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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223261

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which are well recognised as chronic systemic and immune-mediated conditions that frequently involve extraintestinal manifestations. Although comorbidities have long been the subject of research in other chronic inflammatory diseases, this concept is also emerging in IBD. Many pathologies have been linked to IBD, including cardiovascular disease, which is the main cause of death in developed countries. IBD patients are at increased risk of conditions such as early atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction or venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. The aim of this review is to make an approximation of the physiopathology of the different manifestations of cardiovascular disease in patients with IBD and how to prevent them.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) treatment may increase the risk of infections. Vaccines are part of the comprehensive IBD patient care. The aim of this study was to describe indications and adherence of immunizations in IBD and identify possible associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted in patients from an IBD Program of a tertiary center in Chile, between April - June 2019. Patients were asked to answer a vaccine survey and information also was obtained from the National Immunization Registry. Descriptive and association statistic were used (χ2; p<0.05). RESULTS: A total of 243 patients were included (148 ulcerative colitis (UC), 86 Crohn's disease (CD) and 9 non-classifiable IBD). Only six patients (2%) of IBD patients received a complete immunization schedule. The highest vaccine rates were against influenza (67%), hepatitis B virus (40%), 13-valent pneumococcal (34%) and 23-polysaccharide pneumococcal (16%). The influenza vaccine rate has significantly increased, reaching 67% in 2019. The survey showed that 23% of patients have not been immunized with any vaccine, mainly due to lack of time, lack of medical prescription and high cost. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, although vaccination rates are higher than previously reported, adherence to IBD immunization program would be improved, being considered since diagnosis by the multidisciplinary team.

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070988

RESUMO

With the advent of biologic and small molecule therapies, there has been a substantial change in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. These advances have had a great impact in preventing disease progression, intestinal damage and, therefore, have contributed to a better quality of life. Discordance between symptom control and mucosal healing has been demonstrated. This has led to the search for new disease control targets. The treat to target strategy, based on expert recommendations and now a randomized controlled trial, has determined that clinical and endoscopic remission should be the goal of therapy. Biomarkers (fecal calprotectin) can be a surrogate target. Although histological healing has shown benefits, there is inadequate evidence and inadequate therapy for that to be a fixed goal at this time. This review will focus on therapeutic goals, according to the evidence currently available, and evaluate strategies to achieve them.

5.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(10): 788-791, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2205

RESUMO

La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) se relaciona con distintas manifestaciones hepáticas como compromiso extraintestinal; la colangitis esclerosante primaria (CEP) es la más frecuente de ellas. Durante su evolución, pueden desarrollarse otras hepatopatías autoinmunes en lo que se conoce como síndrome de superposición (SS), entidad de menor asociación a EII que se presenta en forma concomitante o durante su evolución, lo cual se conoce como SS secuencial. Reportamos tres casos de SS secuencial en los cuales la hepatitis autoinmune es la primera manifestación, que tras 7-19 años de evolución desarrollaron una CEP y posteriormente una EII. Las manifestaciones extraintestinales hepáticas pueden preceder en varios años a la EII, por lo que es importante conocer esta asociación


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6.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(3): 362-370, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730381

RESUMO

Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease are an essential tool in clinical practice. They allow a non-invasive evaluation of patients and thus guide decision-making at different stages of the disease, including diagnostic suspicion, severity assessment, relapse prediction, and treatment response. Although biomarkers in blood such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, are the most commonly used biomarkers, because their low cost and accessibility, they lack specificity. Currently, fecal biomarkers offer greater reliability, applicability, and specificity. Fecal calprotectin is the most commonly used marker. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease, as well as their clinical applications and new biomarkers currently under research.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Biomarcadores , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Fezes , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1039-1043, jul. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139408

RESUMO

Biological therapy dramatically changed the management of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). However, a significant number of these patients fail to respond or have secondary loss of response to this strategy. In this clinical situation, the options include intensification of anti-TNF therapy, the use of a second anti-TNF or being switched to another drug class. Among the later, tofacitinib, an oral small molecule directed against the JAK/STAT pathway, is safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with moderate-severe UC. We report two patients with UC refractory to conventional treatment and biological therapy, who responded successfully to the use of tofacitinib.

