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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 230-235, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837511

RESUMO

Minimizing sympathetic stimulation under anesthesia prevents activation of the neuroendocrine stress response. The minimum alveolar concentration blunting adrenergic responses in 50% of the population when exposed to a noxious stimulus is defined as MAC-BAR. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC-BAR of sevoflurane (MAC-BARsevo) in sheep and the MAC-BAR sparing effects of ketamine. Thirteen healthy Dorset-cross adult ewes, 4 ± 1 year old and weighing 74 ± 9 kg, were enrolled in a randomized blinded crossover study design. Ewes were anesthetized twice for MAC-BARsevo determination. After face mask induction with sevoflurane, sheep received intravenous ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg and a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h or an equivalent volume of saline (placebo). After 8 day washout, the other treatment was administered. A bracketing technique was used for MAC-BARsevo determination and values were collected in duplicate. The mechanical stimulus (sponge forceps) was applied at the coronary band for 1 min and blood was collected for ketamine plasma concentrations. The MAC-BARsevo values of each treatment were compared using a paired t-test. Mean MAC-BARsevo of the ketamine and placebo were 2.73 ± 0.23% and 2.77 ± 0.31%, respectively and no significant difference was found (p = .638). Average ketamine plasma concentrations was 1.54 ± 0.18 µg/mL maintained through the study. Ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg, followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h, did not decrease the MAC-BARsevo in sheep. Further studies to determine the effect of higher doses of ketamine on inhalational anesthetic agents and their potential adverse effects are warranted.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ketamina , Alvéolos Pulmonares/química , Sevoflurano/farmacocinética , Adrenérgicos/administração & dosagem , Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/sangue , Ketamina/farmacologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Ovinos
2.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(3): 395-404, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous hydromorphone in healthy horses. STUDY DESIGN: Masked, randomized, cross-over, Latin square design. ANIMALS: A group of eight healthy adult horses METHODS: Horses were administered each of four treatments with an 8 day washout. Treatments groups included intravenous hydromorphone 0.02 mg kg-1 (LD), 0.04 mg kg-1 (MD), 0.08 mg kg-1 (HD) and saline (P). Blood samples for hydromorphone analysis were obtained for 24 hours after treatment. Plasma hydromorphone was quantified and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Pharmacodynamic data collected for 24 hours after treatment included thermal nociceptive threshold, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and rectal temperature, and analyzed using mixed-effects linear models. RESULTS: Mean (± standard deviation) hydromorphone terminal half-life (t1/2), systemic clearance and apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) were 18.1 ± 18.6, 34.0 ± 12.8, and 41.3 ± 32.5 minutes, 66.6 ± 5.3, 550.0 ± 76.4, and 92.7 ± 13.9 mL kg-1 minute-1, and 1118 ± 369, 1460 ± 325 and 2242 ± 950 mL kg-1 for treatments LD, MD and HD, respectively. Thermal threshold increased significantly compared to baseline for all treatments for up to 12 hours. HR was elevated above baseline in treatments LD, MD and HD, extending to 30, 15 and 105 minutes after treatment, respectively. Respiratory rate was elevated above baseline in treatments MD and HD from 30 to 195 minutes and from 45 to 480 minutes after treatment, respectively. Temperature was elevated above baseline in treatment HD until 255 minutes after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Hydromorphone exhibited a short t1/2, rapid clearance and large Vdss in horses. It also provided a dose-dependent increase in thermal threshold with associated increases in HR, fR and rectal temperature. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydromorphone 0.04 mg kg-1 provided clinically relevant thermal antinociception with minimal adverse effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Cavalos/metabolismo , Hidromorfona/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Hidromorfona/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Método Simples-Cego , Temperatura
3.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 45(5): 695-702, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish evidence for the validity and reliability of three commonly used pain scales in dogs when assessed by video by specialists in anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Mixed-method test-retest observational study. SUBJECTS: A group of six American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia board-certified specialists and 31 postoperative dogs. METHODS: The evaluators scored 31 dogs using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numeric rating scale (NRS), and Glasgow pain scale (GPS). The evaluators individually scored the dogs using all three scales together and subsequently, at 3 month intervals, using each of the scales apart. Then, all evaluators in one room reviewed 23 of the videos. A camera was positioned for video and audio recording of discussion about the videos. Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined using a two-way random model intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Linear regression indicated a strong correlation among all scales when assigned together (VAS versus NRS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.93; VAS versus GPS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.59; and NRS versus GPS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.61) and apart (VAS versus NRS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.68; VAS versus GPS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.40; and NRS versus GPS, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.47). Posture, appearance, vocalization, stiffness, interaction between the animal and a person and response to palpation were identified as important variables for assessing pain. Intra-observer reliability produced average ICC values of 0.90 for VAS, 0.89 for NRS and 0.85 for GPS. Interobserver reliability produced average ICC values when scores were assigned together (VAS: 0.93, NRS: 0.93 and GPS: 0.93) and when done separately (VAS: 0.91, NRS: 0.93 and GPS: 0.95). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The preferred use of the VAS and NRS over the use of the GPS should be cautiously considered for research applications when experts are observers. Revisions of the GPS to clarify descriptors and remove or modify items that may not be associated with pain in dogs should be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Animais , Cães , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Can Vet J ; 59(7): 773-778, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026626

