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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574508

RESUMO

The practice of sex with casual partners without the use of adequate prevention in the period of social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) can expose them to the risk of infection by the HIV virus. To assess this, we conducted an online survey in April and May 2020 in the entire national territory of Brazil and Portugal. We used the snowball technique for sampling, associated with circulation in social networks, totaling 2934 participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to produce the adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR). Eight-hundred-and-forty-two (28.7%) MSM presented at-risk sexual exposure in this period. In general, the types of sexual practices that most increased the chances of sexual exposure were having multiple partners (aOR:14.045); having practiced chemsex (aOR:2.246) and group sex (aOR:2.431), as well as presenting a history of at-risk sexual exposure (aOR:5.136). When we consider each country separately, the chances are increased in Brazil since the probability of the outcome was increased in those who practiced group sex (aOR:5.928), had multiple partners (aOR:19.132), and reported a sexual history of at-risk exposure (aOR:8.861). Our findings indicate that practices that are classically associated with greater chances of engaging in risky sexual exposure to HIV infection were the factors that most increased the chances of acquiring the virus in the pandemic context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
2.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42: e20190445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate students' knowledge of nursing and medical courses at a public university on prophylaxis before and after exposure to HIV/AIDS. METHOD: cross-sectional study, carried out with nursing and medical students (n = 167). In order to explain the effect of variables on knowledge, the Multinomial Logistic Regression was used. RESULTS: Participants had a mean of 23.03 years, female (56.5%), unmarried (64.3%), and heterosexual (86.3%). The level of knowledge demonstrated was mostly medium (49.4%), and only 28.6% showed a high knowledge about the subject. The multivariate analysis showed that the course (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.01) were associated with a higher level of knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing and medical students possess knowledge considered as average about HIV preventive prophylaxis, thus it is up to the health education institutions to provide subsidies for a better training of students, treating the theme as a transversal subject in their training.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the extent to which Brazilian and Portuguese Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) had casual sex partners outside their homes during the period of sheltering in place for the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in Brazil and Portugal in April, during the period of social isolation for COVID-19, with a sample of 2361 MSMs. Recruitment was done through meeting apps and Facebook. RESULTS: Most of the sample (53.0%) had casual sex partners during sheltering. Factors that increased the odds of engaging in casual sex in Brazil were having group sex (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), living in an urban area (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), feeling that sheltering had a high impact on daily life (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3), having casual instead of steady partners (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8-3.5), and not decreasing the number of partners (aOR 6.5, 95% CI 4.2-10.0). In Portugal, the odds of engaging in casual sex increased with using Facebook to find partners (aOR 4.6, 95% CI 3.0-7.2), not decreasing the number of partners (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 2.9-5.9), usually finding partners in physical venues (pre-COVID-19) (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 3.2-8.9), feeling that the isolation had a high impact on daily life (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-6.7), and HIV-positive serostatus (aOR 11.7, 95% CI 4.7-29.2). Taking PrEP/Truvada to prevent COVID-19 was reported by 12.7% of MSM. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has not stopped most of our MSM sample from finding sexual partners, with high-risk sexual behaviors continuing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Portugal , Assunção de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(2): e23912, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the number of HIV cases continue to increase, despite the development of multiple prevention strategies. New cases of HIV have been reported disproportionately more in men who have sex with men and other vulnerable populations. Issues such as internalized and structural homophobia prevent these men from accessing prevention strategies such as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are known to be one of the newest and preferred options to enhance PEP knowledge and access. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the mobile apps addressing PEP for HIV infections. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive exploratory study in 3 sequential phases: systematic literature review, patent analysis, and systematic search of app stores. For the systematic review, we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines adapted for an integrative review in the databases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, Science Direct, Eric, Treasure, and CINAHL. The patent analysis was performed by exploring the databases of the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and the European Patent Office. For the systematic search, we analyzed mHealth apps related to HIV in 2 major app libraries, that is, Google Play Store and App Store. The apps were evaluated by name, characteristics, functions, and availability in iPhone operating system/Android phones. RESULTS: We analyzed 22 studies, of which 2 were selected for the final stage. Both studies present the use of apps as mHealth strategies aimed at improving the sexual health of men who have sex with men, and they were classified as decision support systems. The search in the patent databases showed only 1 result, which was not related to the topic since it was a drug intervention. In the app libraries, 25 apps were found and analyzed, with 15 (60%) apps available for Android systems but only 3 (12%) addressing PEP. In general, the apps inform about HIV and HIV prevention and treatment, with the focus users being health care providers, people with HIV, or the general population, but they have only limited features available, that is, mainly text, images, and videos. The 3 apps exclusively focusing on PEP were created by researchers from Brazilian universities. CONCLUSIONS: Our review found no connection between the scientific studies, registered patents, and the available apps related to PEP; this finding indicates that these available apps do not have a theoretical or a methodological background in their creation. Thus, since the scientific knowledge on HIV is not translated into technological products, preventing the emergence of new infections, especially in the more vulnerable groups, is difficult. In the future, researchers and the community must work in synergy to create more mHealth tools aimed at PEP.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Aplicativos Móveis , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Telemedicina , Brasil , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Tecnologia , Estados Unidos
6.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(4): 368-377, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533301