9.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(1): 100-106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294743

RESUMO

In patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy, total proctocolectomy and posterior ileal-anal pouch anastomosis is the standard surgical therapy. One of the possible complications is pouchitis. Depending on the duration of the symptoms, it can be classified as acute, recurrent, or chronic. The latter, according to the response to therapy, can be defined as antibiotic-dependent or refractory. The treatment of pouchitis is based on the use of antibiotics and probiotics. Thiopurine and biological therapy have been suggested in patients with refractory pouchitis. Special care should be taken in the endoscopic surveillance of these patients, especially if they present risk factors such as dysplasia or previous colorectal cancer, primary sclerosing cholangitis or ulcerative colitis for more than 10 years.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Pouchite/etiologia , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(3): 362-370, mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115800

RESUMO

Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease are an essential tool in clinical practice. They allow a non-invasive evaluation of patients and thus guide decision-making at different stages of the disease, including diagnostic suspicion, severity assessment, relapse prediction, and treatment response. Although biomarkers in blood such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, are the most commonly used biomarkers, because their low cost and accessibility, they lack specificity. Currently, fecal biomarkers offer greater reliability, applicability, and specificity. Fecal calprotectin is the most commonly used marker. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease, as well as their clinical applications and new biomarkers currently under research.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Biomarcadores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Fezes
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 100-106, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098049

RESUMO

ABSTRACT In patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy, total proctocolectomy and posterior ileal-anal pouch anastomosis is the standard surgical therapy. One of the possible complications is pouchitis. Depending on the duration of the symptoms, it can be classified as acute, recurrent, or chronic. The latter, according to the response to therapy, can be defined as antibiotic-dependent or refractory. The treatment of pouchitis is based on the use of antibiotics and probiotics. Thiopurine and biological therapy have been suggested in patients with refractory pouchitis. Special care should be taken in the endoscopic surveillance of these patients, especially if they present risk factors such as dysplasia or previous colorectal cancer, primary sclerosing cholangitis or ulcerative colitis for more than 10 years.


RESUMO Em pacientes com colite ulcerativa refratária à terapia médica, a proctocolectomia total e anastomose de bolsa ileal-anal posterior é a terapia cirúrgica padrão. Uma das possíveis complicações é a pouchite. Dependendo da duração dos sintomas, pode ser classificado como aguda, recorrente ou crônica. Esta última, de acordo com a resposta à terapia, pode ser definida como dependente de antibióticos ou refratária a eles. O tratamento da pouchite baseia-se no uso de antibióticos e probióticos. A thiopurina e a terapia biológica têm sido sugeridas em pacientes com pouchite refratária. Um cuidado especial deve ser tomado na vigilância endoscópica desses pacientes, especialmente se apresentarem fatores de risco, como displasia ou câncer colorretal anterior, colangite esclerosante primária ou colite ulcerativa por mais de 10 anos.

12.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 43(1): E16-E23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990879

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease requires long-term treatment to maintain disease control. Favorable follow-up of patients indicates attention from a multidisciplinary team, in which the nurse's responsibilities have great importance. The aim of this observational, descriptive study was to describe the role of an inflammatory bowel disease nurse in the management of patients in a tertiary center in Chile, including all patients in follow-up between January 2016 and April 2017. Inflammatory bowel disease nurse contacts were recorded and classified. Demographic data, clinical variables, and patient satisfaction were also analyzed. A total of 597 patients (51%) were in follow-up over the 16-month period; 63% had ulcerative colitis, with a median age of 35 years. The inflammatory bowel disease nurse performed 760 contacts in 253 patients (42% of the follow-up patients). The most frequent nurse interventions were reinforcement of medical indications (42%), assessment of laboratory results (17%), and disease follow-up (12%); 49% related to education. Nurse interventions were focused in more severely ill patients; flares during the follow-up, biological therapy, immunomodulators, and steroids were all statistically significant. Of a sample of 107 patients surveyed, 96% perceived the inflammatory bowel disease program as excellent/good. The inflammatory bowel disease nurse plays an important role in the follow-up and management, specifically in education, of more severely ill patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of infliximab (IFX) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with a 1-6% risk of infusion reactions. The usefulness of premedication with corticosteroids, paracetamol and /or antihistamines is controversial. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess, in IBD patients on IFX, whether there are differences in secondary reactions to the infusion between those who use premedication or not. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed identifying patients with a diagnosis of IBD who received IFX at our institution between January 2009 and July 2019. Acute reactions were defined as those that occurred in the first 24 hours postinfusion and late reactions for more than 24 hours. Infusion reactions were classified as mild, moderate and severe. Descriptive and association statistics were used (χ2; p < 0.05). RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included with 1,263 infusions in total, 52% men. Median infusions per patient was 22 (2-66). All induction infusions were administered with premedication, and in maintenance in 57% of them. Premedication was given with hydrocortisone, chlorphenamine and paracetamol. Most of reactions were acute, mild or moderate in severity and no patient needed to discontinue IFX. In the maintenance group, there were 9/718 (1.2%) infusion reactions with premedication and 4/358 (1.1%) without it (p = 0.606). In the induction group, there were 8/187 (4.3%) infusion reactions, significantly higher when compared with both maintenance groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this group, premedication use during maintenance was not effective at reducing the rate of infusion reactions. These results suggest that premedication would not be necessary.