RESUMO

The usefulness of pre-anesthetic laboratory screening of healthy veterinary patients is controversial and clear evidence-based guidelines do not exist. The purpose of our study was to determine the influence of preanesthetic laboratory screening on peri-anesthetic plans in canine patients undergoing elective surgery. One hundred medical records were randomly selected between the years 2008 and 2013 and patient information was presented to 5 Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (ACVAA) for review. They were given pre-anesthetic laboratory screening test results for each patient and asked whether the results would change the way they managed the case from an anesthesia perspective. Peri-operative anesthetic management was altered in 79% of patients based on pre-anesthetic screening results; however, the overall agreement among anesthesiologists was weak with 64% of changes made by only a single anesthesiologist. Pre-anesthetic laboratory screening test results may influence pre-operative anesthesia case management but major discrepancies can occur among ACVAA diplomates.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestesiologistas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Cães , Anestesia/normas , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/veterinária
5.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 45(3): 345-350, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply the critical incident technique (CIT) methodology to a series of perianesthetic cardiac arrest events at a university teaching hospital to describe the factors that contributed to cardiac arrest. STUDY DESIGN: CIT qualitative analysis of a case series. ANIMALS: A group of 16 dogs and cats that suffered a perioperative cardiac arrest between November 2013 and November 2016. METHODS: If an arrest occurred, the event was discussed among the anesthesiologists. The discussion included a description of the case, a description of the sequence of events leading up to the arrest and a discussion of what could have been done to affect the outcome. A written description of the case and the event including animal signalment and a timeline of events was provided by the supervising anesthesiologist following discussion among the anesthesiologists. Only dogs or cats were included. After the data collection period, information from the medical record was collected. A qualitative document analysis was performed on the summaries provided about each case by the supervising anesthesiologist, the medical record and any supporting documents. Each case was then classified into one or more of the following: animal, human, equipment, drug and procedural factors for cardiac arrest. RESULTS: The most common factor was animal (n=14), followed by human (n=12), procedural (n=4), drugs (n=1) and equipment (n=1). The majority (n=11) of animals had multiple factors identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiac arrests during anesthesia at a referral teaching hospital were primarily a result of animal and human factors. Arrests because of procedural, drug and equipment factors were uncommon. Most animals experienced more than one factor and two animals arrested after a change in recumbency. Future work should focus on root cause analysis and interventions designed to minimize all factors, particularly human ones.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Masculino , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Erros Médicos/veterinária
6.
Lab Anim ; 52(5): 490-496, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558859