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate unprotected receptive anal sex intercourse (URAI) rates and vulnerabilities to HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) that use geosocial networking dating apps in Brazil. An online, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out with 2,250 MSM. The analyzed variables were grouped according to domains of vulnerability and analyzed by bi and multivariate statistics to calculate the Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR). The prevalence of self-reported HIV was 7.1%; and of URAI, 23.4%. The studied variables that increased the chances of engaging in URAI were: identifying as homosexual (aOR = 8.30; 95%CI = 5.68:12.04), pansexual (aOR = 5.01; 95%CI = 2.04:12.38), or bisexual (aOR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.03:4.80), using apps for obtaining sex (aOR = 1.3; 95%CI = 1.0:1.5), engaging in group sex (aOR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.3:2.0), and reporting chemsex (aOR = 1.5; 95%CI = 1.1:2.0). Self-reported positive HIV status was associated with: less than a minimum wage income (aOR = 1.78; 95%CI = 1.22:2.58), lower education (aOR = 1.86; 95%CI = 1.31 CI; 2,64), not knowing the partner's HIV status (aOR = 1.84; 95%CI = 1.06:3.19), practicing group sex (aOR = 1.67; 95%CI = 1.04; 2.68), and chemsex (aOR = 2.03; 95%CI =1.06:3.19). The applications interaction is shaped by their own users to better meet their desires and needs. However, this behavior exposes individuals to HIV vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Rede Social , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20190445, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1251771

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate students' knowledge of nursing and medical courses at a public university on prophylaxis before and after exposure to HIV/AIDS. Method cross-sectional study, carried out with nursing and medical students (n = 167). In order to explain the effect of variables on knowledge, the Multinomial Logistic Regression was used. Results Participants had a mean of 23.03 years, female (56.5%), unmarried (64.3%), and heterosexual (86.3%). The level of knowledge demonstrated was mostly medium (49.4%), and only 28.6% showed a high knowledge about the subject. The multivariate analysis showed that the course (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.01) were associated with a higher level of knowledge. Conclusions Nursing and medical students possess knowledge considered as average about HIV preventive prophylaxis, thus it is up to the health education institutions to provide subsidies for a better training of students, treating the theme as a transversal subject in their training.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el conocimiento de alumnos de los cursos de enfermería y medicina de una universidad pública sobre la profilaxis pre y post exposición al VIH / SIDA. Método estudio transversal, realizado con estudiantes de enfermería y medicina (n = 167). Para explicar el efecto de las variables sobre el conocimiento, se utilizó la Regresión Logística Multinomial. Resultados Los participantes tenían en promedio 23,03 años, sexo femenino (56,5%), solteros (64,3%), y eran heterosexuales (86,3%). El nivel de conocimiento demostrado fue mayoritariamente medio (49,4%), y sólo el 28,6% demostró un alto conocimiento acerca de la temática. El análisis multivariado mostró que el curso (p = 0,03) y la edad (p = 0,01) se asociaron a un mayor nivel de conocimiento. Conclusiones Estudiantes de enfermería y medicina poseen conocimiento considerado como medio sobre las profilaxis preventivas al VIH, por lo tanto, corresponde a las instituciones de educación sanitaria proporcionar subsidios para una mejor capacitación de los estudiantes, tratando el tema como un tema transversal en su capacitación.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o conhecimento de alunos dos cursos de enfermagem e medicina de uma universidade pública sobre a profilaxia pré e pós exposição ao HIV/Aids. Método estudo transversal, realizado com estudantes de enfermagem e medicina (n=167). Para explicar o efeito das variáveis sobre o conhecimento, utilizou-se a Regressão Logística Multinomial. Resultados Os participantes tinham em média 23,03 anos, sexo feminino (56,5%), solteiros (64,3%), heterossexuais (86,3%). O nível de conhecimento demonstrado foi majoritariamente médio (49,4%), e apenas 28,6% demonstraram um alto conhecimento acerca da temática. A análise multivariada mostrou que o curso (p=0,03) e a idade maior que 24 anos (p=0,01) foram associados a um maior nível de conhecimento. Conclusões Estudantes de enfermagem e medicina possuem conhecimento considerado como médio sobre as profilaxias preventivas ao HIV, cabendo assim às instituições de ensino em saúde fornecer subsídios para uma melhor formação dos estudantes, tratando o tema como assunto transversal em sua formação.

