary system under a perturbative protocol. We also demonstrate the validity of fluctuation theorems by utilizing the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition. Finally, we use noninteracting identical particles in a forced harmonic potential as an example to demonstrate the powerfulness of our approach.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 170603, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412269

RESUMO

We investigate the statistics of the work performed during a quench across a quantum phase transition using the adiabatic perturbation theory when the system is characterized by independent quasiparticles and the "single-excitation" approximation is assumed. It is shown that all the cumulants of work exhibit universal scaling behavior analogous to the Kibble-Zurek scaling for the average density of defects. Two kinds of transformations are considered: quenches between two gapped phases in which a critical point is traversed, and quenches that end near the critical point. In contrast to the scaling behavior of the density of defects, the scaling behavior of the cumulants of work are shown to be qualitatively different for these two kinds of quenches. However, in both cases the corresponding exponents are fully determined by the dimension of the system and the critical exponents of the transition, as in the traditional Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Thus, our study deepens our understanding about the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum phase transition by revealing the imprint of the KZM on the work statistics.

6.
Phys Rev E ; 101(3-1): 032113, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289969

RESUMO

Entropy is one of the most basic concepts in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The most widely used definition of statistical mechanical entropy for a quantum system is introduced by von Neumann. While in classical systems, the statistical mechanical entropy is defined by Gibbs. The relation between these two definitions of entropy is still not fully explored. In this work, we study this problem by employing the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. For those quantum states having well-defined classical counterparts, we study the quantum-classical correspondence and quantum corrections of the entropy. We expand the von Neumann entropy in powers of ℏ by using the phase-space formulation, and the zeroth-order term reproduces the Gibbs entropy. We also obtain the explicit expression of the quantum corrections of the entropy. Moreover, we find that for the thermodynamic equilibrium state, all terms odd in ℏ are exactly zero. As an application, we derive quantum corrections for the net work extraction during a quantum Carnot cycle. Our results bring important insights into the understanding of quantum entropy and may have potential applications in the study of quantum heat engines.

7.
Phys Rev E ; 101(3-1): 032111, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290008

RESUMO

Work statistics characterizes important features of a nonequilibrium thermodynamic process, but the calculation of the work statistics in an arbitrary nonequilibrium process is usually a cumbersome task. In this work, we study the work statistics in quantum systems by employing Feynman's path-integral approach. We derive the analytical work distributions of two prototype quantum systems. The results are proved to be equivalent to the results obtained based on Schrödinger's formalism. We also calculate the work distributions in their classical counterparts by employing the path-integral approach. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of the path-integral approach for the calculation of work statistics in both quantum and classical thermodynamics, and brings important insights to the understanding of the trajectory work in quantum systems.

8.
Phys Rev E ; 98(2-1): 022107, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253493

RESUMO

We examine the effects of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics in an anisotropic XY spin chain, which is driven out of equilibrium by a sudden quench of the control parameter of the Hamiltonian. By analytically evaluating the statistical properties of the work distribution and the irreversible entropy production, we investigate the influences of the DM interaction on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the system with different parameters at various temperatures. We find that depending on the anisotropy of the system and the temperature, the DM interaction may have different impacts on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Interestingly, the critical line induced by the DM interaction can be revealed via the properties of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition, our results suggest that the strength of the DM interaction can be detected experimentally by studying the nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

9.
Phys Rev E ; 98(1-1): 012113, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110791

RESUMO

We study the heat statistics of a quantum Brownian motion described by the Caldeira-Leggett model. By using the path integral approach, we introduce a concept of the quantum heat functional along every pair of Feynman paths. This approach has the advantage of improving our understanding about heat in quantum systems. First, we demonstrate the microscopic reversibility of the system by connecting the heat functional to the forward and time-reversed probabilities. Second, we analytically prove the quantum-classical correspondence of the heat functional and their statistics, which allows us to obtain better intuitions about the difference between classical and quantum heat.