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized pigs. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements were taken using a DRE Waveline Pro multiparameter monitor at four different time points in 17 pigs undergoing injectable anesthesia. NIBP measurements were taken on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods and a linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effect of cuff position and blood pressure on bias. Invasive systolic arterial pressure (SAP) ranged between 112 and 161 mmHg (mean ± SD: 138.8 ± 13.3; median: 139.5). Invasive diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) ranged between 60 and 104 mmHg (mean ± SD: 86.0 ± 9.1; median: 87.0). Invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) ranged between 79 and 121 mmHg (mean ± SD: 103.2 ± 9.3; median 103.0). Only the diastolic and mean measurements obtained from the pelvic limb met criteria outlined by the American College of Internal Medicine for required accuracy of NIBP monitors. Bias was significantly higher in the thoracic limb in comparison to the pelvic limb and was significantly higher at blood pressures above median. In general, NIBP measurements underestimated IBP measurements. In conclusion, the use of the DRE Waveline Pro to assess NIBP in anesthetized pigs may be useful in monitoring trends in mean and diastolic blood pressure and is most accurate when used on the pelvic limb.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Cateterismo/métodos , Oscilometria/métodos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
7.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 28(1): 45-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement between a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and a laboratory chemistry analyzer for blood glucose measurements in goats. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eighteen healthy adult goats. INVESTIGATIONS: Whole blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture prior to premedication with xylazine and butorphanol (T0), following premedication (T20), and after 1 hour of inhalant anesthesia (T60). Each sample was tested with a POCG and a laboratory analyzer (HITA). Agreement was assessed using concordance correlation coefficients and calculation of bias and 95% limits of agreement. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean blood glucose concentration at T0 was 3.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L (70 ± 10 mg/dL; POCG) and 2.9 ± 0.4 mmol/dL (53 ± 8 mg/dL; HITA). Glucose concentrations at T20 were 6.7 ± 2.4 mmol/L (121 ± 43 mg/dL) and 5.4 ± 2.1 mmol/L (97 ± 37 mg/dL) and at T60 were 5.7 ± 1.7 mmol/L (102 ± 31 mg/dL) and 4.7 ± 1.3 mmol/L (85 ± 24 mg/dL) when measured with the POCG and HITA, respectively. The POCG overestimated blood glucose compared to the HITA. The bias ± SD was 1.08 ± 0.53 mmol/L (19.4 ± 9.5 mg/dL) (95% LOA 0.04 to 2.11 mmol/L [0.7 to 38.0 mg/dL]) and the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.82. After correcting the results of the POCG using a mixed-effects linear model, the bias was 0.0 ± 0.38 mmol/L (0.0 ± 6.8 mg/dL) (95% LOA ± 0.74 mmol/L [± 13.4 mg/dL]) and the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.98. CONCLUSIONS: The POCG overestimated blood glucose concentrations in goats, compared to the HITA, but when the POCG concentrations were corrected, the agreement was excellent.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Cabras/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Vet Med Educ ; 45(2): 255-259, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099319

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to determine if senior veterinary students find it easier to place a smaller-bore catheter, and to relate patient variables with student success in catheter placement. For dogs between 10 kg and 20 kg, the catheter size options were 20 gauge or 22 gauge. For dogs larger than 20 kg, the catheter size options were 18 gauge or 20 gauge. Variables recorded included time for catheter placement, number of catheterization attempts, number of catheters used, number of legs used, difficulty of catheterization, student success, and patient characteristics including signalment, weight, body condition score, premedication drugs given, tentative diagnosis, and procedure. If the student could not place an IV catheter after three attempts, it was graded as a student catheter placement failure. For the 55 students participating in the study over 28 months, we recorded 192 individual catheterization attempts. In small patients, students were successful in 19/20 attempts with 22-gauge catheters and in 24/30 with 20-gauge catheters. In large patients, students were successful in 59/68 attempts with 20-gauge catheters and 61/74 with 18-gauge catheters. The overall success rate was 164/192 (85%). Students were more likely to be successful when attempting placement in those dogs receiving acepromazine than in those not receiving acepromazine (p=.02). There were no significant differences among any of the other variables for difficulty, placement time, number of attempts, or student success. Clinicians and educators may select a size catheter for the patient without concern for the effects on student catheter placement success.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Educação em Veterinária , Animais , Competência Clínica , Cães , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 117: 57-59, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175014