9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 5): e20200536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the quality of a tuberculosis notification information system after record linkage and spatial and temporal distribution of tuberculosis in a Brazilian state. METHOD: an ecological study carried between 2006 and 2016 in Sergipe, Brazil. A deterministic linkage was performed with Notifiable Diseases Information System and Mortality Information System, recording 7,873 cases and 483 deaths. The temporal trend of tuberculosis incidence was calculated. RESULTS: there was an increase among men (2.75%), > 60 years (6.29%), higher education (4.34%) and indigenous (4.76%). A total of 190 new cases (2.9%) was found. There was an increasing trend in tuberculosis incidence with a concentration of deaths in the metropolitan region. CONCLUSION: the quality of the information system showed fragility in identifying cases and deaths in Sergipe. Temporal distribution showed an increasing trend in tuberculosis incidence, and spatial distribution identified higher incidences in southeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sistemas de Informação , Masculino , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
10.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 86, 2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different social segments from several regions of the world face challenges in order to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Nursing represents the greatest number of health workforce in the globe, dealing with these challenges in different paths, among them the training of human resources. In this context, the goal of this study was to compare the relationship between the objectives and research areas underlying nursing doctoral programs in Latin America and the SDGs. METHOD: Documental research comparing data of all Latin American nursing doctoral programs and the SDGs, conducted between January and March 2020. RESULTS: From the total of 56 existing programs in Latin America, this study analyzed 52 of them, representing 92.8% of the total. Most nursing doctoral programs have contributed to SDG 3, in addition to goals 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 16. The SDGs 11, 13, 14, 15 and 17 were not related to any of the analyzed programs. Data reveal that the training of nursing PhDs is essential to fulfilling these goals. Results also indicate a need of programs to remain committed to relationships that enhance nursing skills to cope with the current challenges in terms of global health, such as investments for the reduction of social and gender inequities. CONCLUSION: The doctoral training of nurses in Latin America needs to be better aligned with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), since there is a high concentration in SDG 3. We believe that nursing will bring a greater contribution to the movement to protect planetary health as the principles governing nursing practices are better aligned with international health demands and agendas.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde Global , Humanos
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(12): e00202420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237252

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sex practice under the effect of drugs (chemsex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) during the period of social isolation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A multicenter online survey was applied to Brazil and Portugal in April 2020 when the two countries were under restrictive health measures due to the pandemic. Participants were recruited with an adaptation of the respondent driven sampling (RDS) method in the online environment. Data were collected using social networks and dating apps for MSM. We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to produce crude (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). In a universe of 2,361 subjects, 920 (38.9%) reported engaging in chemsex practice, which involved casual partners in 95% of the cases. Higher OR of engaging in chemsex were associated with Brazil (aOR = 15.4; 95%CI: 10.7-22.1), not being in social isolation (aOR = 4.9; 95%CI: 2.2-10.9), engaging in casual sex during social distancing (aOR = 52.4; 95%CI: 33.8-81.4), group sex (aOR = 2.9; 95%CI: 2.0-4.4), not presenting any symptom of COVID-19 (aOR = 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1-1.8), not living with the sex partner (aOR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), and using pre-exposure prophylaxis (aOR = 2.6; 95%CI: 1.8-3.7). The occurrence of chemsex was high, especially in Brazil, where the proposed social distancing did not gain adherence by MSM.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3322, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate an educational technology for individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHOD: a methodological study, for the elaboration of educational material. The educational needs, content selection, and illustrations were defined from interviews with the target population. Afterward, we carried the writing, the material layout elaboration, and assembly and, subsequently, it was validated by specialists. The content validation was established from the Level Content Validity Index higher than 0.8. RESULTS: the educational material was prepared for adults living with the human immunodeficiency virus, with a focus on health promotion and quality of life, and was prepared in five volumes. The validation was made by 22 multi-professional judges selected according to the criteria established in the study. All items were evaluated as relevant by the judges and the average obtained with the index was 0.97. CONCLUSION: the booklet has been validated in terms of content, language, and appearance by experts in the field. We believe that through this technology it is possible to contribute to the health literacy and empowerment of individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus, strengthening their autonomy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Folhetos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1081