15.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(8): 1213-1218, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399789

RESUMO

DRESS syndrome (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a severe, rare and potentially lethal idiosyncratic condition associated with the use of some drugs. Given its broad spectrum of presentation, clinical suspicion is essential for management, since it requires the immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, support measures and the use of corticosteroids as the first line of treatment. We report a 24-year-old woman with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis with joint involvement despite the use of infliximab, who presented symptoms, signs and laboratory compatible with DRESS syndrome on the third week after indicating sulfasalazine for her baseline disease.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos , Eosinofilia , Sulfassalazina , Corticosteroides , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab , Sulfassalazina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824476

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by mucosa damage associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This immunological impairment leads to altered inflammatory mediators such as IL-33, which is shown to increase in the mucosa of active UC (aUC) patients. MicroRNAs present a distorted feature in inflamed colonic mucosa and are potential IL-33 regulating candidates in UC. Therefore, we studied the microRNA and mRNA profiles in inflamed colonic samples of UC patients, evaluating the effect of a microRNA (selected by in silico analysis and its expression in UC patients), on IL-33 under inflammatory conditions. We found that inflamed mucosa (n = 8) showed increased expression of 40 microRNAs and 2,120 mRNAs, while 49 microRNAs and 1,734 mRNAs were decreased, as determined by microarrays. In particular, IL-33 mRNA showed a 3.8-fold increase and eight members of a microRNA family (miR-378), which targets IL-33 mRNA in the 3'UTR, were decreased (-3.9 to -3.0 times). We selected three members of the miR-378 family (miR-378a-3p, miR-422a, and miR-378c) according to background information and interaction energy analysis, for further correlation analyses with IL-33 expression through qPCR and ELISA, respectively. We determined that aUC (n = 24) showed high IL-33 levels, and decreased expression of miR-378a-3p and miR-422a compared to inactive UC (n = 10) and controls (n = 6). Moreover, both microRNAs were inversely correlated with IL-33 expression, while miR-378c does not show a significant difference. To evaluate the effect of TNFα on the studied microRNAs, aUC patients with anti-TNF therapy were compared to aUC receiving other treatments. The levels of miR-378a-3p and miR-378c were higher in aUC patients with anti-TNF. Based on these findings, we selected miR-378a-3p to exploring the molecular mechanism involved by in vitro assays, showing that over-expression of miR-378a-3p decreased the levels of an IL-33 target sequence ß-gal-reporter gene in HEK293 cells. Stable miR-378a-3p over-expression/inhibition inversely modulated IL-33 content and altered viability of HT-29 cells. Additionally, in an inflammatory context, TNFα decreased miR-378a-3p levels in HT-29 cells enhancing IL-33 expression. Together, our results propose a regulatory mechanism of IL-33 expression exerted by miR-378a-3p in an inflammatory environment, contributing to the understanding of UC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alarminas/genética , Alarminas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-33/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(4): 536-540, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859781

RESUMO

Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection has become a major health problem due to the increase in its incidence, severity, and recurrence. In this last scenario, age over 65 has been associated with a more unfavorable evolution. Risk factors such as the presence of altered immunity, comorbidities, malnutrition, polypharmacy, and changes in the intestinal microbiota would explain this higher risk in this group of patients. On the other hand, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection when standard therapy fails. Recently published guidelines suggest that this strategy can be used from the second recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the results of the FMT in patients over 65 years old, and for our knowledge, there is limited national experience in this group of patients. We present two cases of TMF in octogenarian patients with a recurrent infection due to Clostridioides difficile, with satisfactory recovery at the long term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva
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