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine if dexmedetomidine administered IV prior to euthanasia in sheep affected the speed or quality of euthanasia. Twenty clinically healthy Dorset-cross adult ewes between 1 and 3years of age were enrolled in a randomized blinded experimental trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 5µg/kg IV or an equivalent volume of saline. Five minutes later, euthanasia was accomplished with a pentobarbital/phenytoin overdose given IV. The time to apnea, asystole, cessation of audible heartbeat, and absence of corneal reflex were recorded by two blinded investigators. If any muscle spasms, contractions, vocalization, and/or dysrhythmias were noted, the time was recorded and type of ECG abnormality was described. An overall score of the euthanasia event was assigned using a numeric rating scale (NRS) after the animal was declared dead. The time to loss of corneal reflex was significantly longer in sheep given dexmedetomidine compared with those who received saline (P=0.03). Although vocalization was observed only in some animals premedicated with dexmedetomidine, no significance was found for this event and no other significant differences between groups were noted. Dexmedetomidine at 5µg/kg IV 5min prior to injection of pentobarbital/phenytoin for euthanasia did not substantially affect the progress of euthanasia. Dexmedetomidine may be given to sedate sheep prior to euthanasia without concern for it adversely affecting the progress of euthanasia, however vocalization may occur.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Eutanásia Animal/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pentobarbital/administração & dosagem , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Fenitoína/farmacologia , Ovinos
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 78(12): 1359-1371, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of lidocaine and buprenorphine administered to rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS Fourteen 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Rabbits were assigned to 2 treatment groups (7 rabbits/group). One group received buprenorphine (0.06 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h for 2 days), and the other received lidocaine (continuous rate infusion [CRI] at 100 µg/kg/min for 2 days). Variables, including food and water consumption, fecal output, glucose and cortisol concentrations, and behaviors while in exercise pens, were recorded. RESULTS Rabbits receiving a lidocaine CRI had significantly higher gastrointestinal motility, food intake, and fecal output and significantly lower glucose concentrations, compared with results for rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Rabbits receiving lidocaine also had a higher number of normal behaviors (eg, sprawling, traveling, and frolicking) after surgery, compared with behaviors such as crouching and sitting that were seen more commonly in rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Both groups had significant weight loss after surgery. Pain scores did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Significant decreases in heart rate and respiratory rate were observed on the day of surgery, compared with values before and after surgery. Rabbits in the lidocaine group had significantly overall lower heart rates than did rabbits in the buprenorphine group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A CRI of lidocaine to rabbits provided better postoperative outcomes with respect to fecal output, food intake, and glucose concentrations. Thus, lidocaine appeared to be a suitable alternative to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Histerectomia/veterinária , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Coelhos/cirurgia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 44(3): 409-416, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of using video recordings to evaluate anesthesia recovery in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: A total of 30 dogs undergoing surgery. METHODS: Recovery monitoring and video recording lasted from extubation until 1 hour later. Scoring was done in real time at the end of the hour by a graduate student using three systems: a simple descriptive scale, visual analog scale and numeric rating scale. Videos were distributed to three American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia board-certified anesthesiologist raters as well as the original rater to score. These videos were revisited 4 months later, and the recoveries were scored again. To assess reliability, Cohen's and Fleiss' kappa values evaluated the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were run comparing each observer's two sessions. Recoveries were classified as 'good' or 'bad' according to the cut-off values for each system. RESULTS: Correlation values among raters ranged from 0.50 to 0.82 and from 0.26 to 0.60 in the first and second session, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed biases between 0.133 and 1.633 points for each of the three scoring systems. Cohen's kappa had agreement ranging from 0.29 to 0.79 during the first viewing and from 0.17 to 0.44 during the second. Fleiss' kappa values were 0.06, 0.16, 0.22 and 0.26 for various data combinations. Considering overall recovery, Fleiss' kappa showed agreement ranging from 0.54 to 0.71 and from 0.13 to 0.49 for the first and second session, respectively. Of the 12 Wilcoxon tests run, seven found significantly different scores between the two scoring sessions. The recoveries given an overall good or bad were the same on both occasions that they were reviewed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of a video to evaluate recovery in dogs should be used with caution. Individual raters' agreement for specific scores was poor, but evaluating recovery overall had perfect agreement.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia/veterinária , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Cães , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escala Visual Analógica
12.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 250(4): 408-416, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN Prospective, randomized study. ANIMALS 30 systemically healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups. RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.