10.
Phys Rev E ; 98(1-1): 012132, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110842

RESUMO

We investigate quantum corrections to the classical work characteristic function (CF) as a semiclassical approximation to the full quantum work CF. In addition to explicitly establishing the quantum-classical correspondence of the Feynman-Kac formula, we find that these quantum corrections must be in even powers of ℏ. Exact formulas of the lowest corrections (ℏ^{2}) are proposed, and their physical origins are clarified. We calculate the work CFs for a forced harmonic oscillator and a forced quartic oscillator respectively to illustrate our results.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(4): 040602, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095938

RESUMO

Work belongs to the most basic notions in thermodynamics but it is not well understood in quantum systems, especially in open quantum systems. By introducing a novel concept of the work functional along an individual Feynman path, we invent a new approach to study thermodynamics in the quantum regime. Using the work functional, we derive a path integral expression for the work statistics. By performing the ℏ expansion, we analytically prove the quantum-classical correspondence of the work statistics. In addition, we obtain the quantum correction to the classical fluctuating work. We can also apply this approach to an open quantum system in the strong coupling regime described by the quantum Brownian motion model. This approach provides an effective way to calculate the work in open quantum systems by utilizing various path integral techniques. As an example, we calculate the work statistics for a dragged harmonic oscillator in both isolated and open quantum systems.

12.
Phys Rev E ; 97(5-1): 052136, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906912

RESUMO

We extend the well-known static duality [M. Girardeau, J. Math. Phys. 1, 516 (1960)JMAPAQ0022-248810.1063/1.1703687; T. Cheon and T. Shigehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2536 (1999)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.82.2536] between one-dimensional (1D) bosons and 1D fermions to the dynamical version. By utilizing this dynamical duality, we find the duality of nonequilibrium work distributions between interacting 1D bosonic (Lieb-Liniger model) and 1D fermionic (Cheon-Shigehara model) systems with dual contact interactions. As a special case, the work distribution of the Tonks-Girardeau gas is identical to that of 1D noninteracting fermionic system even though their momentum distributions are significantly different. In the classical limit, the work distributions of Lieb-Liniger models (Cheon-Shigehara models) with arbitrary coupling strength converge to that of the 1D noninteracting distinguishable particles, although their elementary excitations (quasiparticles) obey different statistics, e.g., the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac, and the fractional statistics. We also present numerical results of the work distributions of Lieb-Liniger model with various coupling strengths, which demonstrate the convergence of work distributions in the classical limit.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(8): 080602, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542995

RESUMO

Nonequilibrium processes of small systems such as molecular machines are ubiquitous in biology, chemistry, and physics but are often challenging to comprehend. In the past two decades, several exact thermodynamic relations of nonequilibrium processes, collectively known as fluctuation theorems, have been discovered and provided critical insights. These fluctuation theorems are generalizations of the second law and can be unified by a differential fluctuation theorem. Here we perform the first experimental test of the differential fluctuation theorem using an optically levitated nanosphere in both underdamped and overdamped regimes and in both spatial and velocity spaces. We also test several theorems that can be obtained from it directly, including a generalized Jarzynski equality that is valid for arbitrary initial states, and the Hummer-Szabo relation. Our study experimentally verifies these fundamental theorems and initiates the experimental study of stochastic energetics with the instantaneous velocity measurement.

14.
Phys Rev E ; 95(3-1): 032113, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415311

RESUMO

Based on previous studies in a single-particle system in both the integrable [Jarzynski, Quan, and Rahav, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031038 (2015)2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.5.031038] and the chaotic systems [Zhu, Gong, Wu, and Quan, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062108 (2016)1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.93.062108], we study the the correspondence principle between quantum and classical work distributions in a quantum many-body system. Even though the interaction and the indistinguishability of identical particles increase the complexity of the system, we find that for a quantum many-body system the quantum work distribution still converges to its classical counterpart in the semiclassical limit. Our results imply that there exists a correspondence principle between quantum and classical work distributions in an interacting quantum many-body system, especially in the large particle number limit, and further justify the definition of quantum work via two-point energy measurements in quantum many-body systems.