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sexually explicit media (MSE) consumption of the "bareback" type in the practice of anal sex without a condom by men who have sex with men (MSM). To this end, a Facebook® page was created, with a link that directed participants to the study questionnaire. Users who identified themselves as cisgendered men, aged 18 or over and who had sex with another man in the 12 months prior to the survey were included. Data were collected in 2017 across Brazil and analyzed using univariate and bivariate inferential statistics and multivariate logistic regression. 2248 MSM participated in the research, with a mean age of 24.4 years. Most were single (69.1%), with casual sexual partner (68.9%) and an average of 3.9 partners in the last 30 days. Have multiple sexual partners (ORa: 9.4; 95% CI 3.9-22.4), prefer films with bareback scenes (ORa: 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.6), judge this practice a fetish and perform it (ORa: 3.52; 95% CI 2.3-5.4), have casual partnership (ORa: 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-1.9) and awareness of the partner's negative serological status for HIV (ORa: 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-2.3) were factors that increased the chances of engaging in anal sex without a condom. Thus, we verified an association between the consumption of MSE in the "bareback" modality and the practice of sex without a condom among MSM.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do consumo de mídia sexualmente explicita (MSE) do tipo "bareback" na prática de sexo anal sem preservativo por homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH). Para tanto, foi criada uma página no Facebook®, com um link que direcionava os participantes para o questionário do estudo. Foram incluídos os usuários que se identificavam como homem cisgênero, com 18 anos ou mais de idade e que praticaram sexo com outro homem nos 12 meses anteriores a pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados em 2017 em todo o Brasil e analisados por meio de estatística inferencial uni e bivariada e regressão logística multivariada. Participaram da pesquisa 2248 HSH, com média de idade de 24,4 anos. A maioria era solteira (69,1%), com parceria sexual casual (68,9%) e média de 3,9 parceiros nos últimos 30 dias. Possuir múltiplos parceiros sexuais (ORa:9,4; IC95% 3,9-22,4), preferir filmes com cenas bareback (ORa:2,6; IC95% 1,5-4,6), julgar essa prática um fetiche e realizá-lo (ORa:3,52; IC95% 2,3-5,4), ter parceria casual (ORa:1,8; IC95% 1,5-1,9) e ciência do status sorológico negativo do parceiro para o HIV (ORa:1,4; IC95% 1,1-2,3) foram fatores que aumentaram as chances de envolvimento em sexo anal sem preservativo. Dessa forma, verificamos associação entre o consumo de MSE na modalidade "bareback" e a prática de sexo sem preservativo entre HSH.

14.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 42, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346523

RESUMO

Background: The interest in Global Health (GH) as an academic discipline has increased in the last decade. This article reports the findings of a scoping review of studies about Global Health education in the Americas. Objective: To analyse educational programs on global health in the Americas. Method: Five electronic databases were used in a scoping review: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, and Lilacs. Data collection happened in November 2017-March 2018. The following stages were rigorously observed: identification, selection, charting, and summarizing the studies that were included. To process the data, we used IRaMuTeQ software. Findings: Forty-six studies were identified and organized in categories: 1) diversity of the topics addressed in GH; 2) models of teaching; 3) emotional, cultural, and collaborative aspects in teaching GH; 4) student preparation for GH experiences; and 5) structures required for a GH course. Conclusions: The existing global health curriculum in the Americas is diffuse and limited, with a greater focus on clinical aspects. Thus, a minimum curriculum for students from different areas is needed. Results evidenced that the teaching of global health in the Americas is still incipient, although it is promising. The lack of a common curriculum for the courses in the region makes it difficult to train sensitive and capable professionals to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Currículo , Saúde Global/educação , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , América Central , Humanos , América do Norte , América do Sul , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde
15.
Appl Nurs Res ; 51: 151229, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contamination through the hands of professionals and surfaces is one of the main agents involved in health care-associated infections in health services. Flaws in the execution of hospital housekeeping can lead to the contamination of surfaces and health equipment though, representing a risk for patient safety and highlighting the need to maximize the quality of cleaning processes in these institutions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of managers and environmental service workers (ESWs) in Brazilian hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in January 2018, involving 155 participants, being 12 managers and 143 workers from the housekeeping team of two health institutions, being one private and the other public. RESULTS: Most participants were female (86%), with a mean age of 45 years and primary education level, 52% being outsourced workers. The participants positively assessed their job satisfaction, satisfaction with training, basic knowledge and performance; nevertheless, situations were identified that were perceived as risks for patient safety and occupational health. The questions involving motivational incentives received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Inconsistencies were found in the housekeeping professionals'. Preparation, indicating that the institutions studied do not value this type of service and that an investment policy in these workers' motivation is lacking.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação no Emprego , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(12): e00202420, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1132854