Assuntos
Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Cães/lesões , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Trazodona/administração & dosagem , Acepromazina/farmacologia , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestesia por Inalação , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Pré-Medicação/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Trazodona/farmacologia
13.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 27(1): 89-95, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27673577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical practice of insertion of arterial catheters in anesthetized dogs and cats, to document complications of arterial catheterization, and to determine risk factors associated with the complications. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study and retrospective evaluation of medical records. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 251) and 13 cats anesthetized for clinical procedures with arterial catheters inserted for blood pressure monitoring. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Details of the animal and catheter were collected at the time of anesthesia. On the following day, the catheter site was palpated and observed for abnormalities and the medical records of all animals were reviewed retrospectively for complications. Details of catheter placement were available for 216 catheters: 158 catheters in a dorsal pedal artery, 50 catheters in the median caudal (coccygeal) artery, 6 in the median artery, and 1 each in a cranial tibial and lingual artery. Blood pressure was obtained from 200 catheters, and 12 catheters failed before the end of anesthesia. Postoperative observational data obtained from 112 catheters described a palpable arterial pulse at 73 sites and no pulse at 21 sites. No risk factor for arterial occlusion was identified. No complications resulting from arterial catheterization were noted in the medical records. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial catheterization resulted in loss of a peripheral pulse postoperatively in 21/94 (22.3%) of animals examined, although no evidence of tissue ischemia was noted in the medical records of any of the patients in this study. These results suggest that insertion of a catheter in the dorsal pedal or coccygeal arteries was not associated with a high risk for complications. However, the course of arterial occlusion postoperatively warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/veterinária , Cateteres de Demora/veterinária , Gatos/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 106: 81-3, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234540

RESUMO

Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is a reliable measurement of the potency of inhaled anesthetic agents. The determination of MAC in different species has followed a fairly consistent methodology. In people, MAC is determined with the up-and-down method, whereas in animal the bracketing technique is commonly used. The objectives of this study were to determine the MAC value of isoflurane in dogs and cats using the up-and-down method and to determine the MAC value of isoflurane at extubation (MACex). General anesthesia was induced in 13 dogs and 5 cats with 5% isoflurane in oxygen. An initial end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.3% was used for the first dog and of 1.6% for the first cat and maintained constant for ≥20min. A noxious stimulus in the form of Carmalt forceps was applied to the base of the tail for no more than one minute or until movement was noticed. After stimulation, the response was recorded as positive (movement) or negative (no movement) and the animal was recovered. The end-tidal isoflurane concentration of the following animal was increased or decreased by 0.1% if the response of the previous animal to the stimulus was negative or positive, respectively. Isoflurane MAC values in dogs were 1.27% and 1.23%. Isoflurane MAC value in cats was 1.58%. MACex value was 0.45% in dogs and in cats. The up-and-down method for MAC determination achieved similar results when compared to MAC values of isoflurane in dogs and cats reported in the literature using the bracketing technique.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Gatos , Cães , Isoflurano/farmacocinética , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Masculino , Dor/fisiopatologia
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 26(6): 766-774, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of an autotransfusion technique utilizing 2 syringes in 4 dogs. CASE SERIES SUMMARY: All 4 dogs in this series had a hemoabdomen and subsequent hypovolemic shock. During surgery blood was collected from the abdominal cavity by the surgeon and passed to an assistant. The blood was then transferred to a second syringe for direct IV administration. The blood was passed through an inline blood filter prior to reaching the patient. Given the transfusion volume and administration time frame, 3 cases were classified as a massive transfusion. All 4 dogs survived the transfusion, were discharged within 3 days of surgery/transfusion and no complications were noted. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This case series describes a relatively simple method of performing an autotransfuion in patients with hemoabdomen and hypovolemic shock.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Hemoperitônio/veterinária , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/instrumentação , Cães , Feminino , Hemoperitônio/terapia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Masculino , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Seringas/veterinária
16.
Am J Vet Res ; 77(2): 119-26, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic responses (MACBAR) for isoflurane and evaluate effects of fentanyl on isoflurane MACBAR in sheep. ANIMALS 13 healthy adult Dorset-cross adult ewes. PROCEDURES: In a crossover design, each ewe was anesthetized 2 times for determination of isoflurane MACBAR. Anesthesia was induced with propofol administered IV. Sheep initially received fentanyl (5 µg/kg, IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of 5 µg/kg/h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment). After a washout period of at least 8 days, the other treatment was administered. For MACBAR determination, a mechanical nociceptive stimulus (ie, sponge forceps) was applied at the coronary band for 1 minute. The MACBAR values of the 2 treatments were compared by means of a paired t test. During MACBAR determination, blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration. RESULTS: Mean ± SD isoflurane MACBAR of the fentanyl and control treatments was 1.70 ± 0.28% and 1.79 ± 0.35%, respectively; no significant difference was found between the 2 treatments. Plasma concentration of fentanyl reached a median steady-state concentration of 1.69 ng/mL (interquartile range [25th to 75th percentile], 1.47 to 1.79 ng/mL), which was maintained throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Administration of fentanyl at 5 µg/kg, IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of the drug at 5 µg/kg/h did not decrease isoflurane MACBAR. Further studies to determine the effect of higher doses of fentanyl on inhalation anesthetic agents and their potential adverse effects are warranted.


Assuntos
Fentanila/farmacocinética , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Adrenérgicos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/sangue , Fentanila/farmacologia , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/farmacocinética , Propofol , Ovinos
17.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 43(1): 91-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25920011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of agreement among first- and second-year veterinary students and experienced anesthesiologists in assessing postoperative pain in dogs from video-recordings. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven veterinary students, five anesthesiologists and 13 canine clinical patients. METHODS: Prior to their enrolment in a core anesthesia course, veterinary students volunteered to watch 13 90 second videos of dogs. Dogs were hospitalized in an intensive care unit after a variety of surgical procedures. Students were asked to score the level of the dogs' pain using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analog Scale and the Short Form of the Glasgow Composite-Measure Pain Scale. The same videotapes were scored by five board-certified anesthesiologists. The differences and agreement between the ratings of anesthesiologists and students, and first- and second-year students were determined with Mann-Whitney U-tests and Fleiss' or Cohen's kappa, respectively. RESULTS: Pain scores assigned by students and anesthesiologists differed significantly (p < 0.01). Students assigned higher pain scores to dogs that were given low pain scores by anesthesiologists, and lower pain scores to dogs deemed to be in more pain by anesthesiologists. On average, students assigned higher scores on both scales. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Veterinary students early in their training assigned pain scores to dogs that differed from scores assigned by experienced anesthesiologists.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Competência Clínica , Cães/fisiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Adulto , Anestesiologia , Animais , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Can Vet J ; 56(4): 370-4, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25829556

RESUMO

A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Camelídeos Americanos , Hipoventilação/veterinária , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/veterinária , Nascimento Prematuro , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Animais , Hipercapnia/terapia , Hipercapnia/veterinária , Hipoventilação/terapia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 97(3): 582-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25458506

RESUMO

Monitoring blood pressure under general anesthesia in animals is important to prevent hypotension and poor tissue perfusion. Thirteen sheep were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of the petMAP, a portable non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitor. Animals were anesthetized with midazolam, fentanyl, ketamine, propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for ovariectomy. Invasive and non-invasive (petMAP) blood pressure measurements were recorded simultaneously every 5 minutes. Agreement between IBP and NIBP was assessed by evaluation of bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) using the Bland-Altman method and correlation coefficient. None of the measurements met the criteria for good agreement between invasive and non-invasive readings established by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Systolic blood pressure readings obtained at the left thoracic limb site and mean blood pressure at the right pelvic limb site met the bias and LOA criteria established by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Monitores de Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Ovinos
20.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 41(5): 498-505, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24575736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if lactate concentrations in jugular venous and auricular arterial blood differ in anesthetized sheep. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, controlled experimental study. ANIMALS: Twelve healthy adult ewes, 4-7 years and weighing 62-77 kg. METHODS: Jugular venous blood was collected before anesthesia (PreOv ) for measurement of lactate concentration, packed cell volume and total protein. Ewes were administered a standard anesthesia protocol. Jugular venous (IntraOv ) and auricular arterial (IntraOa ) blood samples were obtained 40 minutes after induction of anesthesia, and again in recovery (PostOv and PostOa ). An additional blood sample was drawn 6 weeks post-operatively from non-fasted sheep (NF_Lact). Lactate concentrations were compared among PreOv , IntraOv and IntraOa , PostOv and PostOa , and between PreOv and NF_Lact with paired t-test and repeated measure analyses of variance (anova) with PreOv as a covariate (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: IntraOv lactate concentration had decreased from PreOv There were significant differences between arterial and venous IntraO and PostO lactate concentrations. There was no significant difference between IntraO and PostO, or PreOv and NF_Lact. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Lactate concentrations were significantly lower in anesthetized sheep compared to non-anesthetized sheep. Lactate concentrations in venous blood were higher than in arterial blood. Therefore, anesthetic status and sampling site should be considered when interpreting lactate concentrations, and the sampling site should be consistent for repeated measurements.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Ovinos/cirurgia , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovinos/sangue
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