15.
Phys Rev E ; 96(3-1): 032142, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347042

RESUMO

By analyzing the probability distributions of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and quantum work, we examine the nonequilibrium effects of a quantum many-body system, which exhibits an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). We find that depending on the value of the controlling parameter the distribution of the LE displays different patterns. At the critical point of the ESQPT, both the averaged LE and the averaged work show a cusplike shape. Furthermore, by employing the finite-size scaling analysis of the averaged work, we obtain the critical exponent of the ESQPT. Finally, we show that at the critical point of ESQPT the eigenstate is a highly localized state, further highlighting the influence of the ESQPT on the properties of the many-body system.

16.
Phys Rev E ; 96(1-1): 012144, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347103

RESUMO

In conventional thermodynamics, it is widely acknowledged that the realization of an isothermal process for a system requires a quasistatic controlling protocol. Here we propose and design a strategy to realize a finite-rate isothermal transition from an equilibrium state to another one at the same temperature, which is named the "shortcut to isothermality." By using shortcuts to isothermality, we derive three nonequilibrium work relations, including an identity between the free-energy difference and the mean work due to the potential of the original system, a Jarzynski-like equality, and the inverse relationship between the dissipated work and the total driving time. We numerically test these three relations by considering the motion of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential and dragged by a time-dependent force.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(18): 180603, 2016 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835006

RESUMO

The piston system (particles in a box) is the simplest paradigmatic model in traditional thermodynamics. However, the recently established framework of stochastic thermodynamics (ST) fails to apply to this model system due to the embedded singularity in the potential. In this Letter, we study the ST of a particle in a box by adopting a novel coordinate transformation technique. Through comparing with the exact solution of a breathing harmonic oscillator, we obtain analytical results of work distribution for an arbitrary protocol in the linear response regime and verify various predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. When applying to the Brownian Szilard engine model, we obtain the optimal protocol λ_{t}=λ_{0}2^{t/τ} for a given sufficiently long total time τ. Our study not only establishes a paradigm for studying ST of a particle in a box but also bridges the long-standing gap in the development of ST.

18.
Phys Rev E ; 94(2-1): 022150, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627289

RESUMO

After a brief historical review of ergodicity and mixing in dynamics, particularly in quantum dynamics, we introduce definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing using the structure of the system's energy levels and spacings. Our definitions are consistent with the usual understanding of ergodicity and mixing. Two parameters concerning the degeneracy in energy levels and spacings are introduced. They are computed for right triangular billiards and the results indicate a very close relation between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and quantum chaos. At the end, we argue that, besides ergodicity and mixing, there may exist a third class of quantum dynamics which is characterized by a maximized entropy.

19.
Phys Rev E ; 93(6): 062108, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27415209

RESUMO

We numerically study the work distributions in a chaotic system and examine the relationship between quantum work and classical work. Our numerical results suggest that there exists a correspondence principle between quantum and classical work distributions in a chaotic system. This correspondence was proved for one-dimensional integrable systems in a recent work [Jarzynski, Quan, and Rahav, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031038 (2015)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031038]. Our investigation further justifies the definition of quantum work via two-point energy measurements.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274148

RESUMO

By taking full advantage of the dynamic property imposed by the detailed balance condition, we derive a new refined unified fluctuation theorem (FT) for general stochastic thermodynamic systems. This FT involves the joint probability distribution functions of the final phase-space point and a thermodynamic variable. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the FTs of heat as well as the trajectory entropy production can be regarded as special cases of this refined unified FT, and all of them are generalized to arbitrary initial distributions. We also find that the refined unified FT can easily reproduce the FTs for processes with the feedback control, due to its unconventional structure that separates the thermodynamic variable from the choices of initial distributions. Our result is heuristic for further understanding of the relations and distinctions between all kinds of FTs and might be valuable for studying thermodynamic processes with information exchange.

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