RESUMO

Investigar os fatores associados à prática do sexo sob o efeito de drogas (chemsex) entre homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) durante período de isolamento social, no contexto da pandemia da COVID-19. Inquérito multicêntrico online, aplicado aos territórios de Brasil e Portugal em abril de 2020, enquanto os dois países vivenciavam medidas sanitárias restritivas para a doença. Os participantes foram recrutados valendo-se de uma adaptação do método respondent driven sampling (RDS) ao ambiente virtual. Os dados foram coletados usando redes sociais e aplicativos de encontro voltados a HSH. Utilizamos regressão logística bivariada e multivariada para a produção das odds bruto (OR) e ajustado (ORa). Em um universo de 2.361 sujeitos, 920 (38,9%) realizaram a prática do chemsex, que, em 95% dos casos, foi realizada com parceiro casual. Aumentaram as chances de se envolver em chemsex: morar no Brasil (ORa = 15,4; IC95%: 10,7-22,1); não estar em isolamento social (ORa = 4,9; IC95%: 2,2-10,9); fazer sexo casual durante o distanciamento social (ORa = 52,4; IC95%: 33,8-81,4); fazer sexo grupal (ORa = 2,9; IC95%: 2,0-4,4); não apresentar nenhum tipo de sintoma para a COVID-19 (ORa = 1,3; IC95%: 1,1-1,8); não residir com o parceiro (ORa = 1,8; IC95%: 1,2-2,6) e estar em uso da profilaxia pré-exposição (ORa = 2,6; IC95%: 1,8-3,7). A ocorrência de chemsex foi elevada, sobretudo no Brasil, onde o isolamento social proposto não sensibilizou os HSH à adesão.


El objetivo fue investigar los factores asociados a la práctica del sexo bajo el efecto de drogas (chemsex), entre hombres que practican sexo con hombres (HSH) durante el período de aislamiento social en el contexto de la pandemia de la COVID-19. Se realizó una encuesta multicéntrica en línea, aplicada al territorio de Brasil y Portugal en abril de 2020, mientras los dos países vivían medidas sanitarias restrictivas por la COVID-19. Los participantes se reclutaron mediante una adaptación del método respondent driven sampling (RDS) al ambiente virtual. Los datos fueron recabados usando redes sociales y aplicaciones de encuentros dirigidos a HSH. Utilizamos la regresión logística bivariada y multivariada para la producción de las odds ratio brutas (OR) y ajustadas (ORa). En un universo de 2.361 sujetos, 920 (38,9%) realizaron la práctica del chemsex, que en el 95% de los casos se realizó con una pareja casual. Aumentaron las oportunidades de implicarse en chemsex: vivir en Brasil (ORa = 15,4; IC95%: 10,7-22,1); no estar en aislamiento social (ORa: = 4,9; IC95%: 2,2-10,9); practicar sexo casual durante el distanciamiento social (ORa = 52,4; IC95%: 33,8-81,4); practicar sexo grupal (ORa = 2,9; IC95%: 2,0-4,4); no presentar ningún tipo de síntoma de COVID-19 (ORa = 1,3; IC95%: 1.1-1.8); no residir con la pareja (ORa = 1,8; IC95%: 1,2-2,6) y estar usando la profilaxis previa a la exposición (ORa = 2,6; IC95%: 1,8-3,7). La ocurrencia de chemsex fue elevada, sobre todo en Brasil, donde el aislamiento social propuesto no sensibilizó a los HSH a la adhesión.


