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1.
J Sci Med Sport ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use a quantitative approach to examine the effects of chronic physical activity (PA) interventions on executive functions (EFs) in children aged 3-7 years. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched from their inception to December 2019. Intervention studies with a control group that examined the effects of chronic PA interventions on EFs among children aged 3-7 years were included in this meta-analysis. Lastly, subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the potential modifying effects of chronic PA intervention's characteristics and study quality. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 716 participants. The fixed-effects model was used to estimate the pooled effect sizes since heterogeneity across included studies was not significant. The summary effects revealed that chronic PA interventions have a small but positive effects on participants' overall EFs [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20-0.50] as well as inhibition (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62) and working memory (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.02-0.46) domains and a moderate effect on the cognitive flexibility domain (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28-1.05). Lastly, the pooled effect was not significantly modified by intervention duration, session length, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic PA interventions, especially PA plus cognitive challenges interventions, may be a promising way to promote the development of multiple aspects of EFs in children aged 3-7 years.

2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507472

RESUMO

Background: Exercise modes can be divided into open skill exercise (OSE) and closed skill exercise (CSE). While research has shown that these two exercise modes may have different effects on cognitive function, this possibility has not been systematically reviewed. Objective: The purpose of the present review was to objectively evaluate the research literature regarding the effects of OSE versus CSE on cognitive function. Methods: Six electronic databases (Web of Science, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception dates to December 2018 for studies examining the associations of OSE and CSE with cognitive function. The literature searches were conducted using the combinations of two groups of relevant search items related to exercise modes (i.e., OSE and CSE) and cognitive function. Articles were limited to human studies in all age groups. Both intervention and observational studies with full text published in English-language peer-reviewed journals were considered eligible. The search process, study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were carried out independently by two researchers. Results: A total of 1,573 articles were identified. Fourteen observational and five intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 14 observational studies found that OSE benefits cognitive function, and seven of these 14 observational studies supported superior effects of OSE compared with CSE for enhancing cognitive function. Three of the five intervention studies found that OSE (versus CSE) led to greater improvements in cognitive function in both children and older adults. Conclusion: Although the majority of studies in this review were observational cross-sectional designs, the review tends to support that OSE is more effective for improving some aspects of cognitive function compared with CSE. More rigorous randomized control trials with long-term follow-ups are needed in order to confirm these differential cognitive effects of the two exercise modes.

3.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438548

RESUMO

Purpose: Examine the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children's school-day energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA)-related self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy over 9 months. Method: Participants were 81 fourth grade students ( X ¯ age = 9.23 years, SD = 0.62; 39 girls) from two urban Minnesota elementary schools. A once-weekly 50 min AVG intervention was implemented in the intervention school for 9 months in 2014-2015 while the control school continued regular recess. Children's school-day EE (daily caloric expenditure) and mean daily metabolic equivalent (MET) values were estimated via accelerometry whereas self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectancy were assessed with psychometrically-validated questionnaires. All measures were completed at baseline and at the 4th and 9th months. Results: We observed significant interaction effects for daily caloric expenditure, F(1, 58) = 15.8, p < 0.01, mean daily MET values, F(1, 58) = 11.3, p < 0.01, and outcome expectancy, F(1, 58) = 4.5, p < 0.05. Specifically, intervention children had greater increases in daily caloric expenditure (91 kilocalorie/day post-intervention group difference), with control children decreasing daily caloric expenditure over time. We observed identical trends for mean daily MET values (0.35 METs/day post-intervention group difference). Interestingly, we observed outcome expectancy to increase in the control children, but decrease among intervention children, at post-intervention (1.35 group difference). Finally, we observed a marginally significant interaction effect for social support, F(1, 58) = 3.104, p = 0.08, with an increase and decrease seen in the intervention and control children, respectively. We observed no interaction or main effects for self-efficacy. Discussion: Observations suggested an AVG intervention contributed to longitudinal increases in school-day EE and social support compared to the control condition. Future research should examine how self-efficacy and outcome expectancy might be promoted during school-based AVG interventions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052205

RESUMO

Enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can lead to substantial health benefits. Comparisons between high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on CRF for children and adolescents are inconsistent and inconclusive. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the effects between HIIT and MICT on CRF in children and adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles. The standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to determine the pooled effect size of HIIT and MICT on CRF. A total of 563 subjects from 17 studies (18 effects) were identified. The pooled effect size was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.33-0.69) comparing HIIT to MICT. Moreover, intervention duration, exercise modality, work and rest ratio, and total bouts did not significantly modify the effect of HIIT on CRF. It is concluded that compared with endurance training, HIIT has greater improvements on cardiorespiratory fitness among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may play a role in skeletal muscle because of the discovery of VDR in skeletal muscle. However, vitamin D deficiency is a global problem, including athletes. Studies examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function in athletes have inconsistent results. Therefore, we aimed to quantitatively summarize the evidence for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal muscle strength and explosive power of athletes using a meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for studies to identify randomized controlled trials or controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria. By a meta-analysis, effect sizes (standardized mean differences, SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated to compare reported outcomes across studies, I2 index was used to assessing heterogeneity, and heterogeneity factors were identified by regression analysis. The potential publication and sensitivity analyses were also assessed. RESULTS: Eight RCTs involving 284 athletes were included. The protocols used to evaluate the muscle strength of athletes were inconsistent across the included studies, and muscle explosive power was assessed via vertical jump tests. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation had no impact on overall muscle strength outcomes (SMD 0.05, 95% CI: -0.39 to 0.48, p = 0.84). In subgroup analysis, vitamin D supplementation had an effect on lower-limb muscle strength (SMD 0.55, 95% CI:0.12 to 0.98, p = 0.01) but not upper-limb muscle strength (SMD -0.19, 95% CI:-0.73 to 0.36, p = 0.50) or muscle explosive power (SMD 0.05, 95% CI:-0.24 to 0.34, p = 0.73). Vitamin D supplementation was more effective for athletes trained indoors (SMD 0.48, 95% CI:0.06 to 0.90, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation positively affected lower limb muscle strength in athletes, but not upper limb muscle strength or muscle power. Different muscle groups and functions may respond differently to vitamin D supplementation. Additional studies should focus on determining the appropriate vitamin D supplementation methods and optimal serum 25(OH)D levels for athletes. REGISTRATION: The protocol for our study is registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016045872).


Assuntos
Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024090, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Engaging in physical activity (PA) plays an important role in promoting physical and mental health, but the PA data for Chinese preschool children are lacking. This study aims to objectively assess the PA levels of preschool children in Shanghai, China and to evaluate their PA levels relative to age-specific recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children in Shanghai, city of China. There were a total of 303 preschool children (boys, 174; girls, 129) recruited from eight kindergarten classes in the Yangpu and Baoshan Districts of Shanghai. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily PA was assessed using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Children were required to have data from at least 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day, with a minimum daily wear time of 480 min to be included in the analysis. RESULTS: Preschool children in Shanghai accumulated, on average, 70.9 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and 168.0 min of total PA (TPA) per day (d). Boys engaged in more MVPA and TPA than girls (72.8 min/day vs 68.3 min/day and 171.9 min/day vs 162.9 min/day, respectively). Overall, 72.9% of the participants met the age-specific recommendations of MVPA, while 35.3% met TPA recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study warn of the insufficiency of PA in Shanghai preschool children, suggesting there is substantial room to improve their PA. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-OOC-15007439; Results.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210644, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adults with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Twenty-two articles were included by searching six databases, the total number of subjects was 620 in these articles. Outcomes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the Standardized mean difference (SMD) in CVD risk factors. RESULTS: HIIT and MICT resulted in statistically significant reductions in Weight, BMI, fat%, total cholesterol(TC), and improvement in VO2max. Compared with MICT, subgroup of durations of HIIT training interval ≥2 min can significantly increase VO2max (SMD = 0.444, 95% CI:0.037~0.851,P = 0.032), subgroup of energy expenditure of HIIT equal to MICT can significantly increase VO2max (SMD = 0.399, 95% CI:0.106~0.692,P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: HIIT appears to provide similar benefits to MICT for improving body composition, VO2maxand TC, but HIIT spent less time than MICT by 9.7 min on one session. HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiopulmonary fitness when durations of HIIT training interval ≥2 min or energy expenditure of HIIT same as MICT. PROSPERO ID: CRD42016045835.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1584-1592, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent animal and clinical studies report that exercise training exerts positive influences in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To give insight into the molecular mechanisms of the improvement effects, we performed gene expression analysis. METHODS: Three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were analyzed, including peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) gene expression profiles of exercise training in men and patients with PAH. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each dataset were identified, and then, the common DEGs positively regulated by PAH and negatively regulated by exercise training, or the opposite, were further identified. Subsequently, biological processes and pathways were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 7229 DEGs with logFC>0.3 and P<0.05 were identified in exercise, whereas 749 and 2207 DEGs were identified in PAH from the two datasets. After overlapping the whole DEGs from all three datasets, total 16 common DEGs were identified, including BCLAF1, SATB1 and ZFP36L2. Seven of them were up-regulated in exercise training and down-regulated in PAH, and the others were opposite. In addition, these common DEGs were mainly enriched in negative regulation of cellular process, negative regulation of biological process and negative regulation of cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process. CONCLUSIONS: Some genes have been implicated in the improvement of pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH. These findings could not only improve the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise training on PAH, but also provide clues for further clinical and animal studies.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /genética
9.
J Clin Med ; 7(10)2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257418

RESUMO

Exergaming has been observed to be a viable supplemental approach in promoting physical activity (PA) among children. However, whether sex differences in PA and sedentary behaviors exist during exergaming is inconsistent. Thus, this study aimed to quantify, via accelerometry, young children's PA and sedentary behaviors during exergaming as well as examine sex differences in these PA and sedentary behaviors during gameplay. In total, 121 first- and second-grade children (mean age = 6.89 ± 0.9 years; 73 girls) were included in the analysis. Children were a part of a large 18-week parent study. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers during exergaming play, with four measurements purposively selected from the 28 total exergaming sessions to capture children's PA and sedentary behaviors during exergaming play. Outcome variables included mean percentages of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA), and sedentary behavior during each exergaming session. One-way ANOVA was performed to determine whether there were differences in the percentage of time engaged in MVPA, LPA, and sedentary behavior during exergaming by sex. Accelerometry data indicated that children's mean percentage of exergaming time spent in MVPA, LPA, and sedentary behavior were 19.9%, 32.9%, and 47.2%, respectively. However, no sex differences were present. Observations in this study indicated that boys and girls have similar PA levels during exergaming and suggests that features inherent to exergaming may assist in PA promotion among both sexes.

10.
J Clin Med ; 7(5)2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738505

RESUMO

Early childhood is a critical period for development of cognitive function, but research on the association between physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children is limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the association between technology-assessed physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Physical Activity and Cognitive Development Study was conducted in Shanghai, China. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and cognitive functions were assessed using the Chinese version of Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence (C-WYCSI). Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between physical activity and cognitive function. A total of 260 preschool children (boys, 144; girls, 116; mean age: 57.2 ± 5.4 months) were included in analyses for this study. After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that Verbal Intelligence Quotient, Performance Intelligence Quotient, and Full Intelligence Quotient were significantly correlated with light physical activity, not moderate to vigorous physical activity, in boys. Standardized coefficients were 0.211, 0.218, and 0.242 (all p < 0.05) in three different models, respectively. However, the correlation between physical activity and cognitive functions were not significant in girls (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that cognitive function is apparently associated with light physical activity in boys. Further studies are required to clarify the sex-specific effect on physical activity and cognitive functions.

11.
PeerJ ; 6: e4405, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503768

RESUMO

Purpose: This study examined the associations of physical activity levels between parents and their pre-school children based on gender and weekday/weekend. Method: A total of 247 parent-preschool child triads from Shanghai, China were analyzed. The children had a mean age of 57.5 ± 5.2 months. Both sedentary behavior and physical activity were measured in all participants using an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer over seven consecutive days from Monday through the following Sunday. A multivariate regression model was derived to identify significant relationships between parental and child physical activity according to gender and weekday/weekend. Results: There was a significant correlation between mothers' and girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity (TPA) on weekdays. Fathers' MPVA levels correlated significantly with those of boys and girls, with paternal influence appearing to be stronger than maternal influence. However, there was not a significant correlation between fathers' and children's TPA. TPA levels of both mothers and fathers correlated with those of girls, but not with those of boys. Parental sedentary levels on the weekend correlated significantly with girls' levels, but not with boys' levels. Children's physical activity levels on weekends were influenced more by fathers' activity levels than by mothers', while the opposite was observed on weekdays. Conclusion: Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels of parents can strongly influence those of their preschool children, with maternal influence stronger during the weekdays and paternal influence stronger on the weekends. Parents' activity levels influence girls' levels more strongly than they influence boys' levels.

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 8568459, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094050

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between physical activity as assessed by accelerometers and cognitive development across the human age ranges (from children and adolescents to adults). Additionally, this study seeks to explore whether physical activity contributes to cognitive development via modification of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the study, 500 preschool children (3.5-5.5 years old) are taking part in 6 triennial assessment waves over the span of 15 years. At each wave, participant measures included (a) 7-day physical activity monitoring using ActiGraph's GT3X accelerometers, (b) the evaluation of cognitive development, (c) anthropometric and physical fitness assessments, (d) plasma IGF-1 and BDNF concentrations, and (e) retrospective questionnaires. Linear regression models are used to examine the effect of physical activity on cognitive development; plasma IGF-1 and BDNF concentrations are considered as mediators into data analyses. The results of the study may help to inform future health interventions that utilize physical activity as a means to improve cognitive development in children, adolescents, and adults. Additionally, the study may assist in determining whether the putative effects occur via modification of plasma IGF-1 or BDNF concentrations.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44842, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327589

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between non-occupational physical activity (PA) during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB). By searching PubMed and EMBASE from inception to August 20, 2016, 25 observational studies (18 cohorts and 7 case-controls) and 12 interventional studies were identified. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of leisure-time PA during pregnancy, the pooled relative risk (RR) of PTB was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.93] for cohort studies and 0.60 (95% CI = 0.43-0.84) for case-control studies. No overall significant association was found between domestic or commuting PA and the risk of PTB. In addition, PA intervention did not indicate significant beneficial effect on the risk of PTB. Evidence from the observational studies suggested that leisure-time, but not domestic or commuting, PA during pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of PTB. The findings were not supported by small-scale and short-term interventional studies. Further research with objective measurement on leisure-time PA is warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Atividades de Lazer , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 9314026, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359160

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and physical fitness among preschool children. Methods: A total of 346 participants (201 boys and 145 girls) aged 3.5-5.5 years (M = 4.5 yr, SD = 0.47) from Shanghai, China, completed physical fitness assessments, including triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), grip strength, tennis throwing, sit and reach test, standing long jump, balance beam, 10mSRT, and 20mSRT. Physical activity was objectively measured by ActiGraphGT3X+ accelerometer. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the cross-sectional associations between PA and physical fitness after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and valid wearing time. Results: Positive associations were observed between stand long jump (p < .01), tennis throwing (p < .01), laps in 20mSRT (p < .01), and MVPA. However, TSFT (p < .05), time in 10mSRT (p < .01), and balance beam (p < .05) were negatively associated with MVPA. Furthermore, positive associations were found between stand long jump (p < .01), tennis throwing (p < .01), and MVPA only in boys. Negative associations were found between time on balance beam (p < .01) and MVPA only in girls. Conclusions: MVPA appears to be an effective and reliable predictor of preschoolers' physical fitness. Boys' body composition, muscular strength, explosive strength, agility, aerobic fitness, girls' agility, aerobic fitness, and balance could improve as MVPA increases.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(2): 266-270, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the longitudinal association of walking pace with the risk of cognitive decline and dementia are inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association of walking pace with the risk of cognitive decline and dementia among elderly populations. METHODS: Eligible studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE through April 22, 2016. Additional information was retrieved through Google Scholar or hand review of the reference lists from the relevant studies. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of cognitive decline or dementia in relation to walking pace. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were identified, including 10 studies reporting the RR of cognitive decline (9,949 participants and 2,547 events) and 10 presenting the RR of dementia (14,140 participants and 1,903 events). Comparing the lowest to the highest category of walking pace, the pooled RR was 1.89 (95% CI = 1.54-2.31) for cognitive decline and 1.66 (95% CI = 1.43-1.92) for dementia. With every 1 dm/s (360 m/h) decrement in walking pace, the risk of dementia was increased by 13% (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides accumulated evidence supporting that slow or decreased walking pace is significantly associated with elevated risk of cognitive decline and dementia in elderly populations.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 84 Suppl 2: S29-40, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24527564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. METHOD: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth (1,415 boys, 1,336 girls; aged 9 to 17 years old, M(age) = 154.78 +/- 44.63 months) from 11 cities in China were recorded using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. RESULTS: The most active walking day was on Friday (M +/- SD = 11,183 +/- 5,130 steps), followed by Monday (M +/- SD = 10,780 +/- 4,921), Thursday (M +/- SD = 10,705 +/- 4,607), Tuesday (M +/- SD = 10,687 +/- 5,038), Wednesday (M +/- SD = 10,428 +/- 4,697), Saturday (M +/- SD = 9,734 +/- 5,582), and Sunday (M +/- SD = 9,303 +/- 5,569). Participants walked more steps during weekdays (M +/- SD = 10,615 +/- 4,411) than they did during weekend days (M +/- SD = 9,444 +/- 5,224; t = 15.71, p < .01, d = 0.34); boys walked more steps (M +/- SD = 10,847 +/- 4,322) than did girls (M +/- SD = 9,938 +/- 4,282; t = 4.92, p < .01, d = 0.22). The most active age was 11 years old in boys (M +/- SD = 12,984 +/- 4,897) and 10 years old in girls (M +/- SD = 11,745 +/- 4,721), and older children walked fewer steps. The data suggest that depending on age (9 to 17 years old), a range of 5.71% to 35.73%, 29.70% to 56.65%, and 15.96% to 47.62% boys and 22.86% to 40.14%, 29.41% to 46.26%, and 12.94% to 40.14% girls met 3 different health-related criteria for daily steps, respectively. CONCLUSION: Boys walked more than girls walked, but a majority of the Chinese city children and youth did not meet the recommended health-related steps/day.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância da População , População Urbana , Caminhada , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , China , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
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