The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sex practice under the effect of drugs (chemsex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) during the period of social isolation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A multicenter online survey was applied to Brazil and Portugal in April 2020 when the two countries were under restrictive health measures due to the pandemic. Participants were recruited with an adaptation of the respondent driven sampling (RDS) method in the online environment. Data were collected using social networks and dating apps for MSM. We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to produce crude (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). In a universe of 2,361 subjects, 920 (38.9%) reported engaging in chemsex practice, which involved casual partners in 95% of the cases. Higher OR of engaging in chemsex were associated with Brazil (aOR = 15.4; 95%CI: 10.7-22.1), not being in social isolation (aOR = 4.9; 95%CI: 2.2-10.9), engaging in casual sex during social distancing (aOR = 52.4; 95%CI: 33.8-81.4), group sex (aOR = 2.9; 95%CI: 2.0-4.4), not presenting any symptom of COVID-19 (aOR = 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1-1.8), not living with the sex partner (aOR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), and using pre-exposure prophylaxis (aOR = 2.6; 95%CI: 1.8-3.7). The occurrence of chemsex was high, especially in Brazil, where the proposed social distancing did not gain adherence by MSM.

17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.5): e20200536, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1144089

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the quality of a tuberculosis notification information system after record linkage and spatial and temporal distribution of tuberculosis in a Brazilian state. Method: an ecological study carried between 2006 and 2016 in Sergipe, Brazil. A deterministic linkage was performed with Notifiable Diseases Information System and Mortality Information System, recording 7,873 cases and 483 deaths. The temporal trend of tuberculosis incidence was calculated. Results: there was an increase among men (2.75%), > 60 years (6.29%), higher education (4.34%) and indigenous (4.76%). A total of 190 new cases (2.9%) was found. There was an increasing trend in tuberculosis incidence with a concentration of deaths in the metropolitan region. Conclusion: the quality of the information system showed fragility in identifying cases and deaths in Sergipe. Temporal distribution showed an increasing trend in tuberculosis incidence, and spatial distribution identified higher incidences in southeastern Brazil.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la calidad del sistema de información sobre tuberculosis después de la vinculación de registros y la distribución espacial y temporal de la tuberculosis en el estado brasileño. Método: estudio ecológico realizado entre 2006 y 2016 en Sergipe, Brasil. Se realizó la vinculación determinística con las bases de datos del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación y del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad, registrando 7873 casos y 483 defunciones. Se calculó la tendencia temporal de la incidencia de tuberculosis. Resultados: hubo un aumento entre los hombres (2,75%), > 60 años (6,29%), educación superior (4,34%) e indígenas (4,76%). Se encontraron 190 casos nuevos (2,9%). Hubo una tendencia creciente en la incidencia de tuberculosis con una concentración de muertes en la región metropolitana. Conclusión: la calidad del sistema de información mostró debilidad en la identificación de casos y muertes en Sergipe. La distribución temporal mostró una tendencia creciente en la incidencia de tuberculosis, y la distribución espacial identificó mayores incidencias en la Región Sudeste.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a qualidade do sistema de informação da tuberculose após linkage de registros e a distribuição espacial e temporal da tuberculose em estado brasileiro. Método: estudo ecológico realizado entre 2006 e 2016 em Sergipe, Brasil. Foi realizado o linkage determinístico com as bases de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, registrando 7.873 casos e 483 óbitos. A tendência temporal da incidência por tuberculose foi calculada. Resultados: houve incremento entre homens (2,75%), > 60 anos (6,29%), ensino superior (4,34%) e indígenas (4,76%). Foram encontrados 190 casos novos (2,9%). Observou-se tendência crescente da incidência de tuberculose com concentração de óbitos na região metropolitana. Conclusão: a qualidade do sistema de informação mostrou fragilidade na identificação de casos e óbitos em Sergipe. A distribuição temporal mostrou tendência crescente da incidência de tuberculose, e a distribuição espacial identificou maiores incidências na Região Sudeste.

18.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3322, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1126958

RESUMO

Objective: to develop and validate an educational technology for individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus. Method: a methodological study, for the elaboration of educational material. The educational needs, content selection, and illustrations were defined from interviews with the target population. Afterward, we carried the writing, the material layout elaboration, and assembly and, subsequently, it was validated by specialists. The content validation was established from the Level Content Validity Index higher than 0.8. Results: the educational material was prepared for adults living with the human immunodeficiency virus, with a focus on health promotion and quality of life, and was prepared in five volumes. The validation was made by 22 multi-professional judges selected according to the criteria established in the study. All items were evaluated as relevant by the judges and the average obtained with the index was 0.97. Conclusion: the booklet has been validated in terms of content, language, and appearance by experts in the field. We believe that through this technology it is possible to contribute to the health literacy and empowerment of individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus, strengthening their autonomy.


Objetivo: desenvolver e validar uma tecnologia educacional para pessoas vivendo com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Método: estudo metodológico, para a elaboração do material educativo. Definiram-se as necessidades educacionais, seleção dos conteúdos e ilustrações, a partir de entrevistas com a população-alvo. A seguir, realizou-se a redação, elaboração e montagem do layout do material e posterior validação por especialistas. A validação de conteúdo foi estabelecida a partir do Level Content Validity Index maior que 0,8. Resultados: o material educativo foi elaborado para adultos vivendo com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana com o enfoque na promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida e foram elaborados em cinco volumes. A validação foi realizada por 22 juízes multiprofissionais selecionados de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos no estudo. Todos os itens foram avaliados como pertinentes pelos juízes e a média obtida com o referido índice foi de 0,97. Conclusão: a cartilha elaborada foi validada quanto ao conteúdo, linguagem e aparência junto a especialistas na temática. Acredita-se que, por meio desta tecnologia, é possível contribuir com a alfabetização em saúde e o empoderamento das pessoas vivendo com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, fortalecendo sua autonomia.


Objetivo: desarrollar y validar una tecnología educativa para personas que viven con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Método: estudio metodológico para la elaboración de material educativo. Se definieron necesidades educativas, selección de contenido e ilustraciones, a partir de entrevistas con la población objetivo. Luego, se llevó a cabo la redacción, elaboración y montaje del diseño del material y posterior validación por parte de especialistas. La validación de contenido se estableció a partir del Level Content Validity Index superior a 0,8. Resultados: el material educativo fue desarrollado para adultos que viven con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana con enfoque en la promoción de la salud y la calidad de vida y se desarrolló en cinco volúmenes. La validación fue realizada por 22 jueces multiprofesionales seleccionados de acuerdo con los criterios establecidos en el estudio. Todos los ítems fueron evaluados como pertinentes por los jueces y el promedio obtenido con el índice referido fue de 0,97. Conclusión: el folleto elaborado fue validado en términos de contenido, lenguaje y apariencia junto a especialistas en el tema. Se cree que, a través de esta tecnología, es posible contribuir a la alfabetización en salud y al empoderamiento de las personas que viven con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, fortaleciendo su autonomía.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado , Materiais de Ensino , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Enfermagem , Estudo de Validação , Letramento em Saúde
19.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 32(5): 546-553, Set.-Out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1038048

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivos Caracterizar os usuários brasileiros de aplicativos de encontro baseados em geolocalização, estimar a prevalência de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (ISTs) e fatores associados ao uso do preservativo. Métodos Estudo descritivo, transversal, com amostra de 2.250 homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) de todo o Brasil. Utilizou-se da rede social Facebook® para a coleta e divulgação da pesquisa, por meio de uma postagem impulsionada semanalmente, de novembro de 2016 a janeiro de 2017. Os dados foram analisados de forma uni e bivariada com o auxílio do software SPSS. Resultados Houve a predominância de participantes jovens (25 anos), com ensino superior completo (57,8%) e homossexuais (75,7%), que conheceram os seus parceiros através de aplicativos (64,1%), utilizando, principalmente, o Tinder ® (57,3%) e Grindr® (53,3%) para fins sexuais (69,7%). A prevalência de ISTs foi de 11,1%, sendo 7,1 de HIV. Foram fatores associados ao uso de preservativos: conhecer o parceiro pelo app (p=0,003), utilizar o Grindr ® (p=0,002), Scruff ® (p=0,027) ou Hornet ® (p<0,001), usar os apps para amizade (p<0,001), sexo (p<0,001) ou relacionamento (p<0,001), frequência de uso do aplicativo (p<0,001) e utilizar os apps durante à noite (p=0,003). Conclusão Os usuários são jovens, com alto nível educacional e que demonstram familiaridade com os apps pelo tempo de uso. A prevalência de ISTs foi elevada, sobretudo da infecção pelo HIV. Características sociodemográficas e particularidades do uso e consumo dos apps estão associadas a utilização consistente do preservativo, principalmente o motivo de uso, frequência, horário e aplicativo utilizado.


Resumen Objetivos caracterizar a los usuarios brasileños de aplicaciones de citas basadas en geolocalización, estimar la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y factores asociados al uso del preservativo. Métodos estudio descriptivo, transversal, con muestra de 2.250 hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) de todo Brasil. Se utilizó la red social Facebook® para la recolección y difusión de la investigación, por medio de una publicación impulsada semanalmente, de noviembre de 2016 a enero de 2017. Los datos fueron analizados de forma uni y bivariada con la ayuda del software SPSS. Resultados hubo un predominio de participantes jóvenes (25 años), con educación superior completa (57,8%) y homosexuales (75,7%), que conocieron a sus parejas a través de aplicaciones (64,1%), utilizando principalmente Tinder ® (57,3%) y Grindr® (53,3%) para fines sexuales (69,7%). La prevalencia de ITS fue de 11,1%, siendo 7,1 de VIH. Los factores asociados al uso de preservativos fueron: conocer a la pareja a través de la app (p=0,003), utilizar Grindr ® (p=0,002), Scruff ® (p=0,027) o Hornet ® (p<0,001), usar las apps para amistad (p<0,001), sexo (p<0,001) o relaciones (p<0,001), frecuencia de uso de la aplicación (p<0,001) y utilizar las apps durante la noche (p=0,003). Conclusión los usuarios son jóvenes, con alto nivel educativo y que demuestran familiaridad con las apps por el tiempo de uso. La prevalencia de ITS fue elevada, sobre todo de la infección por el VIH. Características sociodemográficas y particularidades del uso y consumo de las aplicaciones están asociadas a la utilización consistente del preservativo, principalmente el motivo de uso, frecuencia, horario y aplicación utilizada.


Abstract Objectives To establish the characteristics of Brazilian geosocial dating app users, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and factors associated with condom use. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 2,250 men who have sex with men (MSM) from across Brazil. The social network Facebook® was used to disseminate and collect data for the survey, through a post boosted weekly, between November 2016 and January 2017. The data were submitted to univariate and bivariate analysis with the help of SPSS software. Results Most participants were young (25 years old), had a university degree (57.8%), were homosexual (75.7%), and had met their partners on dating apps (64.1%), especially Tinder ® (57.3%) and Grindr ® (53.3%), for sexual purposes (69.7%). The prevalence of STIs was 11.1%, and 7.1% were HIV+. Factors associated with condom use were: meeting partners on app (p=0.003), using Grindr ® (p=0.002), Scruff ® (p=0.027) or Hornet ® (p<0.001), using apps to find friends (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001) or relationships (p<0.001), frequency of app use (p<0.001) and using apps at night (p=0.003). Conclusion App users are young, with high education levels and are familiar with the apps due to time of use. The prevalence of STIs was high, especially HIV. The sociodemographic characteristics and particularities of the use and consumption of app were associated with consistent condom use, especially reason for use, frequency, time of day, and app used.

20.
Am J Mens Health ; 13(4): 1557988319863542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288596

RESUMO

Middle-aged and older men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most underestimated populations with regard to HIV/AIDS infection, despite the worldwide trend of increasing prevalence in recent years. This population also has low rates of testing, although rare studies are done exclusively with middle-aged and older MSM assessing the factors associated with this prevalence. Thus, based on data from an exclusive online survey with middle-aged and older MSM who use geolocation-based dating applications, the purpose of the study was to analyze factors associated with not taking the HIV test among middle-aged (50 years old) and older MSM in Brazil. Using a modification of time-location sampling adapted to virtual reality, 412 volunteers were approached in Grindr®, Hornet®, SCRUFF®, and Daddyhunt®. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to produce adjusted odds ratios (ORa), considering a significance level at .05. There were factors associated with not taking the test: being in a relationship (ORa: 0.24; 95% CI [0.10, 0.53]); knowing partner through the applications (ORa: 1.84; 95% CI [1.07, 3.15]); not knowing the serological status (ORa: 5.07; 95% CI [1.88, 13.67]); ejaculating outside of anal cavity (ORa: 1.79; 95% CI [1.04, 3.05]); practicing sex without penetration (ORa: 2.30; 95% CI [1.17, 4.50]); not taking the test as a form of prevention (ORa: 2.83; 95% CI [1.05, 7.68]); and rarely using Viagra in sexual intercourse (ORa: 1.91; 95% CI [1.20, 3.65]). There is a blind spot in the prevalence of HIV testing in older MSM because this population is not being covered by services, which compromises the overall response to HIV, the goals set for universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Brasil , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Rede